地理科学 ›› 1998, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (5): 463-471.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.463

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全球气候变化对自然土壤碳、氮循环的影响

张金屯   

  1. 山西大学黄土高原研究所 太原030006
  • 收稿日期:1997-09-03 修回日期:1998-03-17 出版日期:1998-09-20 发布日期:1998-09-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家教委留学基金;山西省留学基金

EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON C AND N CIRCULATION IN NATURAL SOILS

Zhang Jintun   

  1. Institute of Loess Plateau, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006
  • Received:1997-09-03 Revised:1998-03-17 Online:1998-09-20 Published:1998-09-20

摘要: 大气中的温室气体浓度在不断升高,近年来增加速度加快,预计2030年CO2浓度将加倍,这将引起全球气候变化,即地球表面温度升高,全球平均降水增加,但变化幅度区域差异显着。气候变化对土壤系统产生重要影响,土壤碳库和碳流将发生显着变化;土壤释放CO2和CH4的量明显增加;有机质分解加快;土壤N流失加快;土壤生物多样性会受影响。

Abstract: Atmospheric concentration of green-house gases has increased over the last century with the warmest years in the last decade. Green house gases include CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs (Chlorofluorohydrocarbons), among which CO2 is the highest in concentration and has the greatest role in green house effects. It was predicted that the CO2 concentration will be doubled in 2030. This will result in global climate change. The five General Circulation Models, UKMO (UK Meteorological Office) models, GISS (Goddar Institute of Space Studies) model, NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) model, GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab) model and OSU (Oregen State University) model, provided identical predictions——global mean surface warming and global mean precipitation increase. Climate change will be uneven and poleward. The effects of global climate change on natural soils are obvious. Zonal vegetation and soils will move their boundaries toward the north and will change their areas. The south boundary of permanent zone will move 250-300km toward the north if temperature goes up two degrees. The boreal forests and tundra will move 37% and 32% respectively towards the north, and their areas will decrease obviously. The areas of temperate forests and steppe will increase correspondingly. This will influence soil C pool and C fluxes. Emission of CO2 from soils may increase due to surface warming, and respiration increase because temperature and soil water may affect mineralization and respiration of soils. Similar to CO2, the emission of CH 4 from soils may increase as well. Soils may get more organic matters from vegetation due to increasing of vegetation productivity, but decomposition of soil organic matter and litter will speed up because of increasing of soil temperature. Therefore the total C in soils will reduce. Similar to C, more soil N will lose and the total N will decrease as well. This will have effects on soil fertility and will further affect the productivity of natural soils. Soil biodiversity might be also influenced by climate change. This paper mainly reviews the research development of the relationships between the global climate change and the natural soils. Scientists need to pay more attention to the study on effects of climate change on natural soil systems in the future.

中图分类号: 

  • P467