地理科学 ›› 1999, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (4): 295-302.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.04.295

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原地理环境研究进展

郑度, 李炳元   

  1. 中国科学院地理研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:1999-05-17 出版日期:1999-07-20 发布日期:1999-07-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家与中国科学院青藏高原研究项目成果KZ951-A1-204;KZ95-T6

PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENTSOF THE QIANGHAI-XIZANG PLATEAU

Zheng Du, Li Bingyuan   

  1. Institute of Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:1999-05-17 Online:1999-07-20 Published:1999-07-20

摘要: 第三纪青藏地区曾二次隆升与夷平,3.4Ma以来经历了高原强烈隆起、现代季风形成,高原山地抬升、进入冰冻圈,环境剧烈波动、高原内部干旱化及全新世环境波动变化等古地理演化阶段。由高原山地垂直带类型系统及其分布模式、独特的地生态现象及其空间格局以及高原自然地域系统研究,阐明了青藏高原地理环境的分异,2ka以来高原温度降水特征,近代气温、降水的时空变化及高原冰川、积雪和冻土对气候变化的响应,表明其与全球环境变化关系密切。

Abstract: The Qianghai-Xizang Plateau area was subject to twice cycles of uplift and planation in the Tertiary.Intense uplifting of the plateau area has given rise to drastic changes and differentiation of physical environment ofthe plateau proper since 3.4 Ma B.P..The plateau area rising to an elevation of 2000m a s1 at 2.5 Ma B.P.had enhanced Asian Monsoon and resulted in lOess dePOsition.The tectonic movement during 1.1 - 0.6 Ma B.P.might raise the plateau area up to 3000 - 3500 mas and led the plateau entering the cryosphere and formingthe maximum glaciation.Significant environmental changes with dry tendency of the plateau proper occurredduring the last 150 ka B.P.By comparative study on several mountains of the plateau, two systems of the structure-type of the altitudinal belt are identified and may be subdivided into nine groups.A distributional model diagram relevante to highland uplift effect has been generalized.According to expeditions and studies in the 1980’s , a number of strikinggeo-ecological phenomena and their spatial pattern such as moist corridor, dry valleys, high-cold shrub-meadowzone, and a high-cold arid core area are investigated and discussed.Based on the thermal conditions, moistregimes and variation in landforms, the plateau is sequentially demarcated.A tentative scheme of 2 temperaturebelts, 10 natural zones and 28 physical districts has been proposed, but not including southern slopes of the EastHimalayas.Characteristics of temperature and precipitation of the plateau since 2 ka B.P., temporal variation and spatial differentiation of air temperature and precipitation during the fifties and nineties of this century, and changes of glaciers, snow deposit and frozen ground of the plateau as well as their response to global change are dealt with in the present paper.

中图分类号: 

  • P941