地理科学 ›› 2001, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 390-395.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.390

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄淮海平原水土资源利用的可持续性评价、开发潜力及对策

吴凯, 黄荣金   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2000-11-13 修回日期:2001-05-27 出版日期:2001-09-20 发布日期:2001-09-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技攻关项目(96-004-01-13(2));国家自然科学基金重大项目(49890330)资助。

The Sustainable Evaluations, the Development Potentialities and the Countermeasures of Water and Land Resources Use in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain

WU Kai, HUANG Rong-jin   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2000-11-13 Revised:2001-05-27 Online:2001-09-20 Published:2001-09-20

摘要: 黄淮海平原耕地顷均水资源量仅及全国平均水平的1/4,目前缺水率为19.3%,水资源利用可持续性综合评价指标属于中等偏下水平,为我国较为严重的缺水区,尤其是海河低平原区。土地资源利用对种植业而言,属于临界可持续状态,山前平原区指数值最低,有使耕地进一步向非农用方面转化的可能。2010年,本区水资源可供水量将比2000年增长22.4%,耕地面积仍能维持1998年水平。本区水土资源的区域匹配有明显的地区差异:山前平原区与海河低平原区水资源开发潜力不大,土地利用受缺水制约,水资源利用率已超过86%,平均可利用水资源量不足2500m3/hm2;但黄淮平原区和滨海低平原区水土资源均有较大的开发潜力,水资源利用率低于50%,平均可利用水资源量分别为3330m3/hm2和7020m3/hm2。本区水土资源利用的对策应为:积极开辟灌溉新水源(2010年外流域调水量和污水处理回用与微咸水利用量分别占可供水量的20.2%和4.9%),积极发展节水灌溉新技术,加快中低产地改造与高产农田的建设(中低产地改造后每公顷可增产粮食1 950 kg)以及实施稳定北部、提高中部、发展南部粮食生产的重点区域发展布局,以促进其农业和农村的可持续发展。

Abstract: The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain is a serious water-lacking area in China, especially the low plain in the Haihe River, in which water resources per hectare in the cultivated land are 25 per cent of the average of the country, the existing water-lacking rate is 19.3 per cent, and the sustainable comprehensive evaluating index of water resources belongs to a medium level on the low side. The sustainable evaluating index of land resources for the planting in the area belongs to a critical sustainable condition, in which the evaluating index was lowest in the plain in front of a mountain and it is possible that the land is further transformed from the cultivated land into the non-agricultural one. The amount of water supply in the area in 2010 will be increased by the factor of 22.4 per cent of that in 2000 and the cultivated land area will be maintained by the level in 1998. The water and land resources matches have the obvious region dif ferences in the area: small development potentialities for water resources and the land use restricted by water-lacking in the plain in front of a mountain and the low plain in the Haihe River, in which the utilization rate of water resources was more than 86 per cent and the amount of utilizable water resources per hectare was less than 2500 m3/ha; the bigger development potentialities for water and land resources in the Huang-Huai Plain and the low plain nearby a sea, in which the utilization rate of water resources was less than 50 per cent and the amount of utilizable water resources per hectare was 3330 and 7020 m3/ha respectively. Some countermeasures of water-land resources use should be used in the area, in which opening the new water resources for the irrigation (the predicted water-transferring amount from outside basins and the reuse of treated sewage water and application of slight saline water will make up 20.2 per cent and 4.9 per cent of the water supply in 2010 respectively), developing the new techniques of the water-saving irrigation, transforming the cultivated land with the middle-low yield, by which the yield-increasing amount of grain was 1950 kg/ha, and constructing the cultivated land with the high yield and implementing the key region development distributions including stabilizing the grain production in the north part, raising that in the middle part and developing that in the south part of the area, for the sustainable development of the agriculture and the countryside.

中图分类号: 

  • F205/F301.24