地理科学 ›› 2012, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (12): 1513-1520.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.012.1513

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基于分区和多元数据的青藏高原温泉区域多年冻土分布研究

张秀敏1,2(), 盛煜1(), 赵林3, 吴吉春1, 陈继1, 杜二计3, 游艳辉1   

  1. 1.中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,冻土工程国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
    2.陕西省地方电力(集团)有限公司,陕西 西安 710000
    3.中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所,甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2011-09-07 修回日期:2012-01-08 出版日期:2012-12-20 发布日期:2012-12-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张秀敏(1982-),汉,山东菏泽市人,博士研究生,现主要从事普通冻土学的研究工作。E-mail:zhangxm@lzb.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    科技部基础性工作专项(2008FY110200)和国家重点基础研究发展计划(973) 项目(2010CB951402)资助

Permafrost Distribution Using Sub-region Classification and Multivariate Data in the Wenquan Area over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Xiu-min ZHANG1,2(), Yu SHENG1(), Lin ZHAO3, Ji-chun WU1, Ji CHEN1, Er-ji DU3, Yan-hui YOU1   

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 73000, China
    2. Shaanxi Regional Electric Power Goup Company Limited, Xi′an, Shaanxi 710000, China
    3. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 73000, China
  • Received:2011-09-07 Revised:2012-01-08 Online:2012-12-20 Published:2012-12-20

摘要:

以野外勘探、室内理论分析与建模为主要研究方法,以数字高程模型(GDEM)和实测数据为基础进行统计分析,发现坡向对多年冻土分布具有重要影响。针对青藏高原温泉区域地形的复杂性,基于分区的方法将研究区分为平原区和山区两个地形区。对于平原区来说,考虑到苦海湖泊对多年冻土的影响,将苦海滩地单独划出并采用专家知识完成冻土制图,其余平原区采用建立的地温模型进行冻土制图;对于山区来说,通过定量化研究坡向对冻土地温的影响建立了基于坡向调整作用下的地温模型,应用此模型完成了山区的冻土分布图。以地温作为冻土类型划分的依据,分析了研究区域冻土的空间分布与特征,结果表明:多年冻土的分布面积为1 681.4 km2,占整个区域的66.7%,其中,过渡型和亚稳定型多年冻土为主要多年冻土类型,两者占整个研究区域的50.8%,其次为不稳定型多年冻土(11.4%),稳定型和极稳定型多年冻土的面积比例相对较小(4.4%和0.2%)。从空间分布格局来看,冻土分布具有明显的垂直分带特征,随着海拔高度的升高,冻土地温逐渐降低,冻土类型依次经历季节冻土-不稳定型多年冻土-过渡型多年冻土-亚稳定型多年冻土-稳定型多年冻土-极稳定型多年冻土的变化。

关键词: 冻土分布, 分区, 多元数据, 温泉区域

Abstract:

The Wenquan area is located in the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Administratively, it extends across four counties, Xinghai, Maduo, Maqin and Dulan of the Qinghai Province, western China. It is a transitional area from the seasonally frozen soil to permafrost. In order to understand distribution patterns of permafrost in the area, a comprehensive field exploration was carried out, from September to October, in 2009. Based on the methods of field exploration, as well as theoretic analysis and model building in doors and the data of digital elevation model and field, it was found that aspect has important influence on the distribution of permafrost. In this paper, sub-region classification method was proposed to deal with the distribution of permafrost because of the impact of complex terrain. For the plain area, the permafrost distribution map in Kuhai area was completed by the expert knowledge and other areas’ maps which completed by means of annual ground temperature model. For the mountain area, the effects of aspect on the distribution of permafrost were studied quantitatively and a permafrost distribution model was constructed. Taking ground temperatures of permafrost as classification principles, the distribution map of permafrost and the spatial distribution patterns analysis were carried out. The results showed that the area of permafrost was 1 681.4 km2, accounting for 66.7% of the whole area. The transitional and sub-stable permafrost were the major types of permafrost, accounting for 50.8% of the whole area; unstable permafrost was accounted for about 11.4% of the total area, yet the percentage of stable and extreme-stable were smaller relatively, the percentage was 4.4% and 0.2% respectively. From the distribution pattern of permafrost, vertical zoning characteristics were demonstrated in the distribution of permafrost, i.e., the type of frozen ground would be altered with the increase of altitude and the decrease of permafrost ground temperature. A change was that seasonal frozen ground changed into unstable permafrost, then transitional permafrost, then substable permafrost, then stable permafrost, and extremely stable permafrost eventually with the increase of elevation.

Key words: permafrost, distribution sub-region, multivariate data, Wenquan area

中图分类号: 

  • P461.4