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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1985年, 第5卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1985-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    地质构造对多年冻土的影响
    郭东信
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 97-105.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.97
    摘要   PDF (580KB)
    地质构造对多年冻土的分布、温度、厚度、冷生组构及现象,以及冻土的其它特征均有重要影响。自五十年代初苏联学者П.Ф.什维佐夫(ⅢвеЦов)首先提出地质构造对冻土层影响问题后,近三十年来国外对这一问题有了深入研究,并著有专文论述。随着冻土研究工作的进展,曾先后对青藏高原、天山、祁连山、大兴安岭等地进行
    The regional characteristic of geologic structure,especially the quality, range and process of tectogenesis possess quite a large controlltion to the lithofacies feature of local sediment,the extent of fracture and the hydrogeologic condition which are in close rlationship with the thickness,temperature of permafrost,the cryogenic composition and the distribution,compose of cryogenic phenomenon. In this paper geologic structure why to influence permafrost was dealed with and illustrate regional diffrence of geologic structure to the influence of the distribution continuity temperature and thickness of permafrost the cryogenic composition and the cryogenic phenomenon.
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    新水体营养状态指数的探讨
    陈田耕
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 106-110.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.106
    摘要   PDF (273KB)
    迄今,国外采用的营养状态指数或模式均为统计指数或统计模式。这些指数或模式又可分为三类。一类以经典的 Vollenweider 模式[1],以及 Dillon 模式[2]和 Larsen-Me-rcier 模式[3]为代表,他们以湖泊营养物质状况划分湖泊的营养型。这类模式能简便而明确地反映营养状态。
    A few kind of foreign trophic state indexes or models are briefly described and assessed in this paper.It is shown that these indexes or models are all statistical ones and merely are adapted to assess tropic state of lake in some research regions or another comparable regions.So a new kind of trophic state index is proposed.The index is of characteristics as follows: totality,simplicity and reliability of showing lake trophic states,authority of assessment standards,and equality among the sub-indexes.The index shortcoming is that it is only adapted for phosphorus-limiting lakes. In this paper the trophic state index is used to assess the trophic state of the West Lake in Hangzhou.The assessment result is both reasonable and reliable.
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    试论为农业服务的我国山地开发建设区划的原则和方法
    贾中骥, 李孝芳
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 111-122.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.111
    摘要   PDF (1237KB)
    我国是个多山国家,山地面积占全国陆地面积的三分之二,并广泛分布于全国各地。南自海南岛的五指山,北到大兴安岭,西起帕米尔高原及青藏高原,东达台湾山地。在这广阔的地域内,各山地的自然特点、社会经济状况以及与此相联系的开发建设条件和方向有很大差别。这种区域差异是客观存在的,山地开发建设区划就是人们对这种客观存在的区域差异认识的反映。只有当人们全面地、正确地认识了该区域的客观分异规律时,区划才能符合实际情况。区划的过程就是人们对该区域认识的深化过程。
    The present paper deals with principles and methods for the regionalization of mountainus regions in China,aiming at to provide a certain basic information of natural and economic,even social conditions of each region for the developmet and construction of Chinese mountainous regions.
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    沉积物来源可能性的计算机分析
    李钜章
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 123-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.123
    摘要   PDF (319KB)
    为避免或减少目前物质来源分析中难以避免的主观性和片面性,有必要使物质来源分析向系统化、标准化、定量化发展。物质来源分析的依据不止一种,方法各异。对它们的标准化和定量化只能逐一研究,最终实现系统化。本文仅就其中之一进行讨论。由矿物鉴定获得的矿物组合(特别是重矿物组合)是物质来源分析中一种常用的依据。它和绝大多数的依据一样,只能是分析物质来源的必要依据,而不是充分依据。
    A mineral association has been named the daughter group and its original materials(meterial source) have been named mother group,the later can consist of a single material,i.e.a single material source,or of several meterial sources in a certain propotion,i.e.compound material source.Generally,the minerals contained in daughter group must appear in mother group, but minerals that were not contained in daughter group must not appear. Quantitatively,the proportation of various minerals in daughter group should be approximately similar to one in mother group. According to the rule stated above,by means of fuzzy mathematics the author gives out a mathematical model based on actual mineral species and quatity,in order to calculate possibility that this mineral association originates from another mineral association.Taking the West Talimu Basin as an example,the paper discusses the .practicl of this effect of model.
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    北京的气候振动
    冯丽文
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 129-137.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.129
    摘要   PDF (472KB)
    近年来,利用历史记载恢复我国历史时期气侯取得了可喜成果。然而使用单站长序列气象资料,进行气侯变化的研究却不多。早在60年代初,王绍武撰写了上海的气侯振动[1]。毫无疑问,由于气象记录的连续,精确等特点,使气侯变化研究更加细致、可靠。因此单站长序列气象记录的分析,是气候变化研究中不可忽视的一个方面。
    In this paper,the climatic fluctuations in Beijing during the past 100 years were analyzed.The climate is coldest between the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century,1920’s and 1940’s are warmer,the last 30 years and colder than normal.The variation of precipitation is also analysed.The precipitation is more than normal from 1870’s to 1890’s.Since the begining of this century,the precipitation has been less than normal except 1950’s,but the summer rainfall is decrease obviously.The cyclic changes of the temperature and the precipitation were analyzed too in the paper. The relationships between climatic fluctuation of Beijing and solar activity, and the atmospheric circulation are discussed and the future climate of Beijing is inferred.
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    汉口水文特征的统计研究
    陈海龙
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 138-144.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.138
    摘要   PDF (837KB)
    为了研究长江上中游地区旱涝规律、旱涝环流和旱涝预报,我们采用汉口站流量来反映长江上中游地区的旱涝。其原因是汉口站流量序列长,代表性较好。而且我们过去的工作也表明:汉口站流量与其控制汇流面上的同步平均雨深,时程变化趋势基本一致,流量可以反映旱涝。
    In this paper,the discharge of Yangtze River at Hankou is used as an index to denote drought and flood years in the region of the upper and middle reaches.All mean discharge data during June-Sept.from 1865-1981 may be divided into three different groups by two indicatrixes.Statistical test shows that this classification was reasonable and applicable for hydrological analysis.Based upon what diseribed,these two series group can be classified as 5 types by mean cluster analysis,i.e.summer drought,summer and autumn drought,summer flood, late summer flood,and summer and autumn flood.In addition,the characteristics of hydrology and circulation for each type have been discussed in detail here. According to 18 primary factors,which the correlation coefficient in reference to Hankou’s discharge is≥0.5,the discharge forecast at Hankou from June to Sept of 1982 has been made.The values forecasted are as same as those observed.
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    宁波平原晚第四纪沉积的孢粉、藻类组合及其古地理
    王开发, 张玉兰
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 145-152.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.145
    摘要   PDF (1275KB)
    宁波平原位于浙江省东北部,三面环山,北部临海,西、西南部山区为四明山东麓的低山丘陵,海拔400米以下,东南部系天台山东北余脉,一般高度300米以下。平原面积约850平方公里,平原河网密集,地势低平,平均高程2~3米,为海积平原。
    The spores and pollen fossils from the Quaternary sediments of Ningbo Plane which lies the northeast of Zhejiang Province,can be divided into 8 spores and pollen zones,in ascendant order: 1.Cupressaceae-Pinus-Quercus dentata-Concentricystes spores and pollen zone. 2.Quercus acutissima-Cyclobalanopsis-Ulmus-Chenopodium spores and pollen zone. 3.Cupressaceae-Pinus-Gramineae spores and pollen zone. 4.Quercus dentata-Quercus aleina-Cupressaceae-Pinus-Chenopodiaceae spores and pollen zone. 5.Quercus acutissima-Quercus aleina-Pinus-Cyclobalanopsis spores andpollen zone. 6.Cyclobalanopsis-Castanopsis-Myrica-Chenopodiaceae spores and pollen zone. 7.Castanea-Quercus acutissima-Cupressaceae Gramineae spores and pollen zone. 8.Quercus acutissima-Castanea-Cyclobalanopsis-Sparganiaceae spores and pollen zone. The climate change phases of Ningbo Plane reflected by these spores and pollen zones since Late pleistocene are as follow: Cold and moist-Warm and humid-cold and dry-cool and a little dry-temperate and cool-hot and moist-temperate and a little dry-warm aud humid. 1—3 spores and pollen zones are thought of as Late pleistocene and 4—8 spores and pollen zones as Holocene.
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    关于村镇布局的宏观特点
    叶舜赞
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 153-159.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.153
    摘要   PDF (475KB)
    村镇是当前我国农村居民点的通称。我国的村镇具有丰富的类型和特点,同周围居民点有广泛、复杂的联系,因此对村镇建设要进行审慎的宏观处理。加之近年来随着我国农业经济蓬勃发展,村镇建设空前兴旺。农村建设事业的迅速发展对国家的社会经济发展产生深远影响,村镇布局问题要结合当前形势,作初步探讨。
    The county territory is a basic territorial unit for planning the distribution of villages and townlets.The sociaI and economic connections between rural settlemets are kept mainly in accordance with local administrative relations There ar ecounty centres,district centres,township centres,large villages and hamlets.There are 18% of total county centres in China without founding town administrative organization,but treated as urban settlements in town planning and construction.Only a very few of district centres and township centres have administrative town organization.This article expound the characters,functions,structures,sizes,sphere of influence or linkages,their perspectives,main points for distribution planning and construction of settlements of different administrative grades in county. The changes in distribution,characters,functions and other aspects of villages and townlets are caused by bothrural social-economic development and urban-industrial development,such as specialized farm households and main producer farm households,the prosperity of rural marketing,the development of service trades in countryside;the construction of new satellite towns and manufacturing or mining areas,the reformation in the administrative system, for example,central cities on the prefecture-level with developed industry and commerce can exercise direct leadership over surrounding counties.Briefly,the two urbanization processes from bottom up to top and from top down to bottom bring great impact on rural construction.
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    遥感技术在土地利用动态研究中的应用—以三江平原为例
    刘兴汉, 赵华昌
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 160-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.160
    摘要   PDF (1588KB)
    土地是人类生产和生活的基地,是农业的基本生产资料。如何合理开发与利用土地并保持生态平衡问题,已引起世界各国的高度重视。
    Remote sensing technique can use be to study dynamic change of landuse,its informations can directly be obtained from a series of sequent,periodical and temporal satellite images.It has been shown that on this aspect remote sensing image interpretation has a great of advantage over other survey technique,such as low cost,high precision and speed,especially in an outlying district. According to Landsat-2,3,4,MSS (1975—1983),RBV and their enhanced images,the yearly dynamic change of landuse in the Sanjiang Plain has been obtained by interpretation and analysis.The method is that,the first is to draw main limits and outlines of surface on two base maps which were made of polyster film,the secondary step is to put one on top of another for comparison and estimation,and the third step is to estimate percentage of change of each type of landuse.The results are obvious,arable land is contineuously enlarging,new residential areas are constantly emerging,river engineerings are extending,at that time,wilderness and tree land are unceasingly decreasing. In addition,it is known as a fact that remote image can be used to monitor effectivelly flood change and to draw outline of the flood extension of Sonhuajiang river,Raoli river and so on.
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    天水地区土壤影象数理分析
    胡双熙, 马鸿良, 路鹏南, 戈和平
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 167-172.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.167
    摘要   PDF (317KB)
    天水地区位于甘肃省东南部。其北部的黄土高原,以黄土梁峁和黄土沟壑为主。海拔1200—2000米之间。中部的北秦岭,山脉重叠,沟谷幽邃,海拔2500—3800米,相对高差500—800米,为长江、黄河两流域的分水岭,南部是徽成盆地和南秦岭山地,盆地海拔千米上下;山地断层比较发育,地貌结构是山高谷狭,多陡崖峭壁,海拔1800-2400米,相对高差500-800米。
    Using satellite and aerial photos,maps in large scale and others the parameter variables for classification of soil types are chosen.By the cluster analysis of"matching coefficients"a soil type map in Tianshui District is made and the areas of each kind of soil types are measured. The remote data from satellite are a spectrum record,it is not directly connected with the earth surface covered by soil.But because of close soil relation with the surface complex,the statistical analysis on the basis of comprehensive information,as a method,have great potentialities for application, Since grey scale of one part compare with another only on same a picture, it is the question not researched in this paper whether measurement of colour grey scale of soil image will result in dispersal of light density.
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    研究报导
    西藏高原泥炭地的形成与演化
    宋海远, 王德斌, 赵魁义
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 173-178.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.173
    摘要   PDF (364KB)
    西藏泥炭地分布在北纬28°~31°之间,呈东西向零星地分布。海拔高度一般为3600~4600米,即八宿县安久拉山口到仲巴东西长约1200公里,南北宽约300公里的狭长地带(图1)。据调查[1],西藏的泥炭地质储量为17000万吨,其中裸露泥炭15000万吨,埋藏泥炭2000万吨。
    A preliminary investigation indicates that peatlands in Xizang plateau are mainly low and eutrophic herboceous peatlands,in which reserves of peat is nearly 170 million tons. Formation and evolution of peatlands was closely related to tectonic uplift of the plateau which resulted in climatic changes,regionaly active structure breaks and differential subsidence as Well. 1.The peatlands was mainly distributed at the altitute of 3600—4600m in the 28°—31°N,Lat.,which formed a long and narrow zone of 300km from the south to norh,and the width from East to west is 1200 kin. 2.At present,peatlands that formed in the periods of early and middle Holocene have been degenerated and shrunk,and there is a clear trend to meadow bogs or meadow.Developing peatlands were only distributed at the altitute of 3600—4200m in various valleies and basins,with an annual rainfall of 480—860mm;an accumulated tempeature(≥10℃) of 600—2000℃ and 100—150 days of which daily mean temperature is≥10℃. 3.Glacial meltwater is a main resource of water supply for the development of peatlands in the Xizang plateau. 4.There is a 30—60cm thick frozen soil layer at the depth of 60—100 cm below the surface of peatland,which is found at the altitute of 4000— 4600m near the line of 30°N,Lat.
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    吉林省人发中铜、铅和钼的背景值及应用研究
    吴敦虎, 顾红
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 179-186.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.179
    摘要   PDF (835KB)
    人发是人体排除矿质元素的器官之一。它取样方便,易保存和运送,分析其中微量元素,无论是对探讨环境与健康关系,还是从临床生化方面诊断某些疾病和观察治疗效果等,都已得到广泛应用。同时,人发的微量元素含量与环境的密切相关性已使它成为一种理想的环境污染指示器[1]
    According to regional characteristics of the threenatural zones in Jilin prvince,the author collected 421 samples from personal hair in difierent zones,analysed the contents of Cu,Pb and Mo,and gave respectively the background values in the three zones and the mean value in Jilin province,those are Cu(7.43±1.97ppm),Pb(2.41±1.46ppm) and Mo(67.2±14.1ppb) in Jilin province;Cu(6.07±1.97),Pb(3.92±2.31ppm) and Mo(67.0±16.0ppb) in the East Mountaineous Zone,Cu(7.36±1.72ppm),Pb(2.36±1.57ppm) and Mo(40.1±10.4ppm) in the Middle Semi-Mountaineous Zone,and Cu(8.55± 2.11ppm),Pb(1.23±0.71ppm) and Mo(83.5±14.7ppb) in the West Plain Zone. The background value varies with regionally chemical features,the author point to differetiation in-content of Cu,Pb,Mo and their backgound value in the three zones as comppare with those in some provinces in China. The background value of Cu,Pb and Mo in personal hair can be used to indicate the differentiation in microelement between keshan’s disease area had indisease area,netherless,as a main method,the background value of Pb and its content in person hair can be used to avaluate environment quality and calculate its variation.
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    学位论文摘登
    北京市昌平县东北部山区土地利用研究
    李柱臣
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 187-190.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.187
    摘要   PDF (302KB)
    昌平县东北部山区包括半山区的十三陵、长陵和山区的黑山寨、下庄四个乡,以及国营十三陵林场的大部分。总土地面积41万多亩,占昌平县19%。其中,耕地3万多亩,山场27万多亩。农业人口3.2万人,农业劳动力1.5可人。本区大部分为低山丘陵,土地利用具有山区与半山区特点。
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    学术活动
    亚太地区吉隆坡遥感应用会议概况
    万恩璞
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (2): 191-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.02.191
    摘要   PDF (173KB)
    亚太地区遥感应用于土地资源管理的会议于1984年11月19~22日在马来西亚吉隆坡召开。会议由联合国社经会区域遥感规划委员会和马来西亚农业研究与开发研究所主持。参加会议的有12个国家和地区的76位代表和6名特邀代表。会议由马来西亚农业部副部长 Goh Cheng Teik 致开幕词,指出当前世界存在的主要问题是粮食与日益增长的人口之间的矛盾,因此查清资源、细致地作出利用和保护资源的规划是十分必要的。他希望遥感技术能在资源开发和管理中发挥更大作用,并带来农业上的革命。这次会议的目的就是交流遥感技术在亚太国家的发展情况,特别是在土地资源方面的利用情况,以便制定出各国以及区域的遥感技术发展规划,为解决亚太区日益严重的耕地稀少问题作出贡献。
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