方叶林, 黄震方, 李经龙, 王芳.
Fang Yelin, Huang Zhenfang, Li Jinglong, Wang Fang.
Space-time Transition of Tourism Economic Growth and Its Convergence in Chinese Mainland[J].
Scientia Geographica Sinica,
Space-time Transition of Tourism Economic Growth and Its Convergence in Chinese Mainland
Fang Yelin1,, Huang Zhenfang2, Li Jinglong1, Wang Fang3
1. School of Business, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, Anhui, China2. College of Geographic Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu, China3. School of Zhuxi Culture and Tourism, Anhui Finance ＆ Trade Vocational College, Hefei 230601, Anhui, China
National Natural Science Fundation of China (41601142), Youth Foundation of Humanities and Social Sciences of Education Ministry (15YJC790018), Imported Projects of Academic and Technical Leaders in Anhui University (J10117700056）, Training Program for Youth Backbone Teachers in Anhui University (J01005141);
The relationship between the results of time-space evolution and its convergence and divergence should be one of the main directions of human geography in the future. By taking the related data of provincial tourism economy in the Chinese Mainland from 1997 to 2015, comprehensively using the methods of LISA time hopping model, and related quantitative analysis methods, it analyze whether the time-space evolution of provincial tourism economy will lead to convergence phenomenon. The results show that: the relative length of LISA time path in the three major regions of Chinese Mainland presents that the East is larger than the Middle, while the Middle is larger than the West. However, the time path curvature of LISA shows that the Middle is larger than the West, while the West is larger than the East from 1997 to 2015. The time path movement direction of LISA shows that: the spatial pattern of provincial tourism economic development in Chinese Mainland has a weak optimization trend from 1997 to 2015. The spatial cohesion of provincial tourism economy is 0.71 in Chinese Mainland, which reflects the spatial correlation and agglomeration characteristics of provincial tourism economy presenting a high stability situation, and there is a certain path dependence or locking effect. It has a significant δ convergence of provincial tourism economy growth, generally speaking, absolute β convergence is not significant, but it is significant at different time period. In the long run, the absolute β convergence is not significant about tourism economy growth; however, in the short term, absolute β convergence rate appears weak increasing trend. There is a regional differentiation, which the introduction of regional dummy variables has significant influence on conditional β convergence, so it is necessary to introduce other variables for parameter estimation. Regional economy, location and transportation, marketization degree are the main factors that influence the conditional β convergence of provincial tourism economy. There is a downward trend compared with the compound regression coefficient and single regression coefficient, reflecting that the influence factors of tourism economic growth has not well optimized and combined, the external environment still needs to be optimized. There is some relationship between space-time transition and club convergence of provincial tourism economy, and the club convergence of the tourism economy growth in the East and Middle is more obvious. The club convergence will lead to the reduction of the gap in the groups, but the gap between groups will increase. Therefore, the cross regional tourism cooperation, which will break geographical location, needs to be strengthened in the future.
Using the method of two-stage nested Theil coefficient decomposition, this paper reveals the change features and contribution rate of overall regional inequality of the between-region, between-province and within-province inequality based on both inbound tourism economy and domestic tourism economy, and analyzes the spatial pattern for regional difference of tourism economic according to the within-province inequality from 2000 to 2008. The results are as following: 1) The overall regional difference between inbound tourism economy and domestic tourism economy in China tends to be narrow, and the regional difference of domestic tourism is less than that of inbound tourism. 2) Within-province inequality is more obvious than that of between-region and between-province inequality, and it plays an important role in the overall regional difference of tourism economy in China. The between-province inequality in the eastern region is obvious; however the tourism is relatively balanced in central and western provinces. 3) The within-province inequality in the eastern region is more obvious and has a high contribution rate to overall regional inequality; however, in the central and western regions, the situation is relatively different. The within-province inequality is obvious in some provinces, and the spatial patterns of tourism development are "double-center" model or "single-center" model, but the contribution rate of overall regional inequality of the within-province inequality is low, because of its smaller proportion of the tourism economics in the whole country. Resources endowment, transportation and economic development are the important factors related to regional difference of tourism economic in China by correlation analysis.
[WangDegen, ChenTian.Spatial analysis for regional difference of tourism economy in China. , 2011, 31(5): 528-536.]
[FangYelin, HuangZhenfang, Wang Kun et al. Spatial and temporal analysis of Chinese provincial tourism economy based on PCA-ESDA. , 2012, 32(8): 149-154.]
ZhangY, Xu JH, Zhang PJ.The spatial relationship of tourist distribution in Chinese cities[J]. , 2011, 13(1): 75-90.
This study investigates the spatial dependence and mechanisms of international and domestic tourist distributions in 299 cities in mainland China through a set of Geographical Information Systems (GIS)-based spatial statistical tools. The results show that during the period of investigation (1999–2007), there was a significant degree of neighbouring effect (i.e. positive spatial correlation) in both international and domestic tourist distributions. We have also highlighted that tourism development in a given city is dependent on the developments in neighbouring cities. Specifically, the tourist distribution shows a polarized (core – periphery) spatial pattern, which is strongly connected to the economic development level and tourism resources of the cities. Furthermore, the findings reveal tourist distribution clusters that underscore the importance of geographical focus. Overall, the results imply that policy makers are encouraged to pay attention to patterns of tourist distribution.
[ZhangWeilin, ZhangCui.The club convergences and their evolution about economic growth of central plain economic zone: On the basis of country level and weighted Markov chains methods. , 2015, 29(8): 14-19.]
This paper is based on the well known conditional convergence model of Barro and Sala I Martin (1995) and an article by Coulombe S. (New Evidence of Convergence Across Canadian Provinces: the Role of Urbanization) to examine the relative evolution of per capita GDP across 30 provinces in China from 1978 to 1999. This paper selects the ratio between the employment ratio of secondary and tertiary industries of the provinces and that of nation to represent the relative steady state. As a result, empirical results show differences from opinions of other papers in such aspects as convergent speed and convergent model, etc.. Empirical results indicate that economic growth among the provinces has converged at a speed of about 4.5% per year. Most of the coastal regions in China appear to be in the neighborhoods of their respective steady states in 1999. While the other provinces have been vibrating under or in the neighborhoods of their respective steady states since 1978, the deviation from their respective steady states is bigger than that of coastal regions. This paper finds that the impact of prior advantage to its relative steady state value is about 0 618. This paper also calculates the evolution of respective steady state. The analysis indicates that in the period of the study, the industrialization, market economic mechanism, foreign capital ,advanced technology, economic location, and etc, play an important role in the course of the economy growth. So in making progress, we should pay attention to those factors. The analysis also echoes the timing of carrying out the "big development" of western region in china.