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    10 August 2021, Volume 41 Issue 8 Previous Issue   
    Spatial-temporal Pattern and Obstacle Factors of Urban Residents' Quality of Life in the Yellow River Basin Under the Background of High-quality Development
    Zhao Hongbo, Yue Li, Liu Yaxin, Dong Guanpeng, Miao Changhong
    2021, 41 (8):  1303-1313.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.001
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    Improving urban residents’ quality of life is an important goal and concrete embodiment of achieving high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin.This article constructs an evaluation index system of urban residents of quality of life from 4 aspects (residents’ life, infrastructure, public service and ecological environment), and measures the level of urban residents’ quality of life in the Yellow River Basin in 2004-2018. The kernel density estimation, ESDA and Dagum Gini coefficient are used to analyze the spatial and temporal pattern of residents’quality of life and measured the spatial difference. The obstacle factor diagnosis model is used to analyse the obstacle factors of residents’ quality of life. The conclusions are as follows: 1) From 2004 to 2018, the areas with high quality of life of urban residents in the Yellow River basin gradually transferred from the lower reaches to the middle and upper reaches; 2) The H-H agglomeration areas of urban residents’quality of life in the Yellow River Basin are mainly in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the L-L agglomeration areas are mainly in Henan Province, Shandong Province and Shanxi Province; 3) The spatial difference of the quality of life of urban residents in the Yellow River Basin is mainly the contribution of the net value difference between regions from the upper, middle and lower scales, and the contribution of the regional difference from the left and right bank scales; 4) The obstacles to urban residents’ quality of life in the Yellow River Basin are mainly the amount of water resources per capita, the number of mobile phone users at the end of the year, the area of parks and green space per 10 000 persons, the proportion of education expenditure in fiscal expenditure, the road area per 10 000 persons, and the per capita disposable income, etc. Therefore, we must pay attention to the ecological environment protection, especially the rational utilization of water resources, improvement of urban infrastructure and public service levels in the future high-quality development.

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    The Impact of Technological Innovation on Urban Green Development in the Yellow River Basin
    Zeng Gang, Hu Senlin
    2021, 41 (8):  1314-1323.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.002
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    Innovation is one of the important ways to promote the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Using the panel data of 79 cities above prefecture level in the Yellow River Basin from 2006 to 2018, this article first constructs an index system to analyze the level of technological innovation and green development of each city, and then deeply explores the mechanism of technological innovation on regional green development through panel econometric model. The results are as follows: 1) From 2006 to 2018, the level of urban technological innovation and green development in the Yellow River Basin has been greatly improved, but the spatial difference is significant, and the overall trend is “downstream > midstream > upstream”. 2) On the whole, technological innovation has no influence on urban green development in the Yellow River Basin, but after adding the quadratic term of technological innovation, there is a obvious positive “U-shaped” nonlinear relationship between them, which also shows the existence of “rebound effect”. 3) The impact of technological innovation on urban green development in the Yellow River basin can be reflected by both direct and indirect effects, but the two effects are just the opposite. That is to say, the promotion of a city’s technological innovation level has a significant “U-shaped” relationship with the urban green development, but it has an inverted “U-shaped” relationship with its neighboring cities. According to the research conclusions, this article puts forward the corresponding policy implications from the direct and indirect effects of urban technological innovation on green development. First of all, it is particularly important for the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River basin to enhance the ability of technological innovation and strengthen the innovation-driven effect on urban green development; Then, cities in the Yellow River Basin should break the “beggar thy neighbor” phenomenon, so as to strengthen the coordinated development in the Yellow River Basin and give play to the positive spillover effect among cities.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution and Spatial Effect Mechanism of Carbon Emission at County Level in the Yellow River Basin
    Mo Huibin, Wang Shaojian
    2021, 41 (8):  1324-1335.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.003
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    Carbon emission control is the main problem and measure of ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. Carbon emission at county level research can provide more accurate theoretical support for collaborative governance and sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. Spatial panel model, spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial Markov chain with regional background and nearest neighbor as spatial lags were used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern and spatial effect of carbon emissions in counties of the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2017, the results showed that: 1) the carbon emission in the Yellow River basin has increased dramatically since 2000; the high carbon emissions areas, Shandong province and the boundary between Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia, expands to the outer circle layer and the axial direction, forming the spatial pattern of high in the east and low in the west; 2) there is a phenomenon of “club convergence”; the high carbon emission counties converge in Shandong province and the boundary between Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia; the low carbon emission counties converge in the southwest; the comparison between 2000 and 2017 shows that county carbon emission type has strong stability; counties which tranfered from higher carbon emission type to lower carbon emission type are concentrated in the southeast region, while counties that change in the opposite direction are concentrated in Inner Mongolia. 3) high carbon spillover effect and low carbon locking effect are important forces to shape the spatiotemporal pattern and the former is stronger; the regional background enhances “club convergence” and the convergence of surrounded outliers and its acting force was stronger than the nearest neighbor; the probability of carbon emission type transition in insignificant regions increased; 4) the spatial panel model shows that increase of carbon emissions and its spatial effect are promoted by young population structure, large economy, industrial structure dominated by the secondary industry, high living standard and high public expenditure; economy and industrial structure are important driving factors.

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    Multi-scale Spatial Pattern of Urban Land Economic Density and Its Influencing Factors in the Yellow River Basin
    Liang Liutao, Yang Ningxi, Ou Zhiyuan, Wang Sen, Shi Yinyin, Chen Xiao, Sun Yufan
    2021, 41 (8):  1336-1344.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.004
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    With the accelerating process of urbanization and industrialization in China, the coexistence of excessive non-agricultural farmland and low efficiency of urban land use is becoming increasingly serious. So taking the Yellow River Basin as the research object, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to analyze the spatial pattern of urban land economic density in the Yellow River Basin from the provincial, municipal and county level. Taking 8 provinces and regions (Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shandong) in the Yellow River Basin as the research objects, based on the multi-temporal and high-resolution global urban boundary interpretation data in 2018, the urban land economic density of the Yellow River Basin was calculated from the provincial, municipal and county-level scales. The spatial pattern of urban land economic density in the Yellow River Basin was discussed by using the methods of Theil index, global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis. With the help of geographical detector, the influencing factors of urban land economic density were analyzed. The results show that: 1) The economic density of urban land in the Yellow River Basin is generally not high. At the county scale, 68.3% of the counties are lower than the average level; At the municipal level, 57.5% of cities are below the average. 2) There is a significant spatial positive correlation of urban land economic density in the Yellow River Basin. The high value agglomeration areas (HH) are concentrated in the Central Plains urban agglomeration and Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration, the low value agglomeration areas (LL) are concentrated in the western China such as Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia. And the low-quality heterogeneous area is inlaid around the Central Plains urban agglomeration and Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration. 3) In the whole Yellow River Basin, per capita GDP, population size, local financial investment in science, technology and education, labor density of secondary and tertiary industries and location quality index have a great impact on the economic density of urban land. There are some differences in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. Generally speaking, capital investment intensity, per capita GDP and location quality index have high explanatory powers for the economic density of urban land in the upper, middle and lower reaches.

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    Spatial Organization Deconstruction and Process of Global R & D Network Investment of Transnational Corporations
    Zhang Zhanren, Liu Weidong, Du Debin
    2021, 41 (8):  1345-1353.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.005
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    The spatial organization of MNCs’ global R & D network investment is based on the needs of the current generation required by the demand of MNCs’ open innovation, which further deepens as well as develops MNCs’ traditional global production network investment. In the meantime, it’s a whole new international division of labor measure launched by MNCs in the research and innovation so that MNCs can integrate every country’s preponderant R & D factors to the largest extent, and maintain its lead in its own strategically core and key technologies for a long time when the company is in the face of shorten world knowledge renewal cycle. Based on the concept of generalized complex system, this paper breaks through the tradition that people concentrate more on researching the spatial organization relationship of global R & D network investment spatial organization of MNCs in a few process fields, primarily based on closed-loop thinking, and therefore establishes an analysis framework which can be used to study the whole process+multi system of global R & D network investment spatial organization of MNCs as well. First of all, the article multi-systematically deconstructs the spatial organization of MNCs’ global R & D network investment. Then, based on the results of the above multi-systematical deconstruction, it analyses the whole process of spatial organization of global R & D network investment of MNCs even further within the framework of multi network system. This paper analyzes the spatial organization process of MNCs’ global R & D network investment, which is based on the decomposition analysis of the spatial organization of MNCs’ global R & D network investment. The main conclusions are as the following through the study: 1) What the spatial organization of MNCs’ global R & D network investment composes is a complex giant spatial system, and this spatial organization of MNCs’ global R&D network investment breaks the traditional structure of foreign investment labor division which primarily considers R & D, marketing along with processing and assembling as main parts of labor division. 2) In order to attain the goal of integrating every country’s preponderant R & D factors all over the world, attempting to make a breakthrough of geographical restrictions that innovation mainly stems from a specific country or a specific region is not the purpose of the spatial organization of MNCs’ global R & D network investment. As a matter of fact, the true aim of this spatial organization is to acknowledge the existence of the local innovation system such as regional innovation system, national innovation system and so on. 3) In addition, the spatial organization of MNCs’ global R & D network investment relates to the problems about how to feedback and dock with the traditional spatial organization of MNCs’ global production network investment. 4) The multi-system cooperative governance relationships formed by MNCs’ global R & D network investment space organization in multi stage are not separate mutually but back-and-forth. They alternate with each other, altogether constituting the whole process of MNCs to search, integrate and take advantage of every country’s preponderant R & D factors. This study is expected to be of great significance to unify the knowledge of the systems and processes of MNCs’ global R & D network investment space organization.

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    Multidimensional Mechanism of Spatial Coordination Between Urban Population and Service Industry: A Case of Fujian Province
    Liu Yu, Li Denghui, Yu Zhuorui, Zhang Hao, Wang Zhenbo, Liu Daining
    2021, 41 (8):  1354-1363.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.006
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    The coordination development of urban population and service industry is vitally important for the deepening of urbanization and the improvement of regional competitiveness. However, the mechanism of the spatial coordination between them remains less studied, especially at the regional scale. This study hackled the theories of the spatial coordination between urban population and service in multiple spatial dimensions and conducted an empirical research, taking Fujian Province as the study case. Results showed that: 1) In spatial concentration dimension, Hoover coefficient demonstrated that both of them concentrated in the central city and the service industry concentrated higher. This can be attributable to the advantages of central cities in labor quality and age structure. 2) In spatial agglomeration dimension, spatial agglomeration index showed that both of them gathered around the central cities and the service industry gathered more densely, which reflected the spillover effect of service industry from central cities. 3) In spatial mismatch dimension, the trajectories of the gravity center revealed that, comparing with urban population, service industry is more inclined to the East Coast. This indicated that the eastern coastal area had location advantages in the development of service industry. 4) In spatial coupling dimension, the spatial coupling degree exhibited an upward trend in the process of evolution over time, and a gradual rise from the east coast to the west inland in the spatial pattern. 5) Panel data regression model presented that urban workers’ income, farmers’ income, construction land and fixed asset investment were the driving forces of the spatial coordination between urban population and service industry. At last, this study put forward some policy suggestions for the coordinated development of urban population and service industry in Fujian Province.

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    Influence Mechanism of Collaborative Innovation on Enterprise Innovation Gap: Taking High-tech Industry as An Example
    Yu Liping, Wang Bing, Chen Yufen
    2021, 41 (8):  1364-1370.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.007
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    Collaborative innovation is of great significance to narrow the innovation gap and accelerate the innovation-driven development of enterprises. Taking high-tech industry of 27 provinces and regions (except Tibet, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) of China as an example, based on relevant data of China Statistical Yearbook on high technology industry from 2010 to 2017, this article deeply studies the impact mechanism of collaborative innovation on innovation gap from two perspectives: The effect of collaborative innovation on innovation gap and the feedback effect of innovation gap on collaborative innovation. And on this basis, it proposes four hypotheses then analyzes the interactive relationship between collaborative innovation and enterprise innovation gap by means of panel regression model, panel threshold model and panel vector auto regression model. The results show that collaborative innovation has no significant effect on the enterprise innovation gap. The effect of collaborative innovation on enterprise innovation gap has regional heterogeneity. When the level of collaborative innovation is high, the efficiency and speed of collaborative innovation will increase greatly, which is conducive to narrowing the enterprise innovation gap. When the innovation gap is larger, collaborative innovation can narrow the enterprise innovation gap. Collaborative innovation and enterprise innovation gap exist interactive relationship.

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    Tourismification of Historic Cities: Spatio-temporal Process, Function Transformation and Correlation Coordination Based on A Case Study of Tianshui Historic City
    Tian Xiaobo, Hu Jing, Zhang Zhibin, Jia Yaoyan, Lyu Li, Xu Xin
    2021, 41 (8):  1371-1379.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.008
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    Research on the evolution of space and function of tourist destinations in historical cities and their logical relationship can guide the tourism organization and planning management of historic urban areas effectively. Using historical materials, historical maps and Google POI data, the evolution of space and function of Tianshui Historic City since Ming and Qing dynasties has been explored by space syntax. By superimposing the results of spatial syntax analysis with the spatial analysis of GIS that based on residents and tourists elements, the logic relationship between spatial form and tourism function has been investigated. The result shows that: 1) Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the tourismification of Tianshui Historic City has experienced the stages of popularization (Ming and Qing dynaties), decline (Republic of China), stagnation (1949-1987) of traditional recreation, the rise of modern tourism and the restoration of traditional recreation (1988-2000) and integration and innovation (2001-present) stage. The traditional urban structure of the historical city is gradually disappearing, but the main axis of the historical axis continues, with the best accessibility, penetration and coordination. The law of ‘space structure inertia’ has an obvious effect. 2) Under the combined effect of different actors, the functions of Tianshui Historic City have changed from traditional functions such as security defense, military politics, bazaars and commerce to industrial production, modern tourism and residential functions, and the recreational function of the city have gradually enhanced. 3) Residents and tourists share public activity space, but the service functions are separated from each other. The coordination of tourist activity space and functional services is better, while the consistency of residents’ public activity space and service facilities is poor. Finally, this article presents suggestions from the street network adjustment and historical city functional layout to promote the development of the historical city.

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    Urban Innovation Network of Zhejiang From the Perspective of Multidimensional Proximities
    Wang Qingxi, Hu Zhixue
    2021, 41 (8):  1380-1388.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.009
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    Taking ninety county-level cities in Zhejiang Province as geographical units, this article uses spatial analysis and negative binomial regression model to examine the structure, spatio-temporal evolution and impact mechanism of Zhejiang city innovative network from 2007 to 2017, with the data of co-application patents based on big text data mining. The study finds that: Firstly, the scale continues to expand and the structure becomes more and more complex in network evolution. In the study period, the scale of Zhejiang city innovative network has been growing from a sparse network to a dense network, but it is still underdeveloped. The network acts as small-world feature which is superior to random network, and the whole network has good accessibility and communication efficiency. Innovative network shows core-periphery pattern which is centralized, localized, and hierarchical, centers around Hangzhou Great Bay Area, leaves western Zhejiang cities in the edge. Secondly, as for impact mechanism, proximity of different dimension has different impact on the level of city innovative cooperation. In addition, city characteristics and network effects also have significant impacts. The intensity of city innovative cooperation in Zhejiang Province is significantly positively correlated with their economic scale, education level and policy support, and the technological gap and the administrative level also play a positive role. Geographical proximity and border proximity are positive factors affecting innovation cooperation. The relationship between cognitive proximity and innovative cooperation is u-shaped, which indicates that when cognitive proximity is at a low level, it is not conducive to innovation cooperation. However, with the increase of inter-city cognitive proximity, its marginal effect on innovative cooperation becomes more and more strong. On the contrary, relationship of innovative cooperation and institutional proximity shows an inverted ‘U-shaped’ curve, indicating that institutional proximity has a positive effect on innovative cooperation level at a lower level, but its effect will become weaker with the improvement of city market system. Technology proximity shows a positive effect, indicating that the similarity of technology structure makes the knowledge interaction among the cities more smoothly. Third, network effects play a positive role in promoting inter-city innovative cooperation. Compared with individual node network characteristics, network structure characteristics formed by cities surrounding the nodes play a more significant role in promoting cooperation. Innovative network more inclined to show the overall effect, so we should focus on the optimization of network structure, taking the advantage of role of core node.

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    Spatial Difference of Catering Industry Development Level Based on Online Public Data in Wuhan
    Du Xiaochu, Li Zhongyuan, Chen Xiao
    2021, 41 (8):  1389-1397.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.010
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    Based on online public data, spatial clustering characteristic, spatial difference and influence factors of catering industry development level are analyzed by some spatial statistic methods such as kernel density estimation and spatial autocorrelation index. The main conclusions are as follows. At first, there are plenty of types of restaurants in Wuhan, the catering maintain obvious local flavor, and there are apparent differences among different types of restaurant. Secondly, customers in Wuhan have given good scores to all three index taste, environment and service, in terms of sorting, the taste score is larger than service score and service score is larger than environment score. Furthermore, all of the three scores have significant positive correlation with consumption price per capita. Thirdly, the high density area of catering service point distribution is along with rail transit line in Wuhan, and has highly related with business circles. At the same time, the three scores of catering service satisfaction have significant spatial aggregation. Fourthly, the hotspot distribution areas of the three scores, which mainly distribute in the traditional commercial and residential mixed areas and surrounding areas of important commercial facilities, are consistent overall, and the number of three types of hotspots is roughly equal. At last, some of the cold spot distribution areas of the three scores are consistent and some of them are not consistent. These cold spots mainly distribute around railway stations, hospitals and schools and old and remote community, and the number of cold spots is different obviously. The research results of this article could give some advices to urban planning, site selection of catering service point and smart travel for consumers.

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    Spatial Structure and Formation Mechanism of E-commerce Express Logistics Network in the Three Major Urban Agglomerations of China
    Li Yuanjun, Wu Qitao, Zhang Yuling, Wu Kangmin, Zhang Hongou, Jin Shuangquan
    2021, 41 (8):  1398-1408.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.011
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    The modern logistics industry has the advantage of going deep into all industries and is a new engine for economic growth of urban agglomerations. The express logistics industry, as a rapidly developing service industry, has gradually become a leading industry which promotes the transformation of circulation and stimulates consumption upgrading. And it further promotes the integration of urban agglomerations. Studying the spatial layout of express logistics network and exploring the network formation mechanism are of great significance for promoting the coordinated development of express logistics and improving the modern service industry in urban agglomerations. This research selected three major urban agglomerations in China, including the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, and the Pearl River Delta as the cases, and the social network analysis, random forest classification methods and Quadratic Assignment Procedure methods were applied to analyzing the spatial structure characteristics of e-commerce express logistics networks at county scale and further explore its formation mechanism. The results show that: 1) The network density values are high, indicating that all three major urban agglomerations have formed typical network space structures, and the flow paths of e-commerce express logistics between cities are extensive. In the Yangtze River Delta, the e-commerce express logistics network has formed a hierarchy-shaped spider web structure, and the intensity of inter-county connections gradient decreases from strong to weak with Hangzhou Bay as the center. The network character has formed a “Beijing-Tianjin” dual core structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei due to administrative barriers. The network has formed a “Sui (Guangzhou)-Guan (Dongguan)-Shen (Shenzhen)” logistics link corridor in the Pearl River Delta and the intensity of inter-county connections increased from the periphery of the region to the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary. In addition, connection intensity in all the above e-commerce express logistics networks show the effect of hierarchical diffusion rather than proximity diffusion. 2) The logistics output-oriented counties are concentrated in the middle of the urban agglomeration, relying on the central city for outward express logistics dispersion; the logistics input-oriented counties are scattered in the periphery. Furthermore, the logistics balanced counties in the Yangtze River Delta are widely distributed; the low logistics input-oriented counties distributed in the northern Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei; and the high logistics output-oriented counties show an obvious centralized distribution pattern in the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary. 3) The formation of e-commerce express logistics networks are mainly influenced by per capita disposable income, permanent resident population and inter-county distance. The results are important to enrich the urban network theory as well as enhance the level of modern service industry and the overall competitiveness of urban agglomerations.

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    Spatial and Temporal Tendency of Criminal Behavior Based on Demographic Characteristics of Offenders: A Case of Nanguan District, Changchun
    Zhao Ziyu, Liu Daqian, Gao Xue, Xiao Jianhong, Wang Shijun, Lian Chao
    2021, 41 (8):  1409-1418.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.012
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    It is helpful to understand the behavior tendencies of different groups of criminals so as to uncover the formation mechanism of urban crime pattern and conduct measures for crime control and prevention precisely. This article focuses on the perspective of criminal offender, based on the data of pickpocket cases in Nanguan District of Changchun City from 2010 to 2016, using logistic regression models to examine the relationships between the demographic characteristics of criminals and their behavioral tendencies. The results shows that: 1) Offenders with the common ‘labels’ in terms of the demographic characteristics or some attributes tend to conduct crime in some specific periods and areas in the city. Generally, the gender, age, education, criminal record, household registration have some influence on the spatial and temporal tendency of the criminal offenders respectively. 2) In the pickpocket cases in Changchun, the male offenders have the spatial and temporal tendency of committing crimes along the street and in summer and autumn, while the female criminals have a tendency to commit crime in the place with denser population and in the daytime (10-21 o’clock). The older offenders tend to commit crimes in the places of commercial areas, public service facilities as well as streets in the rest day and daytime (4-15 o’clock). 3) The local registered criminals tend to commit crimes in the commercial areas, public service facilities and on the street. The offenders with a criminal record are more likely to commit crimes in the areas with denser population and in the day time (10-21 o’clock). It is because the fact that offenders with the common demographic characteristics have the similar spatial and temporal behavior pattern that the crime profile based on the offender characteristics will be useful in understanding the behavior mechanism of criminals, uncovering the relationship between the criminal attributes and the space as well as the time, and providing precise and scientific measurements for crime prevention and control.

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    Spatial Evolution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Trade Multidimensional Network: A Comparative Study Based on Trade in Goods, Services and Value-added
    Jiang Xiaorong, Yang Yongchun, Liu Qing, Wang Shenglan
    2021, 41 (8):  1419-1427.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.013
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    Under the mode of global value chain division of labor, the focus of global industrial structure has shifted from manufacturing industry to service industry, and service trade has become a new engine to promote world economic growth. The trade value-added accounting method can truly and effectively restore the trade gains and actual status of a country participating in the global value chain, which is a beneficial supplement to the study of trade network under the traditional gross value accounting system. Based on the complex network theory and trade added value accounting, This research focuses on the spatial evolution and its influencing factors of trade in goods, services and value-added of the world’s 64 economies, applying the related technique tools, such as ArcGIS, Ucinet, and MATLAB. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The tightness and accessibility efficiency of the three kinds of networks are steadily increasing, and the networking trend of service trade is more significant. The global financial crisis has a great impact on network balance and network link, which is shown in the index of network reciprocity and compatibility. 2) There are significant ‘core-edge’ in spatial pattern. At the regional level, there are two ‘cliques’ in the Asia-Pacific region and the European Union region. The United States, China, Japan and Germany are the pivotal nodes of the connection between the two ‘cliques’. 3) Top1 network shows different evolutionary characteristics among goods, services and value-added trade networks, and we found these three types of organizational structure of networks are shown the shape as ‘star’, ‘snowflake’ and ‘star-chain’ respectively. The rise of China is remarkable in three types of networks. In contrast, the development of service trade lags far behind that of goods trade. 4) The QAP analysis shows that traditional factors have strong explanatory power for the formation of the three types of networks, such as GDP, geographical distance, common language. Meanwhile, Disparities of per capita GDP, Economic Integration Agreement lead to their differences, but their significance level is not high and tends to weaken. Finally, combined with the current international situation, this paper gives some policy suggestions on the development of China’s foreign trade under the background of new era of globalization.

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    Spatial Layout and Linkage Mode of Industrial Tourism in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration from a Multi-scale Perspective
    Tang Jianxiong, Ma Mengyao
    2021, 41 (8):  1428-1436.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.014
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    The rational layout of industrial tourism space has important practical significance for the transformation and upgrading of resource-based cities, old industrial areas, and industrial enterprises, improving quality and efficiency, and innovating and developing. Using the nearest neighbor index, thiessen polygons, kernel density estimation, buffer analysis and other methods, the spatial layout characteristics and linkage mode of different types of industrial tourism in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration are systematically based on multi-scale urban agglomeration, county (city), region the study. The results show that: 1) Industrial tourism in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration can be divided into three types: industrial tourism demonstration sites, industrial heritage and industrial zones. The spatial distribution types all show agglomeration, and the overall degree of agglomeration is relatively strong, specifically as follows: Industrial Tourism Demonstration Site> Industrial Heritage> Industrial Zone. 2) Industrial tourism has formed a ‘central agglomeration-peripheral dispersion’ spatial layout. The distribution density decreases from the center of the urban agglomeration to the periphery, and the central city decreases to the county and county-level cities. 3) From a multi-scale perspective, the distribution of industrial tourism on the scale of urban agglomeration is distributed in the form of “clusters”, on the scale of counties and cities it is distributed in the form of “isolated islands”, and the degree of agglomeration on the regional scale is the highest, forming a “patchy” clustered area. Based on the above conclusions, combined with the source market, tourism resources, traffic conditions, etc. of the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration, point-axis linkage, agglomeration linkage and integrated linkage modes of industrial tourism are proposed.

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    The Structure of Tourist Flow Network and Its Different Characteristics from the Perspective of Different Travel Time: A Case Study of Xi’an City
    Wang Li, Cao Xiaoshu, Li Tao
    2021, 41 (8):  1437-1447.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.015
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    Tourism flow research is the core topic of tourism geography. With the development of urban tourism and the transformation of functions, the micro-scale tourist flow has an increasingly significant impact on the internal spatial structure of cities. This study takes the popular tourist city of Xi’an as the research area, collects online travel notes data, uses social network analysis and GIS spatial analysis methods to explore the structure of the tourist flow network and its different characteristics under different travel times. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Under different travel time constraints, tourists’ travel behaviors show significant temporal heterogeneity. 2) The node structure of Xi’an tourist attractions has significant hierarchical and scale differences. With the increase of travel time, the hierarchical structure system of tourist nodes presents the characteristics of “strong and strong” association with high-level attractions as the hub. The tourist gathering function of high-level attractions has improved significantly. 3) Location proximity, proximity to popularity and convenient transportation are the key factors for the formation of attractions group.

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    Identification of Regional Relations and Geopolitical Judgment of ASEAN Countries Along the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road”
    Shen Shan, Wei Zhongyin, Qiu Fangdao, Hu Tinghao
    2021, 41 (8):  1448-1457.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.016
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    Based on GDELT event data, quantitative analysis of ASEAN’s attitudes towards China events in 2013-2019 was made using tone index, event frequency, event memorability, tone equilibrium, and kernel density estimation. We also explored the spatial evolution characteristics of conflict events, tracked the events, and constructed a network of event relationships. Conclusions were as follows: ASEAN’s coverage of China dominated by cooperative events. ASEAN conflicted event tone equilibrium was relatively discrete and these events would be improved in a quarter, while cooperation and conflict events had a positive impact on the occurrence of similar events in the semimonthly cycle. ASEAN risk pattern was dominated by large events and complemented by local events, while the evolution of the risk pattern tended to be concise. ASEAN cooperation events were mainly about leaders meeting, judicial exchanges, infrastructure cooperation, international aid etc. Conflict events were mainly about disputes in the South China Sea, border security, overseas crimes, and terrorist attacks. Philippines and Myanmar were key country nodes. Some events had significant influence on China, such as the meeting between the leaders of the Philippines, Laos, Indonesia and Cambodia, the territorial sovereignty issues of the Philippines, Vietnam and Indonesia, the border risks of Myanmar etc. It is recommended that China should strengthen long term cooperative relations with ASEAN, enhance the design of cooperation frameworks and strategic docking between governments, strengthen sub-regional cooperation, promote the development of new mechanisms for cooperation in the South China Sea, and prevent the prominent risks of countries.

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    Urban Networks Analysis of Northeast China Based on the Transaction Data of Government Procurement Activities
    Cheng Lisha, Wang Shijun, Tian Junfeng, Wang Binyan
    2021, 41 (8):  1458-1468.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.017
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    Urban networks have been widely examined using infrastructure connection and firm connection data. In particular, urban networks constructed based on firm connection data have been used to depict the circulation of capital, information, personnel, and products between cities. Existing studies on firm connection networks rely on either inter- or intra-firm relationships. However, there exist various important extra-firm relationships, such as those between firms and governments, research institutions, and non-profit organizations. This study innovatively incorporates the extra-firm relationships between governments and firms into urban network construction to provide new insights into urban network research. Based on the transaction data of Chinese government procurement activities in 2018, this study provides an in-depth analysis of spatial connection pattern and structure characteristics of supply-demand network in Northeast China by using the methods of GIS and Social Network Analysis, and thoroughly discusses the influencing factors on this basis. The results of the study are as follows: 1) The spatial connection structure presents a connection pattern with Changchun as the radiation center and the Harbin-Dalian Corridor as the main axis in the network for central projects. While network for local projects mainly show the characteristics of intra-provincial connections with the 3 capital cities of Harbin, Changchun and Shenyang as divergence centers, and the scope of government and firm activities between cities is relatively limited in network for local projects. At the same time, the number of participating cities and linkages between the supply-demand network for local projects and central projects is obviously different, and the coverage of local project network is wider. 2) No matter network for central or local projects, the 3 capital cities of the Northeast China are in the absolute center of the local supply-demand network. The degree centrality of Harbin, Changchun, and Shenyang is much greater than that of other cities in the region, and the net outdegree is always positive. With multiple cohesive subgroups, there are many small groups in the networks of Northeast China. 3) Affected by the type of budget, there are obvious differences in the structure of urban network for central and local projects; At the same time, the economic strength of a city could affect the position of a city in the network by indirectly influencing the economic activities of its agents in the network, that is, the stronger the city’s strength is, the greater the centrality is in the network; However, in actual procurement activities, the behavior of government and firms will be restricted by geographical distance and administrative boundary; Finally, since government procurement activities are one of the government’s macro-control measures, some national policies can directly affect the strength of government-firm linkages, and thus effectively guide the coordinated development of urban supply-demand networks.

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    Geographical Impact Models of Spatial Differentiation for Social-ecosystem Vulnerability in Urban Water Conservation Area: A Case of Qingpu District of Shanghai
    Ren Guoping, Liu Liming, Li Hongqing, Ji Xiang, Zhao Xu
    2021, 41 (8):  1469-1478.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.018
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    This article introduced the ‘input-output’ efficiency theory and constructed the ‘SEE-PSR’ framework for the analysis of social-ecosystem vulnerability in the village area in Qingpu District of Shanghai. The data envelope model, spatial autocorrelation model, multivariate Logistic regression model, geographical detector and hierarchical cluster model were used to analyze the spatial differences of social-ecosystem vulnerability and its geographical impact mechanism in 184 administrative villages in this area. The results were as follows: 1) The ‘input-output’ efficiency model based on entropy weight aggregation crossover was more reliable and accurate for the evaluation results of village social-ecosystem vulnerability. The vulnerability of the social-ecosystems in the administrative villages showed a trend of gradual decline from east to west, with the average value of vulnerability of 0.583, and the vulnerability of social subsystems became an important reason to limit the decrease of the vulnerability of the social-ecosystems in the region. 2) Geographic factors still had an important impact on the spatial differentiation of social-ecosystem vulnerability in developed villages. The distance from the center of Shanghai, the distance from the Dianshan Lake, the distance from the center of Qingpu District and the area of water area were the four dominant geographical factors affecting the vulnerability of social-ecosystem in this area. The geographical influence presented the spatial difference of system structure, the substitution of type attribute and the transformation of degree. 3) According to the cluster analysis of the influence of geographical factors, the spatial coupling types of social-ecosystem vulnerability factors were divided into 10 types. The multi-geographic factor coupling influence classes were the main decision type, which presented the multi-cyclic regional decision patterns which were dominated by the central multi-factor and co-exist by the single factor on both sides. According to different types, a feasible way to regulate the vulnerability of regional socio-ecological systems was proposed. The results of this study can provide scientific references for urban suburban rural space reconstruction and regional sustainable development with ‘strict protection and vigorous development’ conflict.rban suburban rural space reconstruction and regional sustainable development with ‘strict protection and vigorous development’ conflict.rban suburban rural space reconstruction and regional sustainable development with ‘strict protection and vigorous development’ conflict.

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    Spatial and Temporal Interpretation of the Input “Congestion Effect” of Industrial Water Resources
    Zhang Feng, Song Xiaona, Xue Huifeng
    2021, 41 (8):  1479-1486.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.019
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    In view of the inadequacy of the analysis of green development and excessive input of factors in the traditional industrial water resources efficiency measurement, the concept of industrial green water input congestion was defined under the framework of total factor productivity, and the congestion level of industrial green water resources input in 30 provinces and regions in Chinese mainland (except for Tibet, Hong Kong and Macau) was evaluated from 2000 to 2018 by FGL model, and then the structural changes of congestion inefficiency and pure technology inefficiency were analyzed based on global inefficiency decomposition. Results showed that, congestion of water resources input was a common problem in green industrial development in various provinces and regions, and the national average level of congestion showed an inverted “U” shape, with a trend from low congestion to deepening dispersion. The congestion levels varied greatly between provinces and regions, and the provinces and regions with higher level of congestion were mainly distributed in the Northeast Old Industrial Base and the central and western China. The nature of industrial green water resource input congestion could be seen as an imbalance in the allocation structure of input factors, while the growth rate of capital, labor, and industrial water resource input factors in the eastern China was relatively balanced, but there was a significant gap between the growth rate of capital input and other input factors in the central China, and the similar phenomena also appeared in the western China, where the growth rate of water resources input was higher than other input factors. So, the unbalanced input factor structure was an important cause of congestion. The overall global inefficiency was caused by the combination of pure technical inefficiency and congestion inefficiency, of which nearly 77% of provinces and regions were pure technical inefficiency. However, the existence and development trend of congestion inefficiency provided warning information that cannot be ignored for industrial resource allocation. Congestion inefficiency in Hebei, Liaoning, and Jiangsu in the eastern China, Jilin and Heilongjiang in the central China, and Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia in the western China should be adjusted urgently. Therefore, both industrial green transformation and water resources management needed to pay more attention to congestion issues.

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    Coastal Fishermen’s Livelihood Vulnerability Changes and Its Influence Factors Under the Vessel Buyback and Fishermen Transfer Programs: Based on the Investigation of Converted Fishermen in Zhoushan City, Zhejiang Province
    Chen Qi, Hu Qiuguang, Shen Weiteng, Chen Yiran
    2021, 41 (8):  1487-1495.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.020
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    Based on the theoretical analysis framework of livelihood vulnerability of coastal fishermen under the background of vessel buyback and fishermen transfer programs, this article takes the transfer fishermen in Zhoushan City of Zhejiang Province as the research object, uses the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to compare and analyze the changes of livelihood vulnerability of transfer fishermen under different livelihood modes and different periods of transferring the production, and empirically tests the specific factors that affect the changes of livelihood vulnerability of converted fishermen. The results showed that, although the level of livelihood exposure decreased after the conversion, the sensitivity increased and the adaptive capacity decreased significantly, which ultimately increased the livelihood vulnerability level of the converted fishermen, indicating that the overall livelihood status showed a deterioration trend. The changes of livelihood vulnerability of the converted fishermen under different livelihood modes were different. After the conversion, the livelihood vulnerability of the fishermen engaged in recreational fishery decreased, while that of the other four livelihood modes increased. The vulnerability level of fishermen’s livelihood has increased in two different periods, but the increase in the level of fishermen’ livelihood vulnerability before 2015 was relatively smaller. Education level, subsidy for ship reduction and conversion, time of conversion to production and skills training had significant negative effects on the change of livelihood vulnerability. Among them, the subsidy for ship reduction and conversion had the least impact on the change of livelihood vulnerability, which indicated that the subsidy mainly based on funds has not yet played a role in the reconstruction of sustainable livelihood.

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