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  • Wang Fugang, Wang Yaohui, Jiang Ming, Wang He, Pan Huilin, Wu Mingjie, Cao Yuqing
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(7): 1291-1298. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.07.016

    It is of great significance to explore the formation of water resources and the water balance in Tianchi area for the protection of water resources and ecological environment. Based on the topographic and geomorphologic conditions, the special geological lithology and ring-radial fault structure characteristics of Tianchi area, the water circulation conditions and hydrodynamic characteristics of Tianchi Lake were analyzed. The "hydraulic peak elimination" effect of the ring fault structure and the water conduction effect of the radial fault are clarified, and the possibility of groundwater divide expansion in Tianchi recharge area is demonstrated. Based on the analysis of water circulation and hydrodynamic conditions in Tianchi area, and meteorological and hydrological monitoring data of Tianchi area from 2003 to 2020, the water balance of Tianchi Lake was calculated and analyzed based on the water balance method. The results show that the precipitation conditions in Tianchi area can maintain the water level balance of Tianchi Lake. The water balance of annual excretion of 3.6×107m3 of Tianchi Lake can be maintained when the precipitation is within 850-2 200 m from the outside of the surface watershed around Tianchi Lake. The average surface elevation of the water balance area is 125 m higher than that of Tianchi water surface (2 189.7 m). many ring faults and radial faults in Tianchi area. All the above faults are tensile faults. The ring faults all inclined to Tianchi which provided favorable conditions for groundwater recharge to Tianchi Lake. The formation above 1700 m in Tianchi area is mainly composed of pumice rock and pyroclastic rock, mostly of porosity structure and strong permeability. The special geological structure conditions and stratigraphic lithology in Tianchi area make the surface divide around Tianchi not coincide with the underground watershed in the groundwater recharge area. The dominant seepage conditions of the fault structure around Tianchi constitute the "peak elimination" effect of groundwater potential energy. The ring-radial fault structure and the good permeability of the stratum lithology in Tianchi area make it possible to expand the groundwater watershed. Combined the synthetic analysis result of the of water circulation and hydrodynamic conditions in Tianchi area, and meteorological and hydrological monitoring data of Tianchi area from 2003 to 2020, the water balance of Tianchi Lake was calculated and analyzed based on the water balance method. The results show that the precipitation conditions in Tianchi area can maintain the water balance of annual excretion of 3.6×107 m3 of Tianchi Lake. The distance of the water balance zone boundary is within 850-2 200 m from the outside of the surface watershed around Tianchi Lake. The average surface elevation of the water balance area is 125 m higher than that of Tianchi Lake water surface (2 189.7 m). The factors that may affect the calculation result of water balance, such as precipitation, runoff of Tianchi Lake water, calculation parameter value, condensation water amount and evaporation amount, are analyzed and discussed.

  • Tian Mengqi, Duan Keqin, Shi Peihong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(6): 943-951. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.06.001

    Based on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform, this article explores a method to rapidly batch process remote sensing data and obtain glacier area changes based on the Purog Kangri Icefield on the central Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as an example. A pixel-by-pixel synthesis algorithm is used to acquire cloud-free images of the study area, which improves the utilization of image data. By calculating the NDSI of the study area and performing the minimum value synthesis, the glacier extent of the Purog Kangri from 1988 to 2020 was extracted to study the changes of the glacier area of the Purog Kangri in the past 33 years. The results show that the GEE platform combined with image-level image synthesis and the minimum NDSI algorithm can be used to rapidly acquire annual synthetic images and extract glacier boundaries. The glacier area change characteristics were obtained from 1988 to 2020 by synthesizing 512 remote sensing images from 1988 to 2020, and the glacier area decreased by 31.08 km2 in past 33 years, with an average annual retreat rate of 0.23%/a. The glacier area retreat mainly occurred at the end of the glacier, and some of the ends retreated 1506 m in 20 years. In comparison with the results of other related studies, the absolute error between the results of this paper and the reference value is within 5.6 km2 and the relative deviation is within 1.4%, which proves that the minimum NDSI synthesis method based on the GEE platform is feasible and reliable to extract the glacier area. Compared with field observation of glaciers or traditional remote sensing monitoring methods, this method improves image utilization and data processing efficiency, and can quickly realize long time series analysis of glacier area change, which provides a new way for modern glacier change research.

  • Wang Jian, Zhang Guoyou
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2024, 44(1): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.20230881

    The future development trend of Geography has received widespread attention but opinions are divergent. Systematic analysis and elaboration of the future development trends of Geography have important theoretical and practical significance for promoting the development of Geography. The demand for Geography in socio-economic development determines the direction and possibility of Geography’s development. The effects of scientific and technological progress on Geography determines the extent and feasibility of Geography development. The inherent requirement of the development of Geography itself is the inevitability of the development of Geography. On the basis of sorting out domestic and foreign perspectives, this paper elaborates on the development trends of Geography from the perspectives of the demand for Geography from social and economic development, the effects of scientific and technological progress on Gography, and the internal logic of the discipline’s own development. With the globalization of economy, informatization of society, ecologization of civilization, and geographization of the world, Geography, as a core discipline in the study of human-earth relations, is inevitably pushed to the forefront of solving major global natural and social problems due to its intersection with natural and social sciences. It will play an increasingly important role in economic and social development and human life. The development of aerospace and remote sensing technology has greatly expanded human vision for Earth observation, promoting the possibility of global research. The development of transportation technology and information networks has led to changes in the spatiotemporal scale of the world. The development of observation technology and analytical experimental technology not only increases the quantification level of geographical analysis, but also greatly enhances the ability of Geography to serve the society and economy. Earth science is developing towards the direction of Earth system science, while Geography is developing towards geographic science and Earth surface system science. From the perspective of disciplinary development trends, the scientific, systematic, and global nature of Geography is strengthening. With the development of society and economy, the progress of science and technology, and the evolution of Geography disciplines, Geography will move towards scientific Geography, technological Geography, philosophical Geography, systematic Geography, unified Geography, global Geography, the Geography for social development, and the Geography for daily life. In the development of Geography, there is still a trend of more complex research objects, more diverse research dimensions, more diverse research scales, more diverse and integrated research methods, and more high-tech research means. It puts forward higher requirements for future geographers: they not only need to have a global perspective, the concept of interaction between people and the environment, interactions between earth spheres, regional interaction and sustainable development, but also have abilities of multi factor integration, multi perspective observation, multi-dimensional analysis, multi-scale research and integrate application.

  • Sun Bindong, Zheng Tao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(7): 1133-1143. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.07.001

    As a direct means of a "strong provincial capital" strategy, the administrative boundary expansion of provincial capital cities has attracted wide attention in recent years. In general, local governments increase their economic aggregate by developing organizational boundaries and have high enthusiasm for the expansion policy of administrative boundaries of provincial capitals. But China has been cautious about the procedure, given the risks involved and the uncertainty over its effects. The different policy considerations of the central and local governments put forward realistic demands for the performance evaluation of the administrative expansion of provincial capitals. Scientific assessments of the effect of organizational boundary expansion on provincial economic development can provide a sufficient basis for formulating relevant policies. Based on the panel data of 27 provinces in China from 1997 to 2018, this paper analyzes the economic growth effect of provincial capital city expansions after 2000 using the synthetic control method. It conducts a robustness test by using the placebo method. Then, the mechanism is analyzed from the perspective that the provincial capital city's economic scale accounts for the whole province's proportion. The empirical results show that the expansion of administrative boundaries of provincial capital cities can not significantly promote the economic growth of the whole provinces. The heterogeneity analysis shows that for provincial capital cities whose economic scale accounts for a large proportion of the province, expanding the scale of provincial capital cities by administrative means has a significant inhibitory effect on the economic development of the provinces, and the inhibitory intensity continues to grow over time. For the provinces where the provincial capital cities accounted for a relatively low proportion of the provinces' economy before expansion, it was found that the policy did not inhibit the provinces' economic growth, and the effect was not significant. The policy implication of this paper is that the expansion of the administrative boundaries of provincial capital cities has a high risk. As central cities of provinces, provincial capital cities have not played a role in promoting their economy. Therefore, the central government should carefully consider provincial capitals' administrative boundary expansion demands. The provincial capital city boundary expansion is not the only way to realize the "strong provincial capital" strategy. Considering the existing economic volume of the provincial capital city, the provincial government can carry out concussive and collaborative development through talent strategy, the construction of the metropolitan area, and other means. At the same time, subcentral cities should be cultivated to avoid "One city dominating" which might restrict the province's economic growth.

  • Wang Degen, Tang Juan, Zhu Mei, Xu Yinfeng
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(8): 1317-1328. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.08.001

    The development of station areas driven by the high-speed railway dividend is out of order. The coordinated development of nodes and places has become an important path to promote the orderly construction of high-speed railway station areas and to promote each other's development. Taking 37 urban high-speed railway stations in the Yangtze River Economic Belt as examples, this paper constructs a coupling coordination degree and relative development degree model to identify the types of coupling development and spatial differentiation characteristics of high-speed railway station areas. It is found that: 1) The high-speed railway station in the Yangtze River Economic Belt can be divided into three types of coupling coordination development stages, including the running-in stage, the antagonism stage and the low-level coupling stage, exhibiting the characteristic of node lagging, place lagging and node place synchronization. 2) The types of coupling and coordination of node and place functions in the high-speed railway stations can be classified as low-coupling-node lagging, low-coupling-place lagging, antagonistic-node lagging, antagonistic-place lagging, running-in-node lagging, friction-synchronous development, and running-in-place lagging, representing low-level development, unsustainable, and to be optimized and upgraded. The spatial distribution shows significant inter-group variation in urban clusters, while cities in urban clusters are characterized by "converging centers and scattered nodes". Through this research, we can understand the current situation of functional coupling and coordination between node and place in the high-speed railway station area of the Yangtze River Economic Belt scientifically, and improve the fitness between the hub construction and function development. Besides, it can provide valuable references for promoting reasonable construction and sustainable development of the areas around the high-speed railway station.

  • Deng Haijun, He Wenjun, Liu Qun, Chen Xingwei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(6): 952-960. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.06.002

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is known as the "Water Tower of Asia" and the characteristics of its water system are of great concern to society. Based on the GRACE gravity satellite, vegetation index, evapotranspiration, temperature, and precipitation data, we analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of water storage changes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and interpret the response characteristics of water storage changes to vegetation changes. The results show that: 1) Terrestrial water storage changes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau can be divided into 2 stages: in 2003—2012, the water storage changes were relatively stable; in 2012—2016, the water storage showed a decreasing trend (–8.04 mm/year, P<0.01). Spatially, it shows a significant deficit in the southern outflow area (–12 mm/year in some areas, P<0.01). In contrast, a significant surplus in the north-central Qiangtang inflow area (6 mm/year, P<0.01), however, the trend of surplus water storage in the instream zone was reversed in 2012 from a surplus to a deficit. 2) During 2002—2016, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau showed a greening trend (0.002/year, P<0.01), 61% of the gridded vegetation showed a greening trend, and 39% of the gridded vegetation browned (located in the southern, northern and northwestern regions of the plateau). 3) The direct relationship between the vegetation index and terrestrial water storage on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is not obvious because the plateau vegetation is mainly located in the southeastern part, and other regions are sparsely vegetated. However, vegetation significantly indirectly affects terrestrial water storage through transpiration. The greening of vegetation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau increases vegetation transpiration (R=0.62, P<0.05), leading to soil water storage deficit (R=–0.49, P<0.1), which in turn affects regional terrestrial water storage changes (R=–0.63, P<0.05). The study results contribute to deepening the understanding of the atmosphere-biosphere-hydrosphere interactions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the context of warming.

  • Zhang Zihao, Wang Di, Wu Xiangwen, Li Tianrui, Zheng Zhichao, He Jianxiang, Liu Lixin, Zang Shuying
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2024, 44(3): 534-542. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.20230076

    High latitude permafrost regions are the most sensitive areas to climate change. The degradation of permafrost seriously affects the soil carbon cycling process. Revealing the vertical distribution pattern of soil organic carbon in permafrost layers under different land cover types is of great significance for predicting future changes in soil carbon pools in permafrost regions. Here we select forests, forest swamps, and shrub swamps in the high latitude permafrost areas of the Da Hinggan Mountains. Soil columns (7-8 m) were collected using drilling methods to measure soil carbon (organic carbon, soluble organic carbon) under the three different land types, and further analyzed the carbon content at different depths. The results showed that as the depth increased, the soil carbon contents decreased, and the organic carbon content varied from14.55 g/kg to 95.98 g/kg (forest swamp), from 17.48 g/kg to 132.93 g/kg (forest), and from 2.58 g/kg to 396.50 g/kg (shrub swamp). There was also a high carbon content soil layer in permafrost layers. The average content of organic carbon and soluble organic carbon in the active layer soil is as follows: shrub swamp>forest>forest swamp, and the average content of organic carbon and soluble organic carbon in the permafrost layer soil is as follows: forest swamp>forest>shrub swamp. The correlation analysis revealed significant negative correlations between depth and soil organic carbon content, water-soluble organic carbon content, and soil water content in soils under forest and shrub swamp conditions. However, there was no significant correlation between depth and these indices in soils under forest swamp conditions. Additionally, pH values were significantly positively correlated with depth across all soils, while they were negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content, soluble organic carbon content, and soil water content. The coefficient of variation of organic carbon in the active layer is 30.31%-114.26%, and the coefficient of variation of organic carbon in the permafrost layer is 30.23%-192.09%. Correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon was negatively correlated with depth and pH, and significantly positively correlated with soil moisture.

  • Hou Chengzhi, Huang Danqing, Gui Dongwei, Lei Jiaqiang, Lu Huayu, Xu Zhiwei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(8): 1495-1505. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.08.018

    Based on the meteorological observation datasets including daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature and precipitation, etc. at 61 stations in the hinterland of deserts and sandy fields and surrounding area in northern China, temporal and spatial variations of climate extremes were analyzed from 1961—2019 by 24 different extreme climate indices, and their influential factors were discussed. The results show that: 1) During 1961—2019, obvious warming trend has been found in these deserts and sandy fields. Extreme temperature indices have significant changing trend with small spatial difference. The frost days, cold nights and other extreme cold events have decreased significantly, while the number of summer days, warm days and other extreme warm events have increased significantly. 2) Extreme precipitation indices have large interannual fluctuations, and they mostly increased in western deserts and decreased in eastern sandy fields. The annual precipitation in western deserts has a significant increasing trend at the rate of 5.11 d/10a, and other extreme precipitation indices such as daily maximum precipitation, moderate rain days and heavy precipitation also have also increased significantly. The annual precipitation and other extreme precipitation indices in eastern sandy fields show an obvious decreasing trend, indicating the drying trend in this region. 3) The changes in extreme temperature indices in the deserts and sandy fields of northern China show consistency with other parts of China, while the rates exceed that of most part of global land such as North America, South Africa, Australia, etc. 4) The changes in extreme low temperature and extreme cold events in eastern sandy fields are significantly correlated with the Arctic Oscillation. The weakening of East Asian summer monsoon during recent decades is the main cause for the decrease in extreme precipitation in eastern sandy fields, while the increase in extreme precipitation in western deserts may be affected by multiple factors including the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  • He Sanwei, Zhang Zhen, Qi Ziliang, Wang Haijun, Tung Chih-Lin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(11): 1900-1910. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.11.003

    Urban agglomerations are the main spatial carriers of regional development elements. It is significant to characterize the spatial structure of economic networks and the underlying mechanisms in urban agglomerations, which sheds light on regional integration and high-quality urban development. This study takes the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China as the case to evaluate urban competitiveness, examine spatial differentiation of intercity economic linkages and investigate the driving factors of centrality in the city network. Based on 28 prefecture-level cities in the study area, we firstly evaluate urban competitiveness based on the entropy method from four dimensions: economic development, cultural innovation, green development and liveability. Then the multi-mode traffic flows and the radiation model are combined to calculate the intercity linkages of urban competitiveness and examine their spatial patterns. Social network analysis is employed to characterize the in-degree and out-degree centrality, and the spatial econometric models are used to examine the possible driving factors of urban centrality in the economic networks. 1) The intensity of multi-mode traffic flows is stronger in three regional central cities (Wuhan, Changsha, and Nanchang) and demonstrates the spatial pattern of 'weak in the northern part and strong in the southern part divided by the Yangtze River'. The pattern of high-speed rail traffic flows is spatially unbalanced in the three provinces (Hubei, Hunan, and Jiangxi) while the pattern of passenger transport flows is more balanced among prefecture-level cities. 2) According to the intercity linkages of urban competitiveness, Wuhan and Changsha are the only two regional hub cities with strong economic radiation to peripheral cities. However, Xiangtan and Huangshi demonstrate strong economic dependence to the hub cities. Weak linkages are widely present between prefecture-level cities while strong linkages exist only among the three provincial capital cities. 3) The centrality degree in provincial capital city is much higher than other prefecture-level cities. The cities in Hunan Province have higher centrality than Hubei and Jiangxi. The spatial consistency of in-degree centrality and out-degree centrality demonstrates the bi-directional linkages between cities with the dynamic process of both agglomeration and diffusion. 4) Administrative hierarchy, economic development and globalization are the three major driving factors of out-degree centrality, while economic development and marketization are the two significant determinants of in-degree centrality. With the advent of geographic big data, and information and communication technologies, it becomes significant to examine intercity network structures from the perspective of geographic flows especially the multi-mode traffic flows. The radiation model is superior to the conventional gravity model in characterizing the heterogeneous spatial process of multiple elements guided by transport networks. Geospatial analysis and social network analysis are combined to understand the complexity of intercity economic linkages, such as spatial radiation, spatial dependence and spatial differentiation. The major findings in spatial pattern and determinants of economic networks help policy-makers and urban planners to guide regional integration, high-quality urban development and new-type urbanization.

  • Xiao Ye, Xu Yiwen, Wu Bihu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(8): 1410-1422. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.08.010

    Based on the data from the third national land resource survey of Hainan, a comprehensive analysis was conducted using kernel density estimation, buffer and overlay analysis, logistic regression model and ridge regression model to explore the spatial pattern of villages in Hainan Island and their response to natural and socio-economic factors, and further classify the villages into different types. The study found that: 1) The distribution of villages in Hainan Island presents a spatial pattern of "dense in coastal areas, sparse in inland areas" and "intensive in eastern areas, dispersed in western areas". The village scale is generally small, and the spatial differentiation of construction land and cultivated land is overall consistent with the natural geographical differentiation base shaped by the central mountainous area and peripheral coastal area. 2) Under the background of rural transformation, the spatial distribution of villages is mainly influenced by natural environment such as altitude and slope, and economic location represented by traffic accessibility to townships, while the spatial scale of villages is more externally driven by social and economic factors such as population and GDP; relatively speaking, the distribution and expansion of construction land are strongly influenced by social and economic factors, while cultivated land still has higher dependence on natural environment. 3) Based on above, five village types were identified in Hainan Island using cluster analysis, which are mountainous ecological characteristic villages, coastal resource substitution villages, urban-rural spatial integration villages, urban-rural functional integration villages, and wide-ranging comprehensive development villages, and the corresponding development suggestions were put forward. We hope this can offer a scientific basis for "one village one policy", so as to promote rural planning and revitalization in Hainan Island, and to promote human-land harmony and high-quality regional development.

  • Zeng Peng, Zeng Nujiao, Tang Tingting
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(8): 1329-1339. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.08.002

    Ports are regarded as the main driving force of economic growth in urban areas. The study of port economic spatial structure is of great significance to guide the development of port areas. Based on the four urban scales of mega cities, mega cities, large cities and medium-sized cities, this paper selects 12 ports located in cities of different sizes as the research object, and then based on POI big data, uses Ripley's K function, kernel density estimation and other methods to analyze the agglomeration and distribution mode of port economy under different urban scales, and uses the industrial index method to analyze the circle characteristics of port economy under different urban scales, So as to investigate the spatial structure of China's port economy under the influence of city scale, and explore the development degree and distribution law of port economy. The results show that: 1) The number and scale of industries in most ports will show a decreasing trend as the city size increases. At the same time, due to the rigid demand of the port and surrounding residents for basic services in derivative industries, there are differences in the quantity of various industries distributed around the port. Overall, the number of POIs in derivative industries distributed around the port is significantly higher than that in related service industries; 2) Within a range of 30 kilometers of the core port area, industries of all sizes of cities exhibit agglomeration distribution characteristics due to the influence of industries such as ships, cargo transportation, and comprehensive port services. Among them, the degree of industrial agglomeration in mega cities and large cities varies more strongly with port distance than in mega cities, while the intensity of industrial agglomeration in medium-sized cities does not show a clear pattern with port distance; 3) With the gradual reduction of the city scale level, the number of industries in the circle of the port area has declined. At the same time, the derivative service industries are mainly distributed in the inner circle and the middle circle, while the related service industries are more distributed in the middle circle and the outer circle, and the phenomenon of industrial superposition is more obvious. Based on the above analysis results, the development and construction of Gangkou District in the future should pay more attention to the idea of composite industrial design, create a port economic spatial structure with the characteristics of industrial complex, and at the same time follow the concept of land intensification to promote port economic concentration and structural optimization. The port economic distribution scope should give priority to development within 30 km.

  • Han Wei, Zhao Yifu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(8): 1340-1349. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.08.003

    This paper starts from the realistic needs of implementing the Rural Revitalization Strategy, the modernization of the national spatial governance system and governance capacity. Based on the balanced development of urban and rural space and the special location characteristics of the metropolitan fringe, this paper scientifically analyzes the concept and characteristics of rural spatial governance in the metropolitan fringe, constructs the development process of rural spatial governance driven by socio-economic evolution, builds a logical analysis framework of rural spatial governance in the metropolitan fringe, and studies systematically the mechanism and model of rural space governance in the metropolitan fringe. The following conclusions are drawn: 1) With the implementation of the Rural Revitalization Strategy, urban and rural elements flow frequently. The rural areas in the metropolitan fringe have the characteristics of functional diversification, complexity of social structure and systematization of organizational structure, which correspond to material space governance, social space governance and space rights governance. 2) Governments, village collectives, enterprises and other social subjects constantly participate in the process of rural space governance, and each subject has its own unique governance behavior mechanism in rural physical space governance, social space governance and space rights governance. 3) Based on the different power allocation relationships of multiple subjects, this paper abstracts five governance models of rural space governance in metropolitan fringe, which are respectively government-led, government enterprise-joint, endogenous-driven, village enterprise-joint, and diversified-cooperation. Each space governance model has corresponding advantages and defects. Through the above studies, this paper aims to provide theoretical support and decision-making basis for sustainable development of rural space in this special region of metropolitan fringe.

  • Yin Guanwen, Liu Yungang, Chen Yanbin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(9): 1507-1515. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.09.001

    Administrative division is a significant strategy to govern national space. However, the increasing conflicts between administrative division adjustment (ADA) and the rapid urban development have seriously hindered the high-quality urban development and justice to governance. The existing studies focus on the measurement of economic effects and policy analysis, and lack the explanation of micro mechanism of ADA. The border construction theory form political geography provides a methodology for analyzing the micro mechanism of ADA. The paper argues that ADA is a process of border construction, driven by the joint action of multiple actors. It is considered that the ADA involves the alteration of location, belonging, attribute or level of the administrative boundary, and it is a continuous process of border construction. Although ADA is an important policy for state power allocation led by the government, the bottom-up forces such as the economic activities of enterprises and the daily life practice of residents also act on the formation and integration of administrative boundaries. As such, based on the perspective of border theory and the research on the "administrative boundaries" of ADA, the paper constructs an analytical framework for ADA including the process of bordering, dis-bordering and re-bordering, to investigate the role and interaction of multi-actors for the generation and elimination of the administrative boundary. Further, this framework is used to analyze the mechanism of border construction in "turning county to district" policy. The study can promote the multidisciplinary theoretical innovation between political geography and urban research, and is useful for practical policy formulation to solve the issues related to "border" and border region.

  • Chen Yu, Wang Feng, Lu Yuqi
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(10): 1691-1700. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.10.001

    Cross the Yangtze River passages are of great significance in promoting integration of metropolitans, supporting the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt and realizing the flow of elements between the north and the south of China. This paper sorts out the development of cross the Yangtze River passages on the Yangtze River mainline, and evaluates the regional connectivity of cross the Yangtze River highways using accessibility and weighted betweenness centrality. The study shows that: 1) according to the quantity, type and socio-economic development background, the construction process of passages can be divided into the initial stage (1957—1995), the speed-up expansion stage (1996—2010) and the multi-functional expansion stage (2011—). By June 2021, the ratio of passages in the upper, middle and lower the Yangtze River reaches is 54.7∶23.4∶21.9, while in terms of economic scale and resident population, the density of passages in the lower the Yangtze River reaches is much lower than that in the upper and middle reaches. 2) The accessibility of cross the Yangtze River highways has been significantly improved from 19.73 h to 6.09 h, and the time cost gap between the upper, middle and lower the Yangtze River reaches is narrowing; 3) The level of connectivity is substantially strengthened. The shortest path across the Yangtze River changes from highly dependent on several highways to multiple sharing. The high betweenness centrality highways are mainly located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, while the connectivity of highways in the upper reaches is generally weak.

  • Yan Meiyan, Yu Bin, Guo Xinwei, Yu Hailong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(6): 1066-1077. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.06.013

    The development of rural territorial functions is closely related to the realization of the strategic goal for rural revitalization. The rural territorial functional structure system is constructed from the 5 dimensions: Agricultural production, non-agricultural production, life support ecological conservation and cultural landscape. Based on functional value method, the rural regional functions at county scale in Yunnan Province is calculated, and its spatial differentiation characteristics are analyzed. Then using the stepwise regression model and geographic weighted regression model (GWR), the influencing mechanism of the rural territorial functions is explored. On this basis, the self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network and the geographical detector model are used to identify the functional regionalization and propose the rural revitalization path. The results show that: 1) The rural territorial functions in Yunnan Province were great differences in comprehensive functional values and each dimension functions values among different counties (districts and cities). High-value regions were gathered in central, eastern and southwest Yunnan, and low-value regions were gathered in northwest and northeast Yunnan. 2) Population urbanization and scale industrial enterprises were the external driving forces of Yunnan's rural regional functions. Within the rural regional system, there were positive effects of rural labor, cultivated area, rural road network construction, health and medical services, and inhibitory responses of internal heterogeneity. There were spatial gradient differences in the intensity of the internal and external dual effects. 3) The rural regional functions of Yunnan Province were divided into five categories by using the best classified marginal benefits, and then the development directions of rural areas were clarified. Based on the influence mechanism of regionalization, multiple paths of rural revitalization were put forward, which were consolidation, development, promotion, deepening and leading. The development direction of rural revitalization was clarified by functional structure classification, and the implementation path of rural revitalization is analyzed by functional mechanism difference, which can provide beneficial enlightenment for rural revitalization of ethnic regions in Southwest China.

  • Liu Chen, Chen Jiayan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(8): 1371-1381. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.08.006

    Since digital platforms play an increasingly important role in urban governance/management and experiences, in the past two decades, human geographers have paid active attention to how geographical knowledge is produced by the digital in the mundane and how the digital is mediating the production of space and transforming the relations between human and space. Resonating with this trend, this research explores the sociocultural patterns of daily mobilities with the assistance of digital platforms based on the concept of platform urbanism, aimed to reveal the interactions between digital subjects, platforms, and urban space during this process. The analysis in this article is based on a fieldwork in urban Guangzhou consisting of questionnaire survey, semi-structured interviews, and participant observations. The main results of this fieldwork not only provide a general portrait of digital platform use in daily travel, such as the types of platforms applied in practice and their corresponding usage frequency, but also is beneficial to better understand how digital platforms are integrated into daily mobilities in an unconscious, contingent, creative and momentary way through details like gestures, habits, emotional experience presented in the combined data. Generally, the key findings of this article have demonstrated that digital platforms have already gained broad use in daily mobilities in Guangzhou. Nevertheless, specific details about how people make use of digital platforms while planning or managing daily mobilities still vary from the demographic patterns, especially among those groups with different ages and different degrees of education. Simultaneously, the diversity and the complexity of the daily mobilities associated with digital platforms can also be attributed to the social-spatial contexts of the practice, which have an important influence on shaping different types of platform-mediated mobilities, including purposive mobilities, contingent mobilities, flexible mobilities, and the way they interweave during the process of daily mobilities. Ultimately, this article argues that daily travel is a social and digital practice that forges multiplex interactions between people, digital platforms, and urban space through two patterns: "guide" and "adaption". In the former, the use of digital platforms can guide the way in which daily mobilities are conducted by strengthening or weakening people's (digital) skills, such as collecting information, making travel plans, telling directions, experiencing and producing places. While in the latter, as a result of the highly accidental, incomplete, uncertain interactions between people, platforms, and space, failures emerging from daily mobilities would encourage users to explore their creative and resistant tactics to improve the effects of platform use. Aimed to identify the roles people, digital platforms, and urban space played respectively in mobilities in Guangzhou, this article allows us to witness how platform urbanism contributes to completing the past research on the relations between daily travel and technology, thus offering a significant insight into the further exploration of daily practice mediated by digital platforms and the construction of human-oriented smart cities in the future.

  • Zhang Haoran, Jiao Limin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(11): 1879-1889. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.11.001

    It is of great significance to analyze the structural characteristics and differences of urban network from different perspectives for deeply understanding the structural mode of China's urban network. In this study, urban network in China is constructed and compared based on the relationship data of Huawei's supplier value chain from 2019 to 2022 and the head-branch relationship data of China's top 100 intelligent manufacturing companies. The results show that: 1) From the perspective of value chain, the structure of nodes in China is significantly different and clearly hierarchical, and the distribution patterns of rank-size grows exponentially in segments. As for spatial structure, the axis connection structure is of heterogeneity, the city is stratified by clusters, and the whole network is controlled by the core urban nodes. 2) The node structure of China's urban network from the perspective of headquarters branch is similar to value chain, and the distribution patterns of rank-size increases exponentially. Spatial structure of urban network highlights the national central node status of Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen, and the spatial structure shows a "gem structure". 3) By comparing the findings from the value chain and the headquarters branch perspective, the results show that the control power, core structure, hierarchical features, and connectivity characteristics of the two types of network nodes exhibit similarities. The axial connections between the two types of urban nodes rely on the control of national core cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. The node weights and edge weights in the urban network under both perspectives follow a power-law distribution. However, the value chain perspective can reflect the diversity of complex connections between cities, and the differences in nodes and the imbalance of network connectivity are more pronounced in the value chain perspective. 4) The comparison shows that the value chain also can depict the Chinese urban network reliably and the value chain network of leading smart manufacturing suppliers can represent the interconnected network of smart manufacturing companies in China. The structure of nodes and axes in the urban network under two perspectives is highly similar. In addition, the value chain revels the regional spatial structure from the perspective of urban functional connection, which helps researchers to get out of the data ocean and make scientific decisions for urban and regional spatial planning and development.

  • Lin Sainan, Feng Xin, Wang Yu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(9): 1537-1547. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.09.004

    The number and direction of China's population movements have changed substantially in the last few decades, which caused constant spatial restructuring. Migration is often a multi-stage process that migrants that migrantes may continue an onward migration after their fiyst spatial movement. However, existing studies have paid little attention to such dynamic processes. To fill this research gap, this paper analyzes the dynamic trajectory of migration and the network features of the spatial pattern, and further explores the influencing factors of the spatial choice of the onward migration by using social network analysis and the nested Logit model. The main findings are as followings: 1) The onward migration often occurs within ten years after the primary migration, with a decreasing migration distance. The majority of these onward migrants are married and tend to mirgate with family when they move again. It is also important to note that the onward migration does not always involve movement from cities in a lower hierarchy to a higher one, but presenting diversified patterns; 2) The primary migration network shows a very obvious cross-shaped diamond structure with the center of gravity to the east and south, while in the onward migration, the horizontal linkage becomes weaker, showing fewer pair cities with flows; 3) Spatial choices of onward migration are influenced by both individual and urban factors, among which the average wage in the destination city has the most significant influence, followed by individual characteristics and other urban factors. The higher the education level, the higher the administrative rank of migrants' place of origin, and the younger the onward migrants are in occupations requiring higher professional and technical knowledge and within the working age, the more they tend to flow to a Tier-one city. Based on the above empirical findings, the study further proposes relevant recommendations for different types of cities considering the characteristics of migration process: First, the cities with strong population attractiveness should actively improve facilities, public service conditions and enhance governance to increase the carrying capacity of the population. Second, different cities should be clear about the differences between themselves and other popular cities where the migrants tend to move. Given that migrants are more likely to choose destinations within the urban cluster in onward migration, the cities belonging to the cluster should utilize the population spillover effect of the core cities. They should actively adjust the industrial structure to promote the development of industries with obvious income pulling effect, strengthen the comprehensive urban governance capacity, and create ample urban amenities to attract the population. In view of the visible trend of family migration, cities should introduce corresponding policies in public services.

  • Dong Weimiao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(7): 1310-1316. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.07.018

    Xixia (1038―1227 A D) was a non negligible local regime in Northwest China in the historical period of China. Its national strength was relatively weak, but its survival stage coexisted with several imperial regimes such as the Northern Song Dynasty, the Southern Song Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty and Mongolia for a long time, and through frequent wars, it settled in the northwest corner for centuries. Many scholars have made a variety of discussions on its survival. This paper selects the coexistence period of the two regimes from the actual formation of the independent regime in Xixia (982 A D) to the southern migration of the Song Dynasty (1127 A D) as the research period, analyzes the reasons for its founding from the perspective of human ecology, and discusses the reasons for the frequent wars between the early Xixia and the Northern Song Dynasty in combination with high-resolution climate data. Records of wars between Xixia and the Northern Song Dynasty were cited from credible historical documents. Each war record in the literature is regarded as an independent war, each independent war is assigned 1, the war frequency is defined as the sum of the number of independent wars in a year, and the war frequency curve is obtained. High-resolution paleoenvironmental records of lake and stalagmite or historic records from this area or surrounding regions were selected to give a solid climatic background of this time and space. Then, carefully contrast of the two series of evidence to check if there is some relevance between wars and climate. The research shows that due to its own geographic conditions, Xixia's life needs cannot all be self-sufficient, nor can it be obtained through normal trade, considering its poor relations with the Northern Song Dynasty during most of the time they co-existed. Under such ecological pressure, Xixia chose to enrich and expand its strength in the continuous war in order to survive, so as to support the war with war and finally establish the country. The relatively warm climate conditions provided the necessary material guarantee for the war of Xixia. As for the three largest battles between Xia and the Northern Song Dynasty, it can be attributed to the material shortage caused by the deterioration of climate and environment and the social pressure brought by it. Other wars do not stem from the deterioration of environmental conditions, which may be due to the internal political and social factors of Xixia.

  • Li Yuheng, Huang Huiqian, Wang Shengye
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(9): 1568-1575. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.09.007

    Resilience is the basic attribute of the rural system, which reflects the rural system's response to external disturbances and shocks. High resilience rural has the ability to maintain system stability, minimize losses, and make comprehensive transformation and development. Rural resilience is the frontier direction of rural study. This article uses the CiteSpace to analyze papers on rural resilience domestic and abroad that has published before January 28, 2022. By drawing knowledge map, this paper aims to show the rural resilience study development process, research hotspots, latest directions and trends of future research. The study found that: 1) Foreign rural resilience study has established a complete knowledge system, which extends from basic concepts, theories and empirical studies to climate change, environmental protection, biodiversity and other fields. All these investigated rural resilience under different shocks. 2) The research on rural resilience domestic is still in initial stage, whose topic is few and scattered. The article indicates that future research should make full use of big data and simulation technology to reveal the evolution of rural systems, resilience thresholds and development shortage as well as rural resilience building under multiple stressors for rural revitalization and high quality development.

  • Du Delin, Huang Jie, Zhang Yang, Zhang Zewen
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(10): 1710-1719. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.10.003

    As a trunk railway in Southwest China, Sichuan-Xizang Railway has improved the transportation infrastructure in the western China, and is of great significance to the integration and coordinated development. This paper takes Sichuan-Xizang Railway as the research object, and calculates the accessibility of cities along the railway based on the network of roads and railways. Combined with the particularity of Sichuan and Xizang, the influence of Sichuan-Xizang Railway on urban accessibility and regional development is analyzed from the national scale, in order to provide reference for the coordinated development of China's trans-regional transportation infrastructure and regional development. The research results show: First, the construction of the Sichuan-Xizang Railway has notably enhanced accessibility for cities along the route. The once scattered circular layout has evolved into a corridor structure running parallel to the railway. Second, in comparison to Sichuan, the Sichuan-Xizang Railway has a more profound impact on the accessibility of cities in Xizang, particularly in the central locations like Linzhi and Changdu. Moreover, this impact extends beyond the railway route, enhancing connections between cities in Xizang and the rest of the country, particularly with the southwestern and southern regions. This suggests that the influence of the Sichuan-Xizang Railway extends throughout the entire Xizang. Third, Sichuan and Xizang are characterized by its concentration of economically disadvantaged counties and a diverse population of ethnic minorities, all while boasting abundant tourism resources. The railway significantly improves accessibility to border regions, impoverished counties, and autonomous counties inhabited by ethnic minorities. This has considerable implications for national security, ethnic unity, and regional integration and development. Finally, when viewed from an organizational network perspective, the introduction of train services along the Sichuan-Xizang Railway has enhanced the structural characteristics of the national high-speed rail network, with particular benefits for the southwest region. As the coverage of direct train services expands, cities in Xizang and Sichuan become more closely interconnected. In summary, the construction of the Sichuan-Xizang Railway is instrumental in facilitating connections between the southwest region, and eastern and central regions, with significant implications for national security, ethnic unity, and the promotion of regional integration and development.

  • Lu Chengpeng, Huo Yutian
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(6): 1122-1130. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.06.018

    By constructing an industrial ecological index, the industrial ecological level could be measured in 57 counties in the Gansu section of the Yellow River Basin from 2005 to 2020. The spatial Dubin model is used to verify the spatial overflow effect and explore the spatial transmission mechanism. The results were as follows: The spatial differentiation pattern of ''center-peripheral'' gradient diffusion is significant. Industrial ecologization has significant spatial relevance, and the overall trend is transitioning to balance. The spatial radiation range of industrial ecologization is expanding, and the self-organization and spatial variability of industrial ecological space among counties continues to increase. The stepped terrain pattern gradually transitions to a gentle trend surface, whereas the radiation effect shows a decreasing characteristic in all directions of the geographical space with the expansion of the distance from the central area; There are significant positive spatial spillover effects on industrial ecologization, among which the development level, structural upgrade, and vitality of the industrial system and the environmental governance of the ecological environment system have obvious positive promoting effects, while the resource consumption and pollution emission of the ecological environment system have a certain inhibitory effect. The result of the interaction and effect of various factors and dynamics finally forms its spatial transmission path and mechanism.

  • Yang Wen, Cao Jingfu, Li Mingcai, Mu Fenfen, Ai Lei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(6): 1113-1121. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.06.017

    In this article, hourly temperature during 1961—2019 and socio-economic data from 2000 to 2019 in 6 cities of Qinghai province were analyzed to evaluate the effect of climate change and urbanization on cooling degree hours, aiming at determining the requirement of air-conditioning in summer in response to the climate warming in plateau region of Qinghai. The results show that the cooling hour degrees significantly increase in all the selected cities with climate change, with the increasing rates from 1.1(℃·h)/10a (Yushu) to 124.2(℃·h)/10a (Ledu). Moreover, the increasing rates decrease with the rising of elevation. Except for Qilian and Yushu, the cooling degree hours mainly exist at 11:00-18:00, with significant increase in recent 10 years in Golmud, Gonghe, Sining and Ledu. For the duration of hourly temperature over 26℃ in a day, it could last 1-2 hours in Qilian, Yushu and Gonghe, much less than the duration of 11-14 hours in Sining, Golmud and Ledu. Additionally, cooling degree hours are associated with the scale of city development, i.e., the more dwellers, the larger cooling degree hours, and vice versa. This study reveals that climate warming has exactly led to an increase in the number of cooling degree hours in some cities of the Qinghai Plateau, which has a certain demand for summer air conditioning. Climate characteristics and urban development both affect the summer air conditioning in the Qinghai plateau region.

  • Lu Zhilin, Hao Zhaoyin, Yin Guanwen, Hu Saiyin, Song Chengzhen
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(7): 1144-1153. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.07.002

    The merger of prefecture level cities is a new form of administrative division adjustment. Simultaneously, it can be seen as a process of scale rescaling including multi-dimensional social relations. Based on the theory of scale rescaling and the empirical case of administrative division adjustment of Jinan and Laiwu, the article constructs an analytical framework to explore the process and logic of the ''merger of two cities'' from three dimensions of power, capital and perception. The results show that, firstly, the Jinan government has adjusted its functions through scaling up and down of power, ensured the smooth transfer of power, and achieved the rescaling of power. Secondly, the government has implemented policy of industrial optimization and differentiated layout, and achieved the rescaling of capital through driving industrial upgrading and enterprise relocation. Thirdly, through the built environment transformation, such as roads, communication and ecological facilities, and through the integration of public services, cultural and tourism resources, the government has reshaped the residents' sense of place and achieved the rescaling of perceive. In the process of ''merger of two cities'', the coupling coordination of three-dimensional factors of power, capital and perception has improved the scale and hierarchy of Jinan and Laiwu, and achieved the rescaling of space. Consequently, it gives impetus to the completion of the administrative division adjustment and the high-quality urban development. This research has enriched scale theory by constructing the muti-dimensional framework of scale rescaling, and deepened the understanding of process and mechanism of administrative division adjustment.

  • Baoleerqimuge , Zhang Qiuliang, Hao Shuai
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2024, 44(1): 159-167. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.20220339

    Based on the daily snow depth, ground surface temperature and air temperature data from 5 meteorological stations in the northern Da Hinggan Mountains Permafrost Area, statistical methods were used to analyze the long term change of snow depth and snow phenology, in addition, the thermal effect of accumulated snow was analyzed by means of correlationship between cold season ground-snow surface temperature difference and snow depth. Results shows that, the long term mean monthly snow depth shows single peak pattern in a year, the maximum snow depth is 17.9 cm, seen in February. Long term mean annual snow day number is 161.5 d, the maximum snow depth and snow day number occurred in different months. Long term mean annual and maximum snow depth snow depths are 10.6 cm and 22.6 cm respectively. The annual snow depth shows slight increasing trend (statistically significant). Concerning snow phenology, the starting day delays and ending day advances in recent 47 a, causing the lasting day of snow shortened accordingly. Annual mean and maximum snow depth shows apparent positive correlation with cold season ground-snow surface temperature difference, showing increasing heat insulation effect with increasing snow depth. The cold season ground-snow surface temperature difference increases 0.4211℃ with 1 cm increase of annual mean snow depth and 0.2889℃ for annual maximum snow depth, the heat insulation effect of annual mean snow depth is greater than annual maximum snow depth.

  • Li Bohua, Chen Xinxin, Dou Yindi, Liu Peilin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(7): 1154-1166. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.07.003

    Traditional settlement space governance, as a small-scale national governance, covers governance issues in economic, cultural, social, and ecological dimensions involved in the "modernization of national governance system and governance capabilities", reflecting the governance of social governance, market governance, and government governance in the process of national governance. Space governance of traditional settlement is one of the basic links that cannot be ignored in the modernization of national governance. Therefore, research on the governance of traditional settlement spaces is of positive significance to help understand the modernization of national governance. The research, taking Zhangguying Village as an example and using text analysis methods, in-depth interview methods, questionnaire surveys and factor analysis methods, based on the perspective of the actor network, reconstructs the traditional settlement space governance mechanism. The research found that: the space governance actors in Zhangguying Village are the government, village committees, villagers, cultural relics protection companies, tourism development companies, cultural industry companies, heritage foundations, physical space, social space, cultural space, and economic space. The spatial governance of Zhangguying Village has such phenomena as the imbalance of subject rights, the construction of multi-dimensional space, and the evolution of spatial functions. Under the reconstruction of the actor network, the administrative subject, the local community subject and the external subject need to adjust the action mechanism to promote the transformation of the material space, the reconstruction of the social and cultural space, and the construction of the economic space. Through the adjustment of the action mechanism of space subjects, the redistribution of space rights can be realized. From the perspective of the actor network, the main subject of the traditional village space should cooperate with each other and participate in governance. The foreign culture and traditional culture urgently need to deepen the integration and interaction, and the traditional village space function urgently needs to be repaired and reorganized. Research innovation combines spatial governance with actor network theory, and introduces it into the research category of rural governance to enrich the connotation of the spatial governance system. Research helps explain how various actors participate in governance in the process of space governance in traditional settlements, and how to allocate space rights and interests rationally, providing references for other similar traditional settlements.

  • Yin Langchuan, Liu Peilin, Li Bohua, Qi Jianqing, Hu Zui, Deng Yunyuan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(6): 1053-1065. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.06.012

    Cultural landscape is one of the important objects in geographical research, and settlement is an important component of cultural landscape. On the basis of analyzing the gene connotation of cultural landscape, combining with the morphological composition and perceptual structure of traditional settlements, this study believes that the landscape morphological genes of traditional settlements can be analyzed from six aspects: environment, layout, boundary, marker, road and house. In this paper, the Xiangjiang River Basin is taken as the research area, through extracting, translating and comparing the morphological genes of the upper, middle and lower reaches of the case settlements, the paper forms morphological gene map and coding sequence map of cultural landscape. In the comparative analysis of coding sequence maps, the results are as follows: 1) The same landscape morphological genes. Most of the traditional settlements in the river basin are built on side of the mountains, and there is often a pond in front of the village, which is often bordered by the water body. There are many ancestral halls and folk traditional beliefs constructions, bridges, gate towers, wells, and ancient trees are common in the villages; 2) Different landscape morphological genes. Most of the settlements in the middle and upper reaches are in the form of agglomeration, with clear water boundaries. Single traditional study houses or academies are common in the village. The upstream and downstream settlements are often enclosed by walls, and the dwellings mostly extend longitudinally, and form multi-entry dwellings. In terms of uniqueness, most of the upstream settlements have small hill before the village as a barrier. The layout of the settlements expands in an "arc" shape in accordance with the mountain situation, and the road network is also varied, and many Feng-Shui pavilions or pagodas are built to pray for the prosperity of local civil and military. The middle reaches' settlements often have square layout, the main road network is also in the shape of a "grid", mostly set up shop streets. The downstream settlements are discretely distributed, and the roads are branched and connected to the houses everywhere, and there are many large residences called "South Large House", inside which courtyards are arranged, and horizontal houses are arranged on both sides. On the whole, this study presents the spatial distribution of multiple morphologic genes in the traditional settlement cultural landscape in the Xiang River basin through the two maps.

  • Ma Shuyan, Zhao Zuoquan, Zhao Ziwei, Bai Bing
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(6): 1011-1021. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.06.008

    Based on airport location, air passenger and regional economic data from 2000 to 2019, considering the difference of air transport demand and supply, the article analyses the evolution characteristics of national air passenger transport and airport pattern, explores the evolution characteristics of regional air passenger transport pattern using standard deviation ellipse method, then, identifies the factors influencing the evolution of air passenger transport spatial pattern in China using spatial pattern similarity analysis method. The results show that: 1) From 2000 to 2019, Chinese air passenger transport pattern showed a trend of spatial expansion and northwest movement; Compared with the distribution of civil airports in China, the pattern of air passenger transport is significantly concentrated in eastern China, showing a northeast-to-southwest trend, indicating that the regional distribution of air passenger transport in China is more uneven. 2) The outward expansion of air passenger space structure and space-time evolution trend in China mainly comes from the contribution of central, western and northeast regions. The evolution of the center of gravity and area of air passenger transport in eastern China is not consistent with the characteristics of the whole country, which inhibits the spatial expansion of air passenger transport and the center of gravity moving to the northwest. 3) Tourism, economy, income and scale have a significant positive impact on the evolution of air passenger traffic pattern in China, the opening factor has no significant impact, while the market factor has a certain negative impact on the evolution of air passenger traffic pattern. In addition, the distribution of air passenger transport pattern is more southerly than that of the influencing factors, indicating that there is still a large space for optimizing the development of air passenger transport pattern. Finally, based on the research results, some suggestions are put forward to promote the healthy development of air passenger transport, such as building new airports and optimizing the capacity and operation level of the current airports in the central and northern regions, strengthening the capacity scale and service quality of the existing airports and optimizing the comprehensive transport system.in the eastern region.

  • Teng Li, Cai Di, Zhong Chujie, Jiang Lei, Wu Mengxia
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(6): 1001-1010. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.06.007

    Metro TOD development is an urban development model that integrates the metro traffic arrangement with the urban development. It's expected to greatly help achieving high-quality development of the urban space. The spillover effects from the Metro TOD development are widely observed within and among TOD station zones. Researches are highly demanded to offer significant support of decision for evaluating urban benchmark land price rationally, and evenly formulating interest compensation mechanism in the development of public resources. The objectives of this paper is to find out to what level the spillover effects are on the benchmark land prices in Chinese great metropolitan such as Guangzhou, and find out what will be the key factors to delivery these effects on different land use purposes. Based on the 5D principles invented by Robert and Ewing, 17 indexes are carefully designed and computed to measure the development degree of each metro TOD zone.These variables are test by stepwise regressions to find out whether they affect the land prices or not. Then spatial regression strategies are put forward to evaluate the spillover effects of TOD development among the 220 metro TOD zones and within each zone. The models are conducted to testing all 4 kinds of land use purposes—commercial, residential, industrial and office land use. We would argue that the 5D principle of TOD development is translated into calculable variables, which provide a theoretical basis for the influence factors of land price. It is an effective way to measure total spillovers of metro TOD zones by using spatial regression model to capture the spillover among the metro TOD zones, into which introducing dummy variables to capture the spillover in the metro TOD zone. For the case of Guangzhou, the spatial distribution of land prices with the metro TOD zone as the spatial unit appears the circle structure and follows the distance attenuation law on both the urban and TOD zone scales, but the spatial distribution pattern of land price by type is different in different TOD zones. From 2010 to 2019 in Guangzhou, there are positive spillover effects between and within TOD zones for commercial, residential and industrial land prices, except for office land prices where there is no spillover effect within TOD zones. 2019 relative to 2010, the spillover between TOD station zones is weakening; the spillover within TOD station zones is increasing. Based on the research conclusions, the planning TOD corridor is proposed. Determine the reasonable proportion of each type of land according to the function of the TOD zone; Prioritizing the development of commercial and residential land near metro stations; Considering the spillover effect of station development, establish a benefit compensation mechanism for TOD zone development and other policy suggestions.

  • Liu Zheqiong, She Dunxian, Xia Jun, Zhang Liping, Li Jiayu, Qi Guizeng
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2023, 43(9): 1659-1671. https://doi.org/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.09.016

    The study of impacts of drought on vegetation is one of the important ways to assess the impact of extreme climate on ecosystems. The dynamic pattern evolutions of drought has spatial and temporal characteristics. It is of great significance to analyze the impact of dynamic development of drought event on vegetation ecosystem in order to deeply understand the mechanism of drought and vegetation interaction. Based on a 3-dimensional drought clustering algorithm, we proposed a new method for quantitatively analyzing the vegetation response mechanism to droughts by accurately describing temporal continuity and dynamic extensibility of drought events. We investigated the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of meteorological drought events and vegetation response to meteorological drought events on the Loess Plateau from 1982 to 2018 by identifying the 3-dimensional continuum of meteorological drought events. Results showed that: 1) The 3D drought events identified by the clustering algorithm on the Loess Plateau were convincible and reliable by the comparation with documented historical drought events. 2) We found that the NDVI value of drought affected area during drought period tended to be lower than that during pre-drought period by comparing the NDVI value in two periods and a good correlation was found between the NDVI reduction and meteorological drought events severity (R2=0.4389, P<0.05). 3) Further study showed that the NDVI cumulative reductions response quickly to SPEI cumulative reductions on the Loess Plateau. Grassland was the most sensitive and vulnerable to drought events which had the worst drought resistance by comparing the response characteristics of different land use types (cropland, grassland and forest) to drought events; However, cropland had suffered worst during severe drought events. Our findings provide crucial insights into scientific and reasonable understanding of the dynamic pattern evolution of 3D drought events and its influence mechanism on vegetation ecosystem.