SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA ›› 2023, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (8): 1382-1391.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2023.08.007

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Intraurban variations and determinants of excess commuting for different educational groups in Shanghai

Yue Liying1(), Li Kaiming2,*(), Wu Ruijun3   

  1. 1. Asian Demographic Research Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
    2. Department of Architecture, Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
    3. School of Social Development, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2022-01-21 Revised:2022-04-04 Online:2023-08-20 Published:2023-08-30
  • Contact: Li Kaiming;
  • Supported by:
    Shanghai Pujiang Program(22PJC049);China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2023M732174)


Excess commuting analysis is of great practical significance for improving urban commuting efficiency and optimizing the spatial relationship between employment and housing. There are few studies on intraurban variations of excess commuting, and also from the perspective of educational attainment. Based on the Shanghai 1% population sample survey data at sub-district level in 2015, we analyzed commuting efficiency differences among different educational groups and their intraurban variations, using a spatially disaggregated approach. The results show that 52.14% of commuting trips were excess commuting, and 26.14% of commuting potential was utilized, which still has great potential for commuting optimization. From the perspective of educational attainment, there are significant group differences in commuting behavior and its efficiency. The degree of jobs and housing separation of low educational groups is lower but has more obvious decentralized characteristics, and its commuting efficiency is much higher than that of high educational groups. In term of spatial distribution, workers travelling from homes located in job-rich areas make the shortest minimum commute, whereas workers living in housing-rich areas make the longest minimum commutes. The lowest commuting efficiency is found for job-rich areas and the highest for housing rich areas. The commuting efficiency of edge workers (employers) is higher than central workers (employers). From the perspective of influencing factors, in addition to the job-housing balance at the micro level, the job-housing spatial relationship at the macro level is also an important influencing factor of commuting behavior of residents. For the well-educated group, their selection of residential location follows patterns of average job location rather than that of the closest available job location.

Key words: commuting efficiency, job-housing balance, excess commuting, Shanghai

CLC Number: 

  • K901.2