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Table of Content

    20 November 1999, Volume 19 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    When the Qinghai Xizang Plateau Uplift to Present Elevation
    WU Yong-qiu, CUI Zhi-jiu, GE Dao-kai, LIU Geng-nian
    1999, 19 (6):  481-484.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.481
    Abstract ( )   PDF (518KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analyses of strata, sedimentary facies, landform and tectonic structure in Kunlun Mountains Pass area, a violent tectonic movement occurred in the border of the Early and Middle Pleistocene, and it was this movement that made the area uplift to near the present elevation. The elevation of this area was no more than 1500 m before that time.
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    On the Evolution Model of the Container Port System──A case study of the lower Changjiang River container port system
    CAO You-hui
    1999, 19 (6):  485-490.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.485
    Abstract ( )   PDF (776KB) ( )   Save
    In 1981, Hayuth put forward a five-phase model that illustrates the dynamic development process of a container port system and the rationale behind such development. According to Hayuth’s model, containerization system has a profound effect on port structure and port operation, has modified some of the traditional port functions, and has introduced new dimensions to port competion, port hierarchies, and hinterland delineations. A particular emphasis is being given to the phenomenon of concentration of container traffic in few, large port load centers. In this paper, the lower Changjiang River container port system serves a case study. It can been seen that there are three development stages:(1)Initial adoption from the early 1970s to the early 1980s, only did a few large conventional ports such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Nantong port adopt containerization technology. (2) Diffusion during the period between 1986 and 1995 there occurred the obvions diffusion of the container system among the lower Changjiang River ports.The number of ports that handled container traffic doubled in this period. (3) Primary concentration of 1996 is an important lime in the deveolpment of the lower Changjiang River contain port system. By this time there occurred the most significant concentration of the container system among the lower Changjiang River ports. The container traffic that Shanghai port handled growed much faster than those of any other ports. In the author’s opinion, the present situation of this container port system is not still able to conform with the need of foreign trade and economic development at national, regional levels. The comstruction of Shanghai port as a hub of container transportation will be speed up and the comprehensive planning of the container port system will be strengthened in the future.
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    The Division Between Subtropical Zone and Warm Temperate Zone According to Soil Material Migration and Accumulation——A Case Study of the Funiu Mountain in West Henan
    MA Jian-hua
    1999, 19 (6):  491-496.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.491
    Abstract ( )   PDF (765KB) ( )   Save
    Achievements obtained predecessors about the division between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone on the south side of the Funiu Mountain are summarized in this paper firstly, and the causes why these viewpoints about the division are different also have been discussed. Seven soil profiles studied in this paper are placed along the south side of the Funiu Mountain at different hights above sea level.Many compositions and properties of these soils have been analysed in laboratory. The division between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone on the south side of the Funiu Mountain according to soil material migration and accumulation has been made a thorough study with mathematical classification method. In this analysis twelve indexes have been used such as Kmx, Saf, Ba, β, Feo/Fet, Mno/Mnt and so on. The result indicates that the boundary between subtropical zone and warm temperate zone on the south side of the Funiu Mountain is about 950 metres above sea level.
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    The Floating Population Concentration Areas in Beijing: Patterns, Structure and Functions
    LIU Hai-yong, GU Chao-lin
    1999, 19 (6):  497-503.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.497
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1256KB) ( )   Save
    This paper seeks to explore the characteristics of the patterns of the floating population settlements, and analyzes the interplay of structure function of them as well. In general, the floating population settlements could be categorized into mass-form, belt-form, scattered-spot-form and flat-form. Also, from economic, sociological and folk-custom perspectives, the paper attempts to locate the causes of the related social processes and the meanings of them. At the end of the paper, several conclusions are provided.
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    Structural Pattern of Mountain Land Types and Optimal Allocation of Land Use
    LIU Yan-sui
    1999, 19 (6):  504-509.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.504
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1193KB) ( )   Save
    It is one of the new important fields of studies on land science that optimal allocation of land use is being researched. Especially, there are a lot of problems in mountainous region, such as vulnerability of eco-environment and severity of the man-made question. Thus, there is important theoretical significance and practical value in study on the optimal allocation of the mountainous land use if on the basis of systemic analysis of the structure, function and the spatial patterns of regional land type with the landscape ecology theory and the norms of sustainable development as the guides. Structural patterns of land type are regarded as the relation both contrast of quality and quantity and spatial composition of land type in appointed area. Analyzing the structural pattern can be veneficial to reveal the heterogeneity and order laws of structure and function of land type, thus, these theoretical principles can provide us scientific basis to know roundly the ecological characteristics and succession disciplinarian of land type groups, and conduct scientifically the practice of land use allocation. In this paper, taking Qinling north slope of Shaanxi Province as an example, the structural multiclass, functional multivariate and spatial arrangement of the land type patterns are put forward based on the systematic analysis of the spatial, quantitative and qualitative structure of land types. Finally, the designs of optimal allocation models in mountainous land use have been finished, namely regional model in macrostructure, industry model in mid-scope and micro management model. The optimal allocation scheme of land use, whose essences is the optimization of structure and layout of industrial land used in the mid-scale, is one of the reification form of allocation models of land use and it has better applicability and operability in land use practice. However, the optimal scheme will be carried into execution not only brought into the regional general plan of land use and other expert plan, but also connected with the economic and social factors including the inputs of fund, technology and labor and the change of ethical ideas in the optimal allocation process of land use.
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    Changes of Industrial Structure and Comparative Advantage of Tianjin
    YANG Kai-zhong, ZHANG Yang
    1999, 19 (6):  510-516.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.510
    Abstract ( )   PDF (895KB) ( )   Save
    First, based on the classical method of economic base analysis, this paper studies the change of Tianjin industry comparative advantage from 1990 to 1995 by comparing with Beijing and Shanghai. The major conclusion is that electronic and telecommunications, transportation equipment manufacturing, food production of Tianjin are becoming to take precedence, while chemical fibers and raw chemical materials and chemical products with good natural environment declining. Then the paper concentrates on industrial structure and leads to a viewpoint that Tianjin industry exerts lower environmental pressure and knowledge and technology intensive industry sectors with lower input of water and less pollution tend to burgeon. Moreover, the author gives some advice on developing a proper industry relationship between Beijing and Tianjin.
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    Research on the Relation Between Regional Economic Development and Resources, Environment——The Central and Sourthern Liaoning Province as an Example
    TONG Lian-jun, ZHANG Ming-xiang
    1999, 19 (6):  517-520.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.517
    Abstract ( )   PDF (404KB) ( )   Save
    Relation between regional economic development and resources, environment in the central and southern Liaoning province is taken as an example. On the basis of its regional character and present economic development, we emphatically analyse its resources and environment problems. Combining with the theory of industrial structure and distribution, we make a thorough analysis on the present situation of industrial structure and distribution and their influence on resources and environment, point out that to a great extent, industrial structure determines resources’ utilization level and industrial distribution have an effect on production and development of environmental pollution. At last, we discuss the contents and significance of the transformation of economic growth mode and its effect on regional resources and environment, then we hold that the transformation of economic growth mode may promote the sustainable development.
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    The Application of Remote Sensing and GIS To the Assessment of Bank Stability in the Lower Yangtze River
    HUANG Jia-zhu
    1999, 19 (6):  521-524.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.521
    Abstract ( )   PDF (168KB) ( )   Save
    A dynamic multi temporal remote sensing analysis was applied to the riverbank changes since the 1950s from Nanjing to mouth in the Yangtze River and a graphic database was constructed. A dynamic analysis was also applied to the water depth using multi-temporal channel maps and a database of water depth of the Lower Yangtze River was also set up. The assessment of riverbank stability was made combined with researches of riverbed evolution,geology, geomorphology, and bank revetment projects,supported by GIS.
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    Seawater Intrusion and Hydrochemical Characteristic and Change of Shallow Underground Water
    ZHAO Jian
    1999, 19 (6):  525-531.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.525
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1300KB) ( )   Save
    Using the data of the water samples of seawater intrusion monitoring in the coastal area of Laizhou Gulf,Shandong Province, and adopting the method of linear regression conducting in respective groups of intrusion degree, the author made a study on the relation between series of hydrochemical indexes and the Cl- content, which involves 13 indexes including some main hydrochemical compositions of the water and the water quality indexes for irrigation.So the changes of the hydrochemical indexes in the process of seawater intrusion are shown by a series of linear regression equations with different slopes and relation coefficients. The analysis results also show the difference of seawater intrusion in the southern and eastern of coastal regions of Laizhou Gulf,the author considers that it is mainly because of the difference in the intrusion sources (current seawater or coastal underground salt water), salinization history and its affecting degree in the different parts of the coastal regions of Laizhou Gulf.
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    On Progressive Decrease Rate of Surface Runoff at Different Periods in Arid Regions of Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces
    YAN Jun-ping, WANG Xi-li, SUN Hu, CHEN Lin
    1999, 19 (6):  532-535.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.532
    Abstract ( )   PDF (793KB) ( )   Save
    Based on climatic and hydrologic data in some regions of Shaanxi and Gansu provinces the decrease of surface runoff year by year has been proved. When time scales are 40,30,20 and 10 years the proportion of decrease of surface runoff caused by natural factors are 17.5%,34.2%,51.7% and 70.3% respectively and the proportion of decrease of surface runoff are 0.14%,0.34%,0.52% and 1% respectively.
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    The Ion Elution Effect on the Main Ion Profiles of the Glacier Snowpacks
    HOU Shu-gui, QIN Da-he
    1999, 19 (6):  536-542.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.536
    Abstract ( )   PDF (778KB) ( )   Save
    The successive main ion profiles of the snowpit samples collected from No.1 Glacier at the head of the Urumqi River during the early ablation period of 1996 were compared to investigate the factors that affect the re-location of the ionic species within the glacier snowpacks. It is found that most of the main ions preserved in the snowpacks since the precious melt season had percolated downwards, then were stopped at the snow/ice boundary or in the super-imposed ice layer, where layers with significantly high ionic concentrations were observed. When heavy melting happened, most of the ions might be released from the snowpacks with the glacier runoff, consequently the glacier ice with extremely low ion concentrations would form. Thus it is suggested that the ion elution processes might deteriorate the quality of ice core chemical records for paleoenvironment reconstruction. In addition, preferential elution was observed among the main ions, and the leaching degree varied significantly for different ions at different leaching stages.
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    On Periglacial Landforms in Northern Da Hinggan Mountains and the Forming Palaeoenvironment
    LI Jin-song, HUO Wen-yi
    1999, 19 (6):  543-548.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.543
    Abstract ( )   PDF (945KB) ( )   Save
    The Northern Da Hinggan Mountains is one of the most famous localities of gold placer. The formation of gold placer is closely correlated with the periglacial geomorphologic process in the Late Pleistocene. The paper systematically analyzed the periglacial landforms remained in the Da Hinggan Mountains and made a further discussion on the paleoenvironment over there.
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    Mid Holocene Climatic Transition and Rapid Interruption in Neolithic Cultures in the Eastern Plain of Taihu Lake
    YU Shi-yong, ZHU Cheng, QU Wei-zheng
    1999, 19 (6):  549-554.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.549
    Abstract ( )   PDF (957KB) ( )   Save
    The Eastern Plain of Taihu Lake, located at west part of the Changjiang River Delta, could cater us exceptional information both about Holocene climate changes and human activity. Most of the Neolithic culture sites in the area could be successful to serve as the proxy profiles that contain both evidence for Holocene climatic variation and vestige of human settlement. Among them, Caoxieshan cultural site, 120°45’E, 31°22’N, is most typical and could enact as a unique paradigm. High resolution and continual records of pollen, grain size and magnetic susceptibility that span 5620 years from Caoxieshan cultural site, Suzhou provide a climatic context for Neolithic culture history. The origin and flourishing of Songze cultures overlapped the Holocene Hypsithermal Interval. Prior to 5365 a B.P., the climates were sustainably humid and warm, nevertheless, at the end of Songze cultures, a serious arid event centered at about 5365 a B.P. rendered the civilization degenerate. Ultimately, a harsh cold-wet event during the transition from the warm-humid Atlantic Phase to the warm-dry Subboreal Phase uppered the lake level of Yangcheng lake group significantly, made the Songze cultures vanish and left a 200 year regional hiatus of human occupation. After 5 160 a B.P., climates conversed as dry and warm, the lake retreated, Liangzhu cultures, a relatively well-developed civilization emerged.
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    Simulating Study on Nitrogen Circulation of Soybean Field in the Sanjiang Plain
    WANG Yi-yong, YANG Qing, WANG Rui-shan
    1999, 19 (6):  555-558.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.555
    Abstract ( )   PDF (476KB) ( )   Save
    The Sanjiang plain is the largest wetland area in China. After many year’s reclamation, this region has become an important commodity soybean base. There is a great change of soil nitrogen circulation in this region; it was made by the change of surface condition and influence of agriculture. This paper focuses on the lowland soybean field, using the DNDC model that was made by Professor Li Changsheng to study the nitrogen circulation in the soil, plant and atmosphere systems, as well as the law of nitrous oxide emission.
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    The Ecological Series of Soil Animals in Southern Xiao Xing’an Mountain
    HOU Wei-ling, ZHONG Wei-yan
    1999, 19 (6):  559-564.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.559
    Abstract ( )   PDF (857KB) ( )   Save
    The ecological series of soil animals in southern Xiao Hinggan Mountains was studied Xiao Hinggan Mountains. Eight sample plots were selected according to a series of equal altitude difference, which belonged to different vegetation types. By investigating and analysing soil animals of every sample plot, It can be seen that the altitude was the key one among the factors of ecological series. Both the groups and indviduals of soil animals almost increased with increasing altitude, which opposited to ordinary cases, resulting from special micro climate of the studied area. Both the groups and individuals of soil animals of Picea and Abies forest were lesser than other communities.
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    Environmental Change of Late Pleistocene in Loess Plateau of Shaanxi Province
    ZHAO Jing-bo, HUANG Chun-chang
    1999, 19 (6):  565-569.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.565
    Abstract ( )   PDF (548KB) ( )   Save
    Sporo-pollen analysis in Qishan section shows that the change of vegetation and climate of the Late Pleistocene can be divided into six stages and thirteen sub-stages in the southeast part of the Loess Plateau. Three cold-dry stages and two temperate moist stages of last glacial period are named Qinjiazhai glacial staircase, Qishan glacial staircase, Potou staircase, Shangjiapo interglacial staircase and Yangjiawan interglacial staircase respectively. Forest-steppe consisting of Ulmus, Quercus and herb indicating cold and semiarid climate was dominant during glacial periods, and mean annual rainfall was 400-500 mm at that time. Deciduous broadleaf forest consisting of Quercus, Julans and Pterocarya etc. representing temprate moist climate prevailed during interglacial periods and interglacial staircases, and mean annual rainfall was 600-700 mm at that time.
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    The Daily Variation of the Soil Temperature in Different Seasons at Site D110 in the Northern Part of Xizang Plateau
    YANG Mei-xue, YAO Tan-dong, DING Yong-jian, WANG Shao-ling, CHEN Xian-zhang, Toshio KOIKE
    1999, 19 (6):  570-574.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.06.570
    Abstract ( )   PDF (556KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the soil temperature data obtained in IOP period of GAME-Tibet, 1998, the monthly changes of daily variation features of the soil temperature in D110 site, the northern part of the Xizang Plateau, have been analyzed. The results show that the soil temperature existed evident daily variation in summer season (May-September). It is a sine curve and consistent with solar radiation. However, the phase lagged as the depth increase. In winter season (October-April), there was also daily variation, but the amplitude was relatively small. As to the study period, the maximum daily variation appeared in August 1997. Then it decreased. In May 1998, the daily variation increased suddenly and reached to the highest point in June 1998. Meanwhile, the variation of the minimum temperature was small and gentle, but the maximum was large. In summer, the daily variation of the soil temperature at 40 cm depth is also evident. Its variation is fundamentally a sine curve and consistent with solar radiation. However, its phase is lagged as the depth increase. The transport direction of energy between surface and its below layer could change two times in summer. In winter, although the soil temperature showed relatively evident daily variation and played as sine curve, the temperature on surface was always below that of under layer. Even the surface could absorb the solar energy, but it was too little. The energy was transported from lower layer to upper layer all the day in winter.
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