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    20 May 1993, Volume 13 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE IMPACT OF SPATIAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF PROVINCIAL BORDER-REGIONS
    Guo Rongxing
    1993, 13 (3):  197-204,295.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.197
    Abstract ( )   PDF (470KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the spatial organizational structures of the regions bordering the provinces of China, I build a mathematical model of economic performances for N-dimensional border-regions (i. e.,the regions bordering N provinces)and find that, for a given region with the same conditions of geography and technology, the largest output (FN*)of a Ndimensional border-regional system will not exceed that of a N-1-dimensional border-re-gional system, i, e., F1*≥F2*≥…≥FN-1*≥FN* Using the model, I present a quantative method to calculate the effect of "administrative borders" on the regional economic development and the application of it in the agricultural system of the region bordering Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces. The main results show that the potentials for economic development have not been fully utilized and that the annual gross products of the border-region decrease by 10.4% due to the 4-dimensional borders.
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    THE INFLUENCE OF SEA-AIR INTERACTION ON THE DISCHARGE OF THE UPPER REACHES OF THE CHANGJIANG RIVER IN FLOOD PERIOD
    Zhang Xinping, Fan Zhongxiu, Zhou Enji
    1993, 13 (3):  205-211,295.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.205
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    The paper analyses the relationship between the discharge of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in flood period and both of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the circulation by the correlation analysis method. The analysis results show that the SST anomalies of the North Atlantic, the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean can influence the variation of the discharge of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in flood period by atmospheric circulation. This teleconnexion is of the certain rhythemic characteristic. The ocean current play an important role in the sea-air interaction because almost all important correlation areas are situated in the ocean current regions, and the time of the effect is mainly winter or spring. Otherwise, the effects of the SST are of the double-hump characteristics. The paper gives the possible physical mechanisms that the SST of the variant sea areas affects the discharge of the region of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River in flood period. For the three oceans, the change of the currents and circulation of any one can get the response inthe currents and circulation of the other two by the regulation of atmospheric circulation. So, for the long-range hydrologic forecast of the upper reaches regions of the Changjiahg River, it is better to consider simultaneously the effects of the three oceans rather than do only one.
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    ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC CHANGE ON INLAND LAKES
    Qin Boqiang
    1993, 13 (3):  212-219,295.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.212
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    The climate in mid-latitude zone of the Northern Hemisphere has shown an tendency to get warm and dry since the beginning of this century. Due to such climatic change, most inland lakes fed mainly by precipitation have the change tendency of water level fall, and area shrinkage; only few lakes fed by glaciers have the tendency of expansion. By means of analysing the influence of precipitation and air temperatute change on lakes, it is found that the precipitation has a positive effect, namely, precipitation change is positively correlated with lake water level variation; while air temperatute has a negative effect. In addition, most lakes are sensitive to precipitation. And most lakes are in a state of the deficit of lake water volume for a long time, which is the reason to cause lake water level fall. The analysis of the relationsip between the lake basin shape and the response of lakes to climatic change shows that the lakes with shallow basins are sensitive to climatic change.
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    A STUDY ON MARSH EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN
    Chen Gangqi, Lu Xianguo, Yang Qing, Wang Yiyong
    1993, 13 (3):  220-226,295.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.220
    Abstract ( )   PDF (432KB) ( )   Save
    The Sanjiang Plain is situated in northeast China. It is one of the areas where marshes are distributed concentratedly and widely in China. Carex lasiocarpa marsh and the marsh with Carex lasiocarpa as dominative species are distributed widely. We choose Carex lasiocarpa marsh as observation object. Marsh evapotranspiration includes transpiration of marsh plants and evaporation from among plants. We used evaporimeters to observe the water level, and calculated the water level amplitude. The article, based on the observed data in 1990 and 1991, gives out the analytical results and comes out with the model of the marsh evapotranspiration. The evapotranspiration of the marsh is one or two times more than the evaporation of water surface in growing season. The larger the vegetation coverage,the greater the daily evapotranspiration. When the vegetation coverage of the marsh is less than 10%, the daily evapotranspiration of the marsh is close to the evaporation of water surface. The difference between the evapotranspiration of the marsh and the evaporation of water surface in sunny days is more than that in cloudy days.
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    RESEARCH ON SPORO-POLLEN ASSEMBLAGES IN SURFACE SOIL OF VARIOUS VEGETATION IN NORTHERN SLOPE OF THE TIANSHAN MOUNTAIN
    Pan Anding
    1993, 13 (3):  227-233,295.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.227
    Abstract ( )   PDF (429KB) ( )   Save
    Establishing the relationship between sporo-pollen assemblages in surface soil and surrounding vegetation is an important work for correctly reconstructing paleo-vegetation, paleo-environment and their history of development and evolution by sporo-pollen analysis. The Grey System, a new mathematical theory, was applied to the research on the sporo-pollen assemblages of surface soil. Based on the sporo-pollen analysis of surface soil samples from the. northern slope of the Tianshan Mountain, the relationship between surface soil and vegetation forms was approached by the method of weight index analysis from correlation degree. A table on corresponding relationship between the sum of ecotope grade index and vegetation zones was induced., which tallies with the reality on the whole through thepreliminary test. This method would benefit the research on paleo-ecoenvironment and its evolution with the aid of sporo-pollen analysis more promptly and precisely.
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    ICE-SNOW TOURIST RESOURCES AND APPLIED RESRARCHES IN WINTER IN NORTHEAST CHINA
    Han Jie
    1993, 13 (3):  234-241,295.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.234
    Abstract ( )   PDF (551KB) ( )   Save
    Tourist resources are new estate resources. Ice-snow tourist resources in northeast China play a very important role in China, and they are also characteristic resources in northeast China. On the basis of long-term researches and field investigations, first of all, the characteristics and the formative cause of ice-snow tourist resources in winter in northeast Chhina are discussed. Then the present situation and the problems of exploitation of ice—snow tourist resources are appreciated. At last, the author’s own ideas on the exploitation of resources are put forward. The main purpose of the paper is to let the organizations and departments concerned have a correct understanding of the exploitation of ice-snow tourist resources and make strategic decision, promoting the rapid development of tourism in northeast China.
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    DISCUSSION ON SOME BASIC PROBLEMS OF DESERTIFICATION STUDY
    Dong Yuxiang, Liu Yihua
    1993, 13 (3):  242-249,296.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.242
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    Desertification is one of the most important problems in the world. The study on desertification has become one of the most important topics in recent years because of its immense harm. This paper simply looks back the development process of the study on desertification, analyses and discusses the points in the debate of some basic problems of desertification, such as desertification definition,distribution space and time, cause, process, indicators and development trend of desertification. This paper gives the main topics of desertification which we must study lately. All in all, there were many problems in the study on desertification in the past, but those problems can be solved through the systematic and quantitative study on desertification.
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    THE POSSIBLE CAUSES AND TRENDS OF GLOBAL SEA LEVEL RISE AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT
    Yang Guishan
    1993, 13 (3):  250-256,295.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.250
    Abstract ( )   PDF (511KB) ( )   Save
    Global warming,caused by the atmospheric build—up of CO2 and trace gases(CH4, N2O, CFCs)could raise global eustatic sea level. For processes appear as dominating on a time scale of decades to centuries: thermal expansion of oceans, melting of alpine glaciers and small ice caps, and changes in the mass balance of the large polar ice sheets (Greenland, Antarctica). But relative sea level rise in the different coastal areas are mainly controlled by local neotectonic movements and land subsidence by anthropogenic effects. Over last 100 years, climatic warming has raised global sea level by 10~15cm. There is no firm evidence to suggest that global eustatic sea level rise next century will exceed 100cm, most of the studies foresee a rising range between 50 cm and 100cm. Sea level rise will cause a series of environmental effects: permanent inundation, increased coastal erosion, temporary flooding and salt water intrusion of estuaries and aquifers, which will bring about enormous losses of society and economy and people’s life in the coastal areas.
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    APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL SIMULATION TO PALEOCLIMATIC RESEARCH
    Liu Xiaodong
    1993, 13 (3):  257-267,296.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.257
    Abstract ( )   PDF (724KB) ( )   Save
    Studies of paleoclimate simulated by using general circulation models(GCM) of atmosphere in recent years are summarized and reviewed systematically in this paper. First the advantages of numerical simulation method used in paleoclimate research are pointed out. Numerical calculations can quantitatively show the nonlinear relation-ship between climate and various factors influencing it. Results of numerical simulations can fill the gaps of observaation research in both space and time, that is, sometimes GCM can tell us something about atmosphere behaviour that could not be obtained from observations. The most advantage of the method of numerical simulation lies in its altirnative tests or even null experiment that hopefully clarify how and why the atmosphere behaves under certain physical hypothesis. Such experiments are probably impossible to perform in the actual atmosphere. Then main aspects and achievements of paleoclimate simulation for several typical geological periods (the midcretaceous, late cenozoic, last glacial maximum and since then)are introduced. A series of numerical simulations and experiments made by using different GCMs explore actions of various factors to build up paleoelimate, such as the earth’s s orbital parameters,trace gases in atmosphere and boundary conditions(sea temperature, locations of continents, altitude of mountains, ice sheets, vegetation and so on). These results are undoubtedly very meaning to study and understand deeply the cause and law of climatic change and even to foreshadow the future of climate. Finally the wider vista of numerical simulatin in the area of paleoclimate research is prospected.
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    ON THE HUI NATIONALITY FORMATION AND SPATIAL MOVEMENT IN HISTORY——Discussion with Mr. Jin Qiming
    Lu Zhongkang, Cheng Qingyang
    1993, 13 (3):  268-272,296.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.268
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    A STUDY ON STABLE ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN IN RAIN WATER, RIVER WATER AND GROUNDWATER FROM HAINAN ISLAND OF CHINA
    Chen Jingsheng, Wang Zhong
    1993, 13 (3):  273-278,296.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.273
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    This paper deals with the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in rain water, river water and groundwater from Hainan Island of China. Water samples were collected in summer season of 1990. Results show: 1. The δD values of rain water samples from Hainan Island are much lower than δD values which were obtained by extrapolation from the distrbution tendency of δD values in rain water of the mainland China. The elope of the meteoric water line in Hainan Island is also much lower than that in the mainland China. 2. The δD and δ18O contentes of rain water, river water, and groundwater in eastern and southern areas are little higher than those in western and northern areas. The δD and δ18O contents in rain water, river water and groundwater decrease from low altitude to high altitude. The similarity of δD and δ18O of distribution of contentes in rain water, river water and groundwater, indicates the co-genesis of rain water, river water and groundwater in Hainan Island. 3. Data calculated by the isotope mixture equation showthat after each rain period the recharge of rain into streams is much higher than the recharge of rain into groudwater. This fact may lead to the shortage of groundwater resource in Hainan Island.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON HANI PEAT-MIRE IN THE WEST PART OF THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAIN
    Qiao Shiying
    1993, 13 (3):  279-287,296.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.279
    Abstract ( )   PDF (585KB) ( )   Save
    Hani is located in the west of the Changbai Mountain, which is one of the large peat-mires in the northeast of China. Its area is about 18km2. The vegetation girdles about the mire, whose transition between the groups is obvious. The mire is evidently controlled by the fault lake basin. The peat occurs in a single layer 1-9 m in depth. Although the low-moor peat is the main part of the mire, there are still some mid-fen peat in the deep and at the surface, the raised bog peat stratum is only 1 cm. Overall it is a developing peat-mire. The area entered the stage of forming peat 9000 years ago. Some mid-fen peat was formed at the beginning of the middle Holocene epoch. During 5000-6000 yr. B. P. the Jinlongdingzi volcano erupted, which caused forests destruction, the ground water level rising and the lava blocking up again. This caused the marly and sand layer edposition, then came to the stage of development of low-moor again, which lasted till the Late Holocene epoch. There remain the trails of volcanic activity about recent 1100 years in the mire. The reasons why volcanic active zones usually company with peat-mire are as follows: 1. The volcanic activity of the Cenozoic era is usually the response or the precursor of the split and sink of the crust. Quite a few of the volcano erupted along the fault basin. The crust is still in the stage of settlement, which provided the geological structural condition to form peat. 2. The volcanic lava and pyroelast have both the property of pyrogenie rock and sedimentary rock. It supplies a geomorphological environment easily to store water such as dish-like lacuna, crater lake and barrier lake, tec. 3. Most of the basins are situated on one or several fault zones, which are the cannel of ground water and the stable resource to the mire water. The hydrophilous plantsgrow luxuriantly in the basin. 4. In the volcanic area, the air is saturated with CO2 and the volcanic products contain so much dissolved minerals that make the plant grow luxuriantly. Then the abundant substance is provided for the accumulation of peat. The large scale peat-mire will form if all the above factors combine best with the appropriate hydrothermal conditions.
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    A STUDY ON METHODS OF LAND EVALUATION IN MOUNTAIN CITY
    Ouyang Anjiao
    1993, 13 (3):  288-294,296.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.03.288
    Abstract ( )   PDF (436KB) ( )   Save
    China is a mountainous country. There are many mountain cities in China. Because of topographic effect, the land evaluation of mountain cities has its specific characteristics to a certain extent. So it has important significance to study urban land evaluation in the mountainous area. The paper includes four sections: 1. The system of urban land location factor in mountain city. 2. The method of using decay coefficient of slope in calculating intangible locationfactor scores. 3. Structure characteristics of land grade. 4. Feasibility of using region as a unit to evaluate land in mountain city.
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