Table of Content

    20 November 2002, Volume 22 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Connotation of Index System and Innovative Strategy of High-tech Cities
    FAN Jie, LU Xin, YANG Xiao-Guang, TIAN Ming
    2002, 22 (6):  641-648.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.641
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3053KB) ( )   Save
    High-tech city is a new type city that will emerge in 21 century in our country. In the 10th Five-year Plans of many regions, building a high-tech city is a key development strategy. This paper analyses the basic conditions of the formation and development of high-tech cities in terms of economic globalization, informationization, sustainable development and advantageous location theory. On the basis of reviewing the developing patterns of the main high-tech cities in the world, the paper puts forward the strategic goal and basic direction of high-tech cities' development. This paper also designs an estimation index system as follows:(1) Science and technology input scale and output efficiency, including ratio of science input to GDP, annual growth rate of high-tech industrial cluster, ratio of industrialization of R&D outcome within a year and the ratio of high-tech products with intellectual property rights.(2) Creativity and sustainability of innovation, including ratio of influx of graduates from first-class universities at home and abroad, reeducation of the incumbent in a year, the ratio of R&D staff to all the staff in the high-tech industry.(3) Perfection level of security system, including harmonization level of economic rules and policies with international convention, frequency of illegal activities.(4) Construction level of high-tech city's image, including ratio of the volume of e-commerce to the total, composite level of recycle of resources and disposal of pollutant. The above index system reflects three symbols of industrial structure, composite landscape and competitive edge of high-tech cities. Then this paper advances the innovation framework of high-tech cities in our country and make clear the strategic emphases of enhancing relations between main bodies of innovation and high-efficiency operation, and makes a deep discussion about the core contents of innovation such as functions of government in the construction of high-tech cities, intermediate agent system, policy system with the core of intellectual property rights, investment and financing system and talented supporting system.
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    The Allometric Growth of Urban Land Use and Population and Its Experiential Research
    LIANG Jin-She, WANG Min
    2002, 22 (6):  649-654.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.649
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    Urban land use dynamics has been an important issue for LUCC. But as many factors are involved, and for the lack of corresponding time-serial data, dynamic study of urban land use is a hard nut to crack. This article aims at obtaining a function that can describe the dynamic process of the change of urban land magnitude. We start at the rank-size rule by urban population and the rank-size rule by urban built-up area, and derive a mathematical relationship that the land use size of a city and its population observe the law of allometric growth, which is derived from biological studies. In other words, when we consider a city as an organism, at least it has two organs, the size of the built-up area and the population of such an area, where the growth rate of the former is in proportion to the growth rate of the latter.Because of the lack of time-serial data of urban built-up area-population, we substitute urban non-agricultural residents for built-up area population and do regression analysis for the allometric growth relationship. Forty cities in China are presented for the case study, and the results verify the theoretical relationship. Then we deduce a function consisted of the size of built-up area, the total population and the GDP (gross domestic product) per capita of the city. It is as follows: lgs=c(lgp+lglgy)+k where s represents urban built-up area, p is the total population of a city, y is the GDP per capita of the city, and c and k are parameters. We have presented many large cities including Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin etc. as experiential studies, and gained such a function by regression analysis of a time-serial data of those cities. Results show that the function is correctly derived.Our results can be used to predict the size change of built-up area of a city in China that is being in the rapid urbanization.
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    Eco-environment Protection and Construction of Green Community in Northeast China
    SONG Yu-Xiang
    2002, 22 (6):  655-659.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.655
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    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the resources and environment in Northeast China have experienced a tremendous transition. This change makes the region to the one of the typical areas that are characterized by a kind of high tension of man-land relationship within short-term time scale all over the world. With resources excessively consuming and environment deteriorating, the regional sustainable development is facing threats; therefore the regional environment protection becomes a necessity. The green community is the carrier of ecological economy as well as the grassroots organization and elementary cell to develop ecological economy. The construction of green community also plays an important role in raising citizen accomplishments and strengthening social cohesiveness. Building green community is an important action of realizing regional sustainable development. The main goal is to build green culture, foster green ecology and develop green economy. The basic task is to develop ecological economy, protect and foster ecological environment, prevent the rural environment degradation to realize regional sustainable development. This article puts forward the objective, task, and the implementing plan for green community construction. Taking the lead in launching the green community construction in the Northeast has guidance and demonstration effect.
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    Study on Development Stratagem of Urban Competitiveness ——A Case of Urban Competitiveness in Wuxi City
    YAN Chuan, YAN Tao, LIN Bing-Yao
    2002, 22 (6):  660-668.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.660
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    It is ordinary to compete and collaborate among cities. However, urban researches have paid great attention to urban collaboration and obviously ignored urban competitiveness. This paper attempts to set up the integrated development stratagem of urban competitiveness to instruct individual urban growth.At first, this work provides scientific basis of development stratagem about urban competitiveness. It includes four areas: new growth theory, international trade theory, location theory and enterprise competition theory. The four kinds of theories provide foundations for development stratagem of urban competitiveness.Then, this paper points that the development stratagem system of urban competitiveness is constituted of five sections: 1) Regional competition situation. It is important to find out the rivals in region. 2) The present urban advantages. It means to make sure of urban industry advantages, enterprise advantage and location advantage. 3) The development model. Capital accumulation, technical progress and human capital are the major impetuses of urban competitiveness. 4) The problems of urban competitiveness. 5) Selection of development stratagem.So the system has been used in analyzing and appraising urban competitiveness in Wuxi City. According to the developmental pattern and trade competitiveness in national market and internal market, the pressure to Wuxi City is not from inter-provincial cities, but from Suzhou , Changzhou and Nanjing cities in Jiangsu Province. Although textile industry in Wuxi has great advantage and its scenery is attractive, lack of creativity and environmental deterioration worsen the above fortes. The current urban development model in Wuxi City has to be adjusted in order to keep the urban competitiveness and creativity and sustainable use in resources are decisive factors influencing urban competitiveness.At last, we can reasonably conclude that the greatest problem in Wuxi City is that the past fortes fade away but the new advantages have not been established. Therefore, consolidating its strong point and fostering the new competitiveness are urgent in Wuxi City. Because the situation of Wuxi City is typical in China, the study is helpful to proves the way of urban competitiveness.
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    Trend Analysis of Precipitation over Northern Xinjiang for the Period 1961-1997
    JIANG Feng-Qing, ZHU Cheng, HU Ru-Ji
    2002, 22 (6):  669-672.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.669
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    Located in inland and far from ocean, Xinjiang is characterized by its vast deserts. The ecological environment of Xinjiang is extremely fragile owing to the aridity. Therefore, it is recognized that Xinjiang is a sensitive and affected area to global warming. In recent years, it is found that there is a warming trend corresponding to global warming in this area. In the case of the precipitation, however, the trend is still uncertainty. Recently, researchers on the climatic change hold two completely different viewpoints on the trend of precipitation in this area. Part of the researchers hold that a warming and drying trend will occur in near future, which is concluded from some indirect evidences such as glacier retreat, lake desiccation and desert enlargement in this area. Others think that there is a warming and wetting trend resulted from decadal comparison of the climatic data in past decades. Thus, it can be seen from above discussion that there is a distinct divergence of views on the precipitation trend in this area. The intention of this paper is further to detect possible trend of annual total and seasonal precipitation records of northern Xinjiang using a non-parametric test. The precipitation series were the records that were observed at thirteen meteorological stations scattered in northern Xinjiang. The Mann-Kendall test was applied to annual and monthly series ranging from 1961 to 1997. The results show that there are four among twelve stations showed a significant upward trend for the annual series. The remaining eight stations showed no significant trend. These results indicate generally that there is a little upward trend in the annual total precipitation series of the northern Xinjiang during the period 1961-1997. Two stations with upward annual trend were specially chosen for monthly trend detecting in order to find out which months have contributed much to the annual trend. The result showed that there are obviously upward trend in the precipitation series of February and December for both Urumqi and Jinghe, which demonstrates that increasing of winter precipitation or snow fall has contributed much to the upward trend in annual precipitation series of the two stations. In order to take into account seasonality, seasonal series also were detected for trend. No trend are found in the spring (represented by April) and autumn (represented by October) series. Two among thirteen showed upward trend in the winter (January) series, which indicates a slight increasing of precipitation in the northern Xinjiang during period 1961-1997. In the summer (July) series, one station showed a downward trend, three stations showed an upward trend and the remaining nine stations showed no significant trend. These results demonstrate a small amount increasing of precipitation and a different trend of precipitation variation in the northern Xinjiang during period 1961-1997.
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    Distinguishing of the Geomophic Evolution Stage with Information Entropy in the Transitional Region of Qinling Mountains and Huang-Huai Plain
    GUAN Hua, GAO Geng-He
    2002, 22 (6):  673-676.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.673
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    Based on the discussion of the calculation methods and the implications of the geomorphic information entropy,this paper calculated the numerical values of the geomophic information entropy of each drainage basin (area≥100km2) in the transitional region of Qinling mountains and Huang-Huai Plain,analysed their geomorphic evolution periods,and reached the following conclusions:the geomorphic evolution stage of the transitional region of Qinling mountains and Huang-Huai Plain is in the transitional period between mature stage and old stage;the slope shapes of the most of the drainage basins are concave,but the whole shape of the transitional region of Qinling mountains and Huang-Huai Plain is roughly straight line.
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    The Landscape Pattern and Ecologic Effect of the Marsh Changes in the Sanjiang Plain
    LI Ying, ZHANG Yang-Zhen, ZHANG Shu-Wen
    2002, 22 (6):  677-682.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.677
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    Marsh was the most important and largest landscape in the Sanjiang Plain before the 19th century. With the repid increase of population and government investment, the farmland had been up to 524.0?104ha, the area of marsh had been down to 83.5?104ha in 2000, the landscape in the Sanjiang Plain had been in distinct changes. On the basis of remote sensing and GIS, using theory and methods of landscape ecology, the paper analyses quantificationally pacth areas, shape character and fragmentations of the marsh landscape in three periods of 1986,1996 and 2000, and surveys translation rates between marsh cover and other landcovers in the Sanjiang Plain from 1986 to 1996 and from 1996 to 2000, describes the spatial pattern of the marsh landscape in the Sanjiang Plain. The study indicates that the marsh area is being reduced increasingly, the marsh is being translated into cultivated land in larger range, and marsh landscape has been in the edge of complete fragmentation in the Sanjiang Plain. In the end, the paper analyses ecologic effect provoked by the marsh changes. In recent years,because of a large area of wetland being reclaimed in the Sanjiang Plain, ecological environment has been deteriorating ,which also has resulted in the degeneration of land, the destruction of biodiversity ,the decrease of valuable and rare animals and plants, and the descent of function of wetland.
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    Calcium Carbonate Cycles in Salawusu River Valley since 150 ka B.P.
    LUO Kai-Li, LI Bao-Sheng, ZHU Yi-Zhi, JIN He-Ling, ZHANG David Dian, YAN Man-Cun, LI Hou-Xin, YAO Chun-Xia, ZHANG Yu-Hong
    2002, 22 (6):  683-688.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.683
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    This paper discuss the relationship between the calcium carbonate content and climatic change in the Milanggouwan stratigraphical section, being regarded as a prototype section in the Salawusu River valley since 150 ka B.P. 1) The calcium carbonate content in the section and its low-high change takes on remarkable corresponding relationship with the sedimentary cycles of palaeo-aeolian sands and its overlying fluvio-lacustrine facies or/and palaeosols. Same as the sedimentary cycles in the section, the calcium carbonate distibution composes 27 cycles of high and low content values accordingly.2) Calcium carbonate in the aeolian sands of Salawusu River Valley is relatively sparse, 0.8%-7.18%, with an average value of 2.50%; whereas relatively gathering in fluvio-lacustrine facies and palaeosols, 2.20%-14.90%, with an average value of 5.74%. It shows that the two climatic backgrounds then were different. The former was the result of erosion and accumulation under wind force during the cold-arid climate, whereas the latter was related to its particular low-lying physiognomy position between the Ordos Plateau and the Loess Plateau under warm-humid climate background. When the climate is warm-humid, fluvio-lacustrine and swamp facies develop, soil forming action strengthen, and low-lying catchment condition is benefit to calcium carbonate assemble.3) The principal reason of multi-cycle relative migration and gather of calcium carbonate in the Milanggouwan stratigraphical section is the repeatedly mutual alternate between the winter and summer monsoons in the Mu Us Desert, which was influenced by the climate vicissitudes in the northern hemisphere during glacial and interglacial periods since 150 ka B.P.
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    On Fractal Dimensions and Their Comparsion of China, USA and Australia Based on GIS
    ZHU Xiao-hua, YANG Xiu-chun
    2002, 22 (6):  689-693.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.689
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    Coastline is a traditional domain in the field of fractal research. Mandelbrot formulated the uncertainty of its length in his paper named "How long is the coastline of British?"which was published on "Science" in 1967. The fractal concept was presented for the first time in that paper and has been applied to many fields ever since. The fractal dimensions of different coastlines have been calculated by many researchers,such as Mandelbrot,Goodchild, Phillips, Qiu, Turcotte, Philip, Andrle, Jay Gao et al., Paar, Jiang et al., Stomczynski, Zhu et al. Generally,the present researches are still in the stage which focus on the calculation of fractal dimensions for different coastline. Till now,the related references and further researches on the fractal dimensions and their comparison of China,USA and Australia are seldom seen. The above issue is preliminarily discussed in this paper.
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    An Analysis on the Spatial Features of Soil Erosion in Shandong Province Based on GIS
    ZHAO Shan-Lun, YIN Min, ZHANG Wei
    2002, 22 (6):  694-699.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.694
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    Soil erosion is one of the most serious problems of environment. Soil erosion in Shandong Province is so serious that it is of great scientific and practical significance to research on it. In view of the serious environment situation of soil erosion, the spatial features of soil erosion in Shandong Province is analyzed by the unit of county in this paper. The main points are as following: ①Based on the classification index system of soil erosion type and intensity, the classification standards and the features of Landsat TM images are put forward. ② With the support of Geographical Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Database Management System (DBMS), the soil erosion information is distilled from Landsat TM images, the spatial and attribute databases are also built. ③On the basis of the model of IEISEI (Integrative Evaluation Index of Soil Erosion Intensity), the indexes are calculated and classified into eight degrees by the unit of county.④The spatial features of soil erosion in Shandong Province are analyzed, the soil erosion is very serious and there are two erosion centers in Shandong Province.
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    Governing and Exploiting the Water Front Resources at Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River
    SHI Shao-Hua, LIN Chen-Kun, YANG Gui-Shan
    2002, 22 (6):  700-704.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.700
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    The article adequately analyze the governing measures on every section of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and a series of key ways to maintain and harness the river course at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were put forward, namely, 1) control the river situation, harness the collapse of river bank, strengthen the stability of river bed and bank.; 2)pay full attention to the possible influences on river course change which caused by 'Three Gorges Project'; 3)regulate the sand-mining in the Yangtze River scientifically and rationally. In addition the current situation and existing problems of exploiting on the water front resources of the Yangtze River was also analyzed, according to it, the principles of exploiting the water front was proposed. In the process of exploiting the water front resources at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, some problems also exist, such as instability of river situation, irriational distribution, serious water pollution and the waste of water front resources. Further solution must be worked out.
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    Rainfall Erosivity Estimation Using Daily Rainfall Amounts
    ZHANG Wen-Bo, XIE Yun, LIU Bao-Yuan
    2002, 22 (6):  705-711.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.705
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    Rainfall erosivity shows the potential ability of the soil loss caused by rainfall and it is very important for predicting soil loss quantitatively. A rainfall erosivity model using daily rainfall amounts to estimate half-month rainfall erosivity directly was established from data of 71 weather stations in China. The average coefficient of determination for all stations was 0.718 and the average relative error estimating the annual average rainfall erosivity was 4.2%. Both parameters of α and β in the model were different in different regions. The parameter α was high correlative with parameter β and parameter β was related to rainfall characteristics, so both parameters could be estimated by using rainfall indexes. With the set of parameter values estimated by using rainfall indexs,the average coefficient of determination decreased to 0.697 and the average relative error estimating the annual average rainfall erosivity increased to 17.3%. The model worked very well in the regions where the rainfall was abundant and the result was on the low side when extreme storm erosivty was estimated. The daily rainfall erosivity model could be used to estimate the annual average rainfall erosivity and its seasonal distribution.
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    Study on Application of GIS to Monitoring Disasters in Floodplain
    LIU Quan
    2002, 22 (6):  712-716.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.712
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    It is a new subject to assist the decision making on the management of planning and exploiting in floodplain by remote sensing and GIS technology. In this project 3S, satellitic communication technique and decision making supporting system of flooding control are used to setup an operation system of complexity and difficulty.Three dominated factors of timing (before,within,and after disasters) are used to monitor and evaluate the disaster and lose caused by flooding on time and accurately in the downstream area of the Liao River. It can provide the decision making department with present and objective data and assisting scheme of policy-making.
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    Urban Landscape Structure Analysis of Shenyang City
    LI Tuan-Sheng, XIAO Du-Ning
    2002, 22 (6):  717-723.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.717
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    Landscape structure analysis is one of the main contents in research of landscape ecology. Most of landscape structure indices are developed for agriculture and forest landscapes, and their applications are also in agriculture and forest ones. But their application in urban landscape is seldom reported. One of the purposes of this paper is to test the suitability of these indices for urban landscape. This paper analyses the structure from landscape components, diversity, dominance, evenness and patch fragmentation.In Shenyang City, the patch number of residential landscape is the most. The patch number of industrial landscape is the second, and the patch number of express way, the least. The area of suburban agriculture landscape is biggest, about 193.352 km2. The area of residential landscape is the second. And the area of industrial landscape is the third. The area of commercial landscape and greenland is little. The diversity of each landscape type and the diversity of the whole landscape are calculated. The diversity of the residential landscape is maximum, being 7.818. the second is the diversity of industrial landscape, its value is 7.133, and the one of the expression way is minimum, being 0, because of its being a patch. The diversity of the whole landscape based on patch is 8.695, and the one on the landscape type is 2.847. From diversity we can also conclude the residential and industrial landscapes are dominant in Shenyang City. Dominance index is 1.059, evenness index 58.2%, contagion index 0.803, patch density 3.7 patches/km2. Patch density within the 1st ring road is 8.825 patches/km2, road density 5.52 km/km2, water density 0.198 km/km2.It is concluded that the landscape indices such as diversity index, dominant index, evenness index and contagion index, are suitable for urban landscape. In addition patch density and corridor density are the most useful for measuring landscape fragmentation, because of easily calculated and explicit meaning. But they never be paid attention to before. For urban landscape, roads are the important factors to cut the landscape apart.The structure of Shenyang City is not rational, with too many industrial lands, too little municipal lands and business and service lands, and in spatial, industry landscape in the center of the city. So, the structure of Shenyang City landscape must be adjusted.
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    A Study on the Horizonal-Spatial Characteristics of Urban Climate in Kunming City
    HE Yun-Ling, ZHANG Yi-Ping, LIU Yu-Hong, MA You-Xin, LI You-Rong, DOU Jun-Xia, GUO Ping
    2002, 22 (6):  724-729.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.724
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    The characteristics and variations of meteorological elements such as air temperature, water vapour pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction in both the urban area and suburbs are studied with the observational data in Kunming, a city in low latitude and high altitude. The main results indicate that the air temperatures in the urban area are higher than that in the suburbs at most times. At night the differences are larger, and the maximum is 5.0℃ (at 03:00 hours). On the other hand, in the Kunming City, the humidity is less than that in the suburbs, and the dry island in the daytime is marked. These results would provide scientific basis for the city planning, architectural design, and prevention and control of the environmental pollution. Meantime, they could supply references for studying the urban climate in other regions.
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    Analysis on the Deviation of the Farm Land Area Estimate Reported in Statistics of the Prefecture-Grade Cities in Guangdong Province
    KUANG Yao-Qiu, HUANG Ning-Sheng, HU Zhen-Yu
    2002, 22 (6):  730-735.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.730
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    A formula relating the farm land area estimate derived from detailed land survey with that reported in official statistics has been deduced through incentive analysis of the metering caliber and the coverage of the data in both kinds of estimation. It reveals that the difference of the two kinds of farmland area estimates was mainly caused by the difference in the caliber of their measurement units and the difference in the coverage of the data applied in both kinds of estimation. Moreover, the ratio between the farmland area estimate derived from detailed land survey and that reported in statistics increases with the increasing proportion of the area converted to non-agricultural uses and decreases with the growing proportion of the newly reclaimed farm land. The difference of the two kinds of farmland area estimates in 1994 can mostly be interpreted by the difference in the caliber of their measurement unit, the so-called "accustomed mu", which is different from city to city, and the difference in the coverage of the data used in both kinds of estimation, when artificial omitting or exaggeration of farm land area exists only in very few cities. The estimates of farmland area reported in statistics in 1994 and those derived from detailed land survey can be matched with each other for most of the cities after unification of their measuring caliber and data coverage. According to the farm land area estimates for 1996 derived from the detailed land survey, the actual statistically calibrated area of farm land of the 21 cities in Guangdong Province was calculated and the deviation of the estimates reported in statistics in 1996 was obtained through comparison with them. It is considered that the errors of farm-land area estimates reported in statistics for the 21 prefecture-grade cities was comparatively small in 1994, and the phenomenon of overestimating or exaggerating farmland area in statistics existed only in very few cities before 1994. However, some fast-developed cities intentionally exaggerated their farmland area in statistics so as to conceal their rapid rates of farmland conversion to non-agricultural uses, knowing that the farmland area estimates derived from detailed land survey were generally much more than the estimates reported in statistics when the preliminary result of the detailed land survey was obtained, which artificially added some error to the farmland area estimate in statistics of those cities in 1996. Even though, the deviation of farmland area estimate in statistics is still less than 5% for 10 of the total 21 prefecture-grade cities, and 2 of them less than 0.3%. It can be concluded that the man-made exaggeration or overestimation of farm land area in statistics do exist, but such phenomenon generally appeared in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone where the economy developed comparatively fast, and is not apparent in the cities in mountainous region. In order to protect the farmland resources effectively, and stop the cities from exaggerating farmland area in statistics, it is suggested to monitor the farmland change for the 21 cities with the means of remote sensing and the land use be controlled based on the in-situ verified remote sensing monitoring data.
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    Environment-Health Risk Assessment on Natural Focus-Based Disease —A Case Study of Spermophilus Dauricus Plague
    WANG Wu-Yi, LI Hai-Rong, YANG Lin-Sheng, TAN Jian-An
    2002, 22 (6):  736-740.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.736
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    Plague, a natural focus-based disease closely related to the geographic environment or landscape,is one of the deadly infectious diseases being most harmful to human beings. It is very important to study the geographical epidemic law of plague and distribution of plague nature foci, and analyse their environment-health risk for more effective control of its outbreaks and epidemics. In this paper, 12 natural and social indicators were selected for the purpose of analysing the trend of environmental change and its impacts on plague prevalence, the threshold value of environment-health risk was educed through the clustering analysis and matrix operation of 12 indexes, and 4 different types of environment-health risk area were classified according to the threshold value. The character of low risk area mainly manifested higher rate of forest cover or well developed urbanization where it was unsuitable for dauricus survival anymore. Consequently, the risk of plague prevalence changed into very low possibility. On the contrary, the original surroundings in the very high risky area became deteriorating seriously, and it posed higher probability of plague prevalence. These imply that restoring the environment status in plague foci is the essential way to improve the environment-health risk and control plague prevalence effectively.
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    Residents' Perception of Tourism Impacts in Coast Resorts ——The Case Study of Haikou and Sanya Cities, Hainan Province
    XUAN Guo-Fu, LU Lin, ZHANG Jin-He, YANG Xiao-Zhong
    2002, 22 (6):  741-746.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.741
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    Research into tourism impacts is an important part of tourism geography.To investigate residents' perception is a good method to study the character and degree of tourism impacts. This paper takes two tropical coast resorts, Haikou and Sanya cities as examples, on the basis of on-the-spot survey, studies residents' perception of the economic, socio-cultural, environmental impacts of tourism and residents' attitudes to tourism development. The results indicate that the residents are more aware of positive tourism impacts than negative impacts, and they support tourism development with some reasonable attitudes. By comparative study, some differences of residents' perception and attitudes are found. There are some different opinions on tourism negative environmental impacts among the residents with different ages. Residents with different cultural levels have different perceptions of tourism impacts. The gender has no significant influence on residents perception of tourism impacts. The tourism-related residents have stronger perception of tourism impacts than the non-tourism-related residents with the exception of some negative sociocultural impacts,and the tourism-related residents have more enthusiasm to support tourism development than the non-tourism-related residents.
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    A Comparative Research on GIS Curriculum System and Structure at Home and Abroad
    LIU Miao-Long, HUANG Pei-Bei
    2002, 22 (6):  747-752.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.747
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    This paper introduces the content system and structure of NCGIA GIS Curriculum in detail, which now is accepted as a popular model for GIS teaching material in the world; introduces the content system of the works of "GIS: Principle, Technology, Management and Application", which now is praised as a classical works of GIS in academic and educational circles. As a comparison, the paper also introduces the major content of the works of "GIS—principle, Methodology and Application" published in 2001, which is eulogized as "a good teaching material for meeting a spatial era and information society in an new century". By the comparison of the teaching materials between home and abroad, the success and insufficiency reflected in GIS education, teaching materials and talent training in our country have been explored and discussed. Facing upon fast development of GIS science and numerous and jumbled teaching materials for GIS talent training, a framework of teaching material system suitable for education of Master Degree of Science has been put forward. The authors suggested that the teaching material system should consist of : ①outline of geographical information science (geographical information; geographical conception; digital geo-information technology; geographical information science); ②GIS spatial data (data quality; adjustment model and accuracy analysis; un-determinacy model; quality control of digital products; meta-data for spatial data); ③temporal-spatial data model (temporal GIS; 3-D data model; temporal and spatial data model; supermap 4-D spatial data model); ④network GIS (network technology; distributed GIS; interoperating GIS; web-GIS structure, principal and key technology); ⑤visualization and virtual reality (geo-visualization; virtual geographical environment; cyberspace and virtual geography); ⑥outline of geocomputation (high-performance computing; parallel computing program; a framework of geocomputation; application of geocomputation);⑦ geo-models and modeling (an un-determinacy of spatial change in GIS and GRW model; urban dynamic micro-modeling; fractal, cellular automata and urban morphology; temporal-spatial geographical modeling system; geo-application of neural network and genetic program); ⑧3-S integration (definition; some theoretical problems and key technologies; applied integrated models; complex integration). The aim of the paper is to draw some lessons from the research for trans-century GIS education and talents training.
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    Discovery and Signaficance of Qianning Ancient Ice Cap
    SUN Guang-You
    2002, 22 (6):  753-756.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.753
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2744KB) ( )   Save
    The Qianning Ancient Ice Cap was discovered in 1982 by author. It was formed on the peneplain of Daxueshan Mountain, which belonged to the second ice epoch counted backwards in the Pleistocene. The ice cap is located in the eastest and lowest part of Qinghai-Xizhang Plateau. The height is only 4300-4400 meters above sea-level and the geography coordinate is 101?14'-101?30E and 30?20'-30?38'N. Therefore, this is a special enveronment in the whole plateau. It has the special feature that there is short of ice erosion remains in the central region of the ice cap and there are lot of the landforms of erosion and deposition in outside of the ice cap, for example the glacial valleies and glacial lakes. Way? Because the ice layer of the center of the ice cap was too thin so that there was no enough power to erosion, and where was thick in the outside and the erosion power was strong. Therefore, it is a new type of ice cap in the Qinghai-Xizhang Plateau or in the world even. It's discovery has an important value to study Quaternary glacier of the Qinghai-Xizhang Plateau.
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    The Interpretation of Calligraphy Landscape in Cultural Geography
    WU Hui-Ping, SITU Shang-Ji
    2002, 22 (6):  757-762.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.757
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    A new branch of cultural geography, calligraphy geography is a new science which studies the possible phenomena related with geography and calligraphy on the surface. Generally, there is much identifiable subject matter that belongs to calligraphy geography, in which calligraphy landscape is one of the most important landscapes. The paper discusses the definition of calligraphy landscape, which refers to a special cultural form on the surface due to the interaction between the calligraphy and geography that is created by calligraphic action. At this point an attempt can be made to classify calligraphy landscapes. It is a complex of natural and human landscapes, which is consisted of the seeable element, perceptible element and atmosphere in it. In this point, the seeable element refers to those materials being seen such as colors and shapes, for example, calligraphy stele, stone tablets, couplets written etc., they can be touched while we appreciate the calligraphy art. Perceptible element refers to those non-materials that can't be touched such as the ideology, custom, morality etc, it is also called "atmosphere".
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    Study on the Element Abundances and Their Characteristics of Soil in Grassland From Western Jilin Province
    WANG Dong-Yan, XU Wen-Liang, FENG Hong, LIU Zhao-Shun
    2002, 22 (6):  763-768.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.763
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2750KB) ( )   Save
    Several results have been obtained from the study on the element abundances of the grassland soil that underwent different degree of degradation in western Jilin province. First, the soil is rich in potassium and poor in phosphorus and the elements like calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg),as two kinds of mediocre nutrient elements, are abundant in the soil of the area. Secondly, the contents of the trace nutrient elements such as boron(B), copper(Cu), iron(Fe) and manganese(Mn) increase with the soil deepening . Thirdly, the contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus(P), potassium(K), calcium(Ca), and copper(Cu) in the soil decrease with the degradation of the grassland. Fourthly, high silicon(Si) and sodium(Na),sometimes barium(Ba), contents are found in the soil with intensive grassland degradation while cobalt (Co) has the opposite behavior. Fifthly, the grassland soil of the region is of rare earth element (REE) content smaller than their background value and the REE decrease in content with the grassland degradation.
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