Table of Content

    20 November 2006, Volume 26 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Spatial Structure Evolution of Regional Economic Growth and Its Inequality in China since 1978
    OU Xiang-Jun, SHEN Zheng-Ping, WANG Rong-Cheng
    2006, 26 (6):  641-648.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.641
    Abstract ( 147 )   PDF (1269KB) ( 93 )   Save
    On the basis of analysis of domestic and international studies on regional economic growth and spatial structure of economic inequality, using a consistent data of GDP per capita and by taking 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China as geographical research units, this paper makes a quantitative analysis of measuring the characteristics of regional economic inequality in China since the economic reforms and opening up of 1978. The result shows that the regional economic inequality has been enlarging with the regional economic increase. Using a regional separation index recently developed measures based on inequality decompositions, the paper makes a quantitative analysis of the relationship between regional economic increase and its inequality evolution in China. The general conclusion is that the continuous growth of diverges among eastern, central and western China and the continuous growth of converges between northern and southern regions, which is in some responses to national increase in China.
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    The Impacts of Air Transportation and Airport on Regional Economic Development
    SONG Wei, YANG Ka
    2006, 26 (6):  649-657.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.649
    Abstract ( 200 )   PDF (1036KB) ( 38 )   Save
    Air transportation is one of the world’s most important industries. Its development and its technical and service achievements make it one of the greatest contributors to the advancement of modern society. It plays an increasingly vital role in facilitating economic growth, particularly in developing countries and regions. Better understanding the nature of air transportation system and the role that air transport and airports play in an urban agglomeration is critical because the 'accessibility through airports’ issue has assumed an elevating role in answering the 'how’ and 'where’ of the geography of economic activity in the modern economy. This paper focuses on the economics of airports. It examines advantages enjoyed by passengers having access to a major airport, as well as the economic benefits that accrue to a city or geographical region that is host to a major airport, especially a hub airport. In particular, it looks into the linkages between airport-related activities and local economic development. By facilitating the flow of people and commerce, air transports and airports play a pivotal role in the industrial expansion and economic growth, both through their own activities and as an enabler of other industries. Airports essentially have four potential types of impact on the regional economy. The primary and secondary effects of airports are fulfilled through: 1) employment and income generated by airports and supporting activities, 2) employment and income generated by air passengers who make expenditures on travel-related services in local areas, and 3) induced economic activities as a consequence of the successive rounds of spending made by the recipients of the first two types of activities. These benefits can be extremely important to a local economy in terms of employment, household income and, for local government, taxation revenue. The tertiary effects of airports stemed from the economic stimulus benefiting a local or regional economy as firms and individuals, particularly high-technology companies, are attracted to the locale due to the fact that majors of airport and high-quality air transport are available. High-technology jobs and other administrative and auxiliary-related jobs have grown considerably in the region of major airport activities. By initially attracting key businesses to an area in sufficient numbers, airport development can lead to the crossing of important thresholds in terms of economies of scale, scope and density, through which a region can acquire a vital knowledge base to foster local development and make the region quasi-independent of others. The regional economy can feed on this to further its high-technology activities and hence to accelerate its growth (perpetuity effects).
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    Braess's Paradox of Traffic Networks and Spatial Complication of Urban Systems
    CHEN Yan-Guang, LIU Ji-Sheng
    2006, 26 (6):  658-663.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.658
    Abstract ( 123 )   PDF (945KB) ( 17 )   Save
    One of the important projects of spatial complexity science is spatial complication, which needs concrete and substaintial researches by means of effective methods. The paradox of traffic assignment problems is taken as an example to show how a system of cities and towns become complicate with the passage of time. Planning theory, graph theory, and differential dynamics, and so on, are employed to analyze the Braess’s paradox of traffic network, and new mathematical models are built in the process of geographical analyses based on the Braess’s network that is symmetric in macro-level. After new expressway is added in the network, two changes appear: one is macro-symmetry breaking of Braess’s network, and the other is spatial interaction between vehicle flows of different communication lines. Spatial interaction is associated with time lag and feedback what always give rise to non-linearity, while symmetry breaking implies spatial order breaking and reconstruction. A conclusion is drawn that spatial interaction and macro symmetry breaking are two dynamic factors activating spatial complication of self-organizing network of cities and towns.
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    Analytic Study on Land-air Coupled Climate Dynamical System
    MO Jia-Qi, LIN Wan-Tao, WANG Hui
    2006, 26 (6):  664-667.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.664
    Abstract ( 122 )   PDF (703KB) ( 10 )   Save
    The ENSO(El Ni o/La Ni o Southern Oscillation) is an exceptional event in the tropical atmosphere and ocean. It describes phenomenon of circular climate. ESNO event is a larger scale ocean-atmosphere coupled system, which affects global climate. It is a complicated nonlinear system. Its appearance affects badly climate for the global each area and the environment and so on. The global economic development and human living are gotten grievous influence and it brings many calamities. Thus to study its rule and prevention there is recently very attractive object of study in the international academic circles. Many scholars made more studies for its local and whole behaviors using different methods, such as self-anamnestic principle, by the method of Fokker-Plank equation, and the higher order singular pedigree and predictable study, rapid change on boundary, indeterminate adapive cortrol, multi-cogradient method, perturbed situation and so on. Nonlinear perturbed theory is a very attractive object of study in the international academic circles. Many scholars considered a class of singularly perturbed nonlinear boundary value problems for the ordinary differential equation, the reaction diffusion equations, the boundary value problems of elliptic equation, the initial boundary value problems of hyperbolic eqaution, the shock layer solution of nonlinear equation for singularly perturbed problem and so on. In this paper, the sea-air phenomena ENSO in a class of atmospheric physics is discussed. Under suitable conditions, using a perturbed theory and method, we obtain simple and rapid arbitrary order to approximate asymptotic expansion of solution for the corresponding nonlinear problem.
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    Long-term Changes of the Nutrient Surpluses in Regional Agricultural Land
    XU Peng-Zhu, QIN Bo-Qiang, XIANG Bao, SHAN Zheng-Jun, BEHRENDT Horst, HUANG Wen-Yu
    2006, 26 (6):  668-673.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.668
    Abstract ( 130 )   PDF (363KB) ( 28 )   Save
    The nutrient surpluses in regional agricultural land may partly discharge to natural waters, which will cause the eutrophication of rivers and lakes. Based on the long-term agricultural data of Changxing County in the south of Taihu Lake, the estimation of nutrient surpluses from 1949 to 2002 has been made. The results show that the annual specific nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses in the agricultural land have obvious increasing trends. The linear increasing rates of the surpluses are 3.66 kg N/(ha穉) and 0.65 kg P/(ha穉) for nitrogen and phosphorus respectively (R2=0.56, 0.46). In the 1950s and 1960s last century, the N-surplus increased slowly, but after the middle of 1970s it increased fast .By the year of 1996, it reached the maximum value of 319.9 kg/(ha穉). Since that time, it decreased. Before the earlier 1960s the P was in deficit. During 1975-1980 the P-surplus increased slowly and then it decreased. Since the middle of 1980s the P-surplus rose very fast and increased twenty times from 2.4 kg/(ha穉) in 1985 to 48.2 kg/(ha穉) in 1991. During 1992-1998, the P-surplus kept in high values between 35-45 kg/(ha穉). Since 1999 it decreased rapidly.
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    Runoff and Its Impacting Factors in the Water-exporting Rivers of the First Stage Project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme via the Western Route:—A case study in Daqu
    MEN Bao-Hui, LIU Chang-Ming, XIA Jun, LIU Su-Xia
    2006, 26 (6):  674-681.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.674
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (964KB) ( 19 )   Save
    Based on the runoff in 1961-1996 at Zhuwo Hydro-station and the precipitation data at Donggu Hydro-station, the relationship between runoff amount and its impacting factors in the Water-exporting Rivers of the First Stage Project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme via the Western Route is analyzed. The result shows that the annual mean air temperature was increasing, with a linear variation rate of 0.24℃/10a, and it has increased 0.864℃ since the 1960s; the annual evaporation was increasing, with a linear variation rate of +2.78mm/10a; the annual mean precipitation and precipitation in spring, winter and non-flood season have been increased since the 1960s, with a linear variation rate of annual precipitation of +5.2mm/10a; the annual runoff amount and runoff amount in spring, autumn, flood season and non-flood season were increasing, and the runoff amount in spring and non-flood season were more significant. The increasing temperature and evaporation were not the main factors to impact the runoff amount, while the annual precipitation was one of the main factors for impacting the runoff amount at the Water-exporting Rivers of the First Stage Project of the South-to-North Water Transfer Scheme via the Western Route.
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    Influence of Eurasian Snow Cover in Spring on Indian Ocean Dipole
    PANG Hong-Xi, HE Yuan-Qing, ZHAO Jing-Dong, NING Bao-Ying, YUAN Ling-Ling, SONG Bo
    2006, 26 (6):  682-687.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.682
    Abstract ( 81 )   PDF (249KB) ( 11 )   Save
    The influence of Eurasian snow cover in spring on Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) was first studied in this paper. The results indicate that IOD is significantly correlated negatively with Eurasian snow cover extent in spring. The anomalies of Eurasian snow cover in spring bring about the anomalies of the vertical zonal circulation over the equatorial Indian Ocean and the vertical meridional circulation between the Indian Ocean and Eurasian continent in summer. The anomalies of the vertical zonal and meridional circulations play an important role in occurrence of the Indian Ocean Dipole and its maintaining, leading a significantly negative correlation between the Eurasian snow cover in spring and the Indian Ocean Dipole. It is presumable that the Eurasian snow cover in spring as one of the causal factors could trigger IOD events. The results in the paper are important for us to further investigate the links between snow cover, atmosphere circulation and sea temperature and the possible mechanisms between them.
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    Erosion Characteristics of Black Soils in Northeast China
    ZHANG Xiao-Ping, LIANG Ai-Zhen, SHEN Yan, LI Wen-Feng, ZHANG Xue-Lin, WANG Yu-Xi, XIE Yun-Jie, LIU Feng-Fei, YANG Xue-Ming
    2006, 26 (6):  687-692.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.687
    Abstract ( 175 )   PDF (986KB) ( 90 )   Save
    Black soils in Northeast China is main agricultural resources for grain production in China. The sustainability of agriculture in Northeast China is jeopardized by soil erosion and degradation of soil fertility. This article took the black soil as a target to analyze its erosion types and characteristics. Surface erosion by water is the most dominant erosion process for the majority of black soils in the region. Many eroded soil materials associated with the runoff have been re-deposited in low-lying land. Reasonable agronomic management practices can conserve black soils from erosion and regain black soil fertility, including contour ploughing and conservation tillage.
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    Time-serial Analyses of Water Level Fluctuation of Zabuye Salt Lake, Tibet
    QI Wen, ZHENG Mian-Ping
    2006, 26 (6):  693-699.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.693
    Abstract ( 179 )   PDF (1227KB) ( 39 )   Save
    There are many lakes in the northern Tibetan Plateau, but no lake water level records, except Zabuye Salt Lake, where a long-term field observatory station was established in 1990 by Open Laboratory of Saline Lake Water Resources and Environment, Chinese Academy of Geological Science, and water level was recorded monthly. This is the first time we publish the observing data of the water level fluctuation. According to the lake level records from January 1991 to December 2003, we established a time-serial model for the water level fluctuation of Zabuye Salt Lake, Tibet, and studied the long-term trend, seasonal fluctuation and cycles of the water level changes. Our research reveals that the seasonal fluctuation of the water level during 1991-1996 shows a monomodal pattern, indicating the prominent influence of the thaw of frozen soil and snow/glaciers on the water level, and the water level fluctuation during 1997-2003 shows a bimodal pattern, indicating the increasing influence of the rising air temperature and precipitation in addition to the recharge of thawing water of frozen soil and snow/glaciers in these years. The cyclic period of water level changes is 8.2 years, which is synchronous with the sunspot cycle. The water level generally rose 0.25 m during 1991-2003, but in many of the years the water level showed a long-term trend of dropping by 0.06-0.08 m per year, only in 1992,1997 and 1998 did the water level rise rapidly by 0.18 m per year. The very strong ENSO event occurring during 1997-1998 marked a turn from the monomodal to bimodal pattern of the seasonal water level fluctuation.
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    Movement and Deposit Characteristics of Typical Catastrophic Debris Flows by Rainstorm in the Mountainous Area of Southwestern China in 2003
    CHENG Ning-Sheng, ZHANG Fei
    2006, 26 (6):  701-705.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.701
    Abstract ( 226 )   PDF (792KB) ( 43 )   Save
    The debris flows,occurring in the mountainous area of southwestern China in 2003,are of typically destructive,which are trigged by rainstorm. They swallowed many persons and damaged amount of property.To analyze the debris flow’s movement and deposit characteristics in the area,the authors chose seven typical debris flows to study,which caused much severe hazards.And then we computed their velocity and discharge by some models and concludes the characteristics of large grain and high concentration by statistic and analysis.The value of the debris flow velocity in the mountainous area of southwestern China is very high and the variation of peak discharge is marked.The peak discharge of these debris flows is correlative to the area of valley and in general it increases with the area of valley,however,the relationship between the discharge and area is not positive correlation.In the composition of these debris,some grains are unbelievably large.But the content of the gravels is comparatively low comparing to other viscous debris flows in the southwestern China.
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    Sediment Records in Chaohu Lake and Its Significance on Environmental Change in Holocene
    JIA Tie-Fei, DAI Xue-Rong, ZHANG Wei-Guo, YU Li-Zhong
    2006, 26 (6):  706-711.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.706
    Abstract ( 177 )   PDF (1058KB) ( 55 )   Save
    According to the comparison among the Holocene sedimentary piles, as well as an analysis of the age data, granularity and the content of the mineral nutrient of deposits in ACN drilling sample, it is thought that Chaohu Lake impacted by the river mightily is a typical lake along Changjiang River, which experienced frequent river-lake interaction in the Holocene Epoch. Since the Holocene metaphase, the area of Chaohu Lake has remarkably contracted thrice, whose records were kept in the deposits. These records show that there was a contractive process between 5887-5680 a B. P. and then its area expanded renewedly; the sequent contractive process between 2239-2126 a B. P., which was formed under the climatic conditions of the second period of warming in Chinese history (the contemporaneous fluvial facies alluvium and warp clay is no other than the basement matter of the site of ancient culture in Chaohu Lake and its surroundings during the period between the Warring States and Han Dynasty), following expansion once more that even makes the ancient city of the Han Dynasty into the underwatersite; the last contractive process since 1827 a B. P., which has been a modern course of silting-up.
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    Advanced Warning System and Its Grade of the Urban Photochemical Smog Pollution based on MODIS Data
    XIA Li-Hua, WANG Fang, WANG De-Hui
    2006, 26 (6):  712-716.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.712
    Abstract ( 86 )   PDF (533KB) ( 33 )   Save
    With the increasing of vehicles in China, photochemical smog pollution accidents may be greatly possible in some Chinese cities. However, the predicting and alarming of photochemical smog is only in the preliminary stage. MODIS Information Service Processing System established by NASA provides 10km?10km resolution aerosol optical depth (AOD) Level 2 products. This paper establishes the framework of advanced warning mechanism system for the urban photochemical smog pollution based on MODIS data. The framework includes MODIS data reception and processing, analysis of variation of meteorology, analysis of ground surface detection data, atmospheric pollution index, and determination of advanced warning scale, etc. We can further develop advanced warning system on the existing framework process basis which is designed for urban atmospheric pollution aided monitoring and prediction and advanced warning of atmospheric pollution. There exists photochemical smog episode in some cities because of the increasing motor vehicles in China, which are more and more serious and dangerous. But the prediction and the early warning system do not start to work. So we had better monitored the photochemical smog using remote sensing data and built the early warning system at the same time. Some studies indicate that there is distinct positive correlation between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and air pollution monitoring by MODIS data. When AOD<0.3, air is clear, when 0.31.0 air pollution is serious. Based on correlation analysis between AOD and air pollution, using data of air pollution monitors and Air Pollution Index(API), this article divided early warning system of urban photochemical smog pollution into five grades: none, weaker, weak, strong, stronger, which can lay a base for the advanced warning system to the urban photochemical smog pollution. Advanced warning system of the urban photochemical pollution may be a part of the urban disaster prevention and reduction system to publicize atmospheric photochemical pollution in time, and provide grounds for controlling environmental pollution and reference information for our daily lives and outgoing.
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    Source Analysis of Air Inhalational Particles in Chengdu City
    WANG Shu-Lan, CHAI Fa-He, ZHOU Lai-Dong, WANG Qin-Ling
    2006, 26 (6):  717-721.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.717
    Abstract ( 174 )   PDF (567KB) ( 13 )   Save
    Based on analysis of energy structure and industry sector distribution in Chengdu City, sources of inhalational particles (PM10) were qualitatively discussed and classified. The chemical composition profiles of sources possibly responsible for inhalational particles was determined. Contributions of different sources to PM10 in Chengdu City were quantitatively apportioned by applying chemical mass balance acceptor model.
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    Sustainability Measuration of Water Environment in the Zhalong Wetland
    WANG Yong-Jie, DENG Wei
    2006, 26 (6):  722-727.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.722
    Abstract ( 147 )   PDF (747KB) ( 24 )   Save
    The index system of sustainability measure of water environment is constructed by wetland water environment structure, the state of wetland functions and human factors. The mathematical model of integrated sustainability index is: P=0.14P1+0.47P2+0.3P3+0.09P4, and the sub-indices are: water quality, water quantity, creature and land use change indices. In this study, we used gray relation analyses, Analytic Hiberarchy Process(AHP) and Subparagraph Linear Function Method to calculate the integrated index(P). The results show that: the overall trend of water environment sustainability in Zhalong wetland is declining, and its impact factors are detrimental to the sustainable development of Zhalong wetland.
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    Effect of Opening Western Part of Inner Mongolia for Cultivation on Change of Mu Us Desert at the End of the Qing Dynasty
    HAN Zhao-Qing
    2006, 26 (6):  728-734.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.728
    Abstract ( 248 )   PDF (1062KB) ( 32 )   Save
    This article tries to restore the scope and location of the reclamation in the middle and south part of the Ordos area including Ejin Horo, Otog, Uxin banners and Ordos downtown area at the end of the Qing Dynasty. Then it compares them with that of today’s Mu Us Desert based on an evidential research of the changes of placenames and administrative divisions, with the materials collected from historical literatures, ancient and contemporary maps and local archives. It concludes that the land opened for cultivation at the end of the Qing Dynasty can be divided into the following tracts: 1) most part of today’s Ordos urban area, 2) the north part of Ejin Horo Banner and the area east to the Ulan Moron River, 3) part of Otog Banner and Taole County of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Some of these regions were located at the edge of the Mu Us Desert while others beyond its scope. Moreover, with an analysis on the background and process of the reclamation, it argues that opening Inner Mongolia for cultivation at the end of the Qing Dynasty has evaded the fragile areas which is vulnerable to desertification. As a result the reclamation at the end of Qing Dynasty hardly play a role in the development of Mu Us Desert.
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    The Discussion on Evaluation and Sustainable Development Models of Traditional Villages in Western Mountainous Area of Beijing—A Case Study of Traditional Villages in Mentougou District of Beijing
    WANG Yun-Cai, GUO Huan-Cheng, YANG Li
    2006, 26 (6):  735-742.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.735
    Abstract ( 167 )   PDF (1445KB) ( 16 )   Save
    The western mountainous area is an important ecological belt to Beijing City. The populations in this area and economic models existing are directing factors to influence and damage mountain landscape, ecology and environment. But with historical relations to Hebei Province and others regions, this area is a special belt of Beijing ancient culture system. One of the culture types is traditional villages. Many traditional villages have been reserved in the western area of Beijing especially in Mentougou District with local characteristics and historical cultural heritages. The traditional villages are the important and special landscape and tourism resources now. Based on the systematical investigations and combined with the longevity, integrality, locality, coordination and typicality, this paper calculated evaluation index( ) by which evaluated the traditional villages and divided the traditional villages into three levels which are heritages villages(Etvi∈(4,6]), special villages (Etvi∈(1,4])and preserved villages(Etvi∈(6,9]). According to this, the mechanisms of sustainable development must insist on conserving and exploitations with different levels and different types, substituting living there with visiting and tourism, and discovered and experienced the landscape cognation rhythm of traditional villages. Based on the mechanism research of traditional villages sustainable development, we do more discussions on six sustainable development models of traditional villages which are folkways and rural museum, natural and cultural villages and tourism center, human and eco-system practice and education base, recreational belt and leisure town, and entertainment manor and time-share vocation base and rural sybject tourism development.
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    The Benefits Evaluation Method and Application of Urban Land Use
    WANG YU-Qing, SONG Ge
    2006, 26 (6):  743-748.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.743
    Abstract ( 288 )   PDF (790KB) ( 39 )   Save
    Land use efficiency is an important index to measure the level of land use. The paper established evaluation indicators for land use efficiency from the aspects of society, economy, resources and environment. Applying the method of improving entropy value, we also defined the weight of each indicator and coordination function by which we evaluated the land use efficiency change of 14 big cities. The results are accordant with actualities. We can draw the conclusion that both the maneuverability and reliability of this method are high and it is really recommendable method for evaluating urban land use benefit.
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    Relationship Between Reference Value (Wintrobe) of Chinese Old Men's Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Geographical Factors Based on NN
    YANG Qing-Sheng, ZHANG Hong-Xian, GE Miao, LIU Yan, JIANG Hai-Yan, GE Ben-Wei
    2006, 26 (6):  749-754.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.749
    Abstract ( 133 )   PDF (440KB) ( 31 )   Save
    This paper discusses the nonlinear relationship between reference value (wintrobe) standard of Chinese old men's ESR and geography environments based on artificial neural network. Reference value (wintrobe) standard of Chinese old men's ESR is connected with geographical environment, diet structure and settlement environment, etc. which interact with blood indirectly. It is artificial neural network that have the ability to obtain the nonlinear relationship between variables. In order to supply a basis for uniting the reference value (wintrobe) standard of Chinese old men's ESR, a research is made about the nonlinear relationship between the reference value (wintrobe) of Chinese healthy old men's ESR and five geographical factors, which are determined by the way of wintrobe laws based on artificial neural network. After building 5-layer NN, the relationship was simulated by artifical neural network(NN). After training 500 times and 1300 times, the network works better. If the geographical factors known, the reference value (wintrobe) of Chinese old men's ESR can be simulated by the neural network more accurately.
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    Research on the Spatial Development Strategy of the integrated Tourism Region:A Case Study of integrated tourism region of Changjiang River Delta
    NIE Xian-Zhong, ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Jin-He, LIU Ze-Hua
    2006, 26 (6):  755-763.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.755
    Abstract ( 168 )   PDF (873KB) ( 14 )   Save
    This paper defines the conception of integrated tourism region firstly, and takes integrated tourism region of Changjiang River Delta as an example, makes a detailed study about the formation and evolution, spatial characteristic and spatial strategy of integrated tourism region. The study shows that the integrated course of integrated tourism region has the benefit for tourism elements' reset in bigger space, and could bring into more and more comparative benefit, reciprocal benefit and selective benefit. The construction of integrated tourism region contributes to promoting justified elements' configuration, leads to contiguous utility, separated utility, structural utility and conglomerated utility, achieves cogent spatial and industrial advantages, and ameliorates the structure of market and function. And then it could promote integration competitive abilities if the market member, field and mechanism are enlarged.
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    Analysis of Validity of a New Ectourists Classification Index: A case study of Baihua Mountain Nature Reserve in Beijing
    LI Yan-Qin
    2006, 26 (6):  764-771.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.764
    Abstract ( 101 )   PDF (1122KB) ( 13 )   Save
    As ecotoursim develops rapidly in China, it becomes very challenging to find the right balance between conserving the environment and meeting the growing demand of tourism, i.e., how to provide the best possible experience to the tourists ensuring the sustainable development of the environment. Hence, it is imperative to conduct comprehensive research on ecotourist. Ecotourist study must deperd on enough ecotourist samples. Therefore, it is important to identify ecotourists from visitors to protected areas.The majority of previous studies on ecotourism have used a behavioral approach to the identification of ecotourists. While these studies provide a number of useful ecotourist profiles, they do not provide a general scale in identifying ecotourists across a wide array of contexts. The paper adopted an integrated classification technique comprising K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Back-Propagation (BP) Networks to identify the ectourists and 423 persons who answered the questionnaires during the National Day holiday in 2003 in Baihua Mountain Nature Reserve of Beijing and 139 out of them were identified as ecotourists. Based on the studies of the characteristics of the ecotourists and general tourists in Baihua Mountain and progress of the interrelated research in foreign countries, we set a new ecotourists classification index: Ecotourism Interest (EI). EI describes the extent that the tourists are interested in the ecotourism product, together with NEP (New Ecological Paradigm) and VIS (the number of times per visitor visiting rural natural regions), which constitutes the most important characteristic vectors for the identification and segmentation of ecotourists. Applying the same identified method again on the tourists in Baihua Mountain with these three vectors, the accurate identification rate to ecotourists is as high as 87.1% and the rate to all tourists is as high as 80.1%. At the same time, Logistic regression models are also used to test the hypotheses and the accurate identification rate to all tourists is as high as 82.7%. The classification effect with EI and VIS as eigenvectors is close to the effect with NEP and VIS as eigenvectors. However, the effect with EI, NEP and VIS as eigenvectors is better than with EI and VIS or NEP and VIS. Therefore, empirical results show that the ecotourism interest scale is useful in identifying if tourists are ecotourists. However, EI’s effect to the identification is lower than other two vectors at present because the development of ecotourism in China is still in the early phase and the differences between the ecotourists and non-ecotoursits are not very distinct. However, with the development of ecotourism in China, the ecotourists will have more representative motivation characteristics. At that time EI’s effect to the identification would more important. On the whole, EI appears to offer a useful explanation of the tourist participation in ecotourism activities. Other factors, such as age, gender, income, party composition, and organization of travel, influenced choice of the ecotourism products, suggesting that EI items should be supplemented by items measuring demographics and trip characteristics in future use.
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