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    20 March 1998, Volume 18 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    PIONEER OF INTEGRATED STUDIES ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY——Celebrating the 85 birthady of the Academician of CAS Huang Bingwei
    Huang Xichou
    1998, 18 (2):  97-98.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.97
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    A CASE STADY ON THE ROLE OF RURAL INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROCESS OF URBANIZATION IN CHINA
    Fan Jie
    1998, 18 (2):  99-105.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.99
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    The rapid development of rural industrialization in China in the past decade or so has promoted significantly the urbanization of rural areas in the country as well as the process of national industrialization. In the surveyed towns 68.8% of the workers came from rural areas. The average radius of the enterprises hinterland was 2.28 km. 80.4% of the workers were from the administrative area of the town. This fact indicates that the development of rural industry has played a very important role in rural urbanization by changing the employment structure of the rural areas. With the increase of the industrialization level in rural areas, the rural enterprises will attract more and more workers of distant areas. For example, 25.7% of the workers in Dongting Town in Jiangsu Province came from other provinces, 60% from the employment in rural industrial enterprises. Based on those field survey and empirical study on the seven established towns in six provinces, the author elaborates in this paper the role of China’s rural industrialization in the national urbanization by analyzing the employment restructuring of labors, population movement, financial source for the construction of small towns, the location of industry in town sites, and the author proposes that the development of small towns is an important approach for China to realize urbanization.
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    STUDY ON THE REGIONAL STRUCTURE OF CAPITAL MARKET OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN MAINLAND CHINA
    Jiao Huafu
    1998, 18 (2):  106-112.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.106
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    Since China’s reform and open door, the countries and regions of direct investment in China (mainland) have been increasing. In 1995, the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) in China was 37.81 billion US$ that was from more than 170 countries and regions. Since 1990, the situation of direct investment in the world has changed. In the developed countries, the amount of investment decreased constantly from 1991 to 1992 and began to rise again after 1993. In the developing countries and regions there was a high increase rate of foreign direct investment, from 1991 to 1994, the rate yearly of increase was 18.1%. Investment each other was brisk in Asia Pacific region. The regional structure of capital market of FDI in China has three characteristics: (1) The most of FDI was from the near countries and regions, Hong Kong-Macao, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, Thailand and Malaysia provided 80.3% of the amount of FDI in 1995. (2) Only several countries and regions provided most of FDI in China. (3) According to the contributory rate, the main capital market of FDI in China could be divided into four classes, including the guiding market, subsidiary market, new and developing market, opportunity market. Most of FDI in China was from the developing countries and regions, which had a negtive effect on the size and technical level of foreign capital enterprises. The author puts forward the countermeasures to improve the regional structure of capital market: (1) to keep the guiding market stable, (2) to reclaim chiefly the subsidiary market, (3) to guide actively the new and developing market, (4) to try hard to start the opportunity market.
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    CONTEMPORARY CLIMATIC CHANGE OF THE QINGHAI XIZANG PLATEAU AND ITS RESPONSE TO GREENHOUSE EFFECT
    Liu Xiaodong, Zhang Minfeng, Hui Xiaoying, Kang Xingcheng
    1998, 18 (2):  113-121.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.113
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    On the basis of monthly temperature and precipitation data of 48 stations of the Qinghai Xizang Plateau from 1961 to 1990, the temperature data are extended backward to 1901 with an EOF method, microscopic characteristics of the contemporary climatic change over the plateau are analyzed, and the response of the plateau climate to the global warming is discussed in combination with GCM simulated output. The results show that the plateau climate, overall, has been warming for this century, that the precipitation change has generally been increasing in recent 30 years, and that these climatic trends seem to be related to the enhanced greenhouse effect induced by increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.
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    A STUDY ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT SYSTEM IN THE RAPID ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AREA, CENTRAL COAST OF GUANGDONG PROVINCE
    Wen Yanmao, Ke Xiongkan, Wang Feng
    1998, 18 (2):  122-128.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.122
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    The sustainable development of human environment system of typical case in the rapid economic development area in central coast area of Guangdong was studied. The dynamic characteristics were described and the running condition of human-environment system was assessed. Using the theories and methods of gray ssytem and Fuzzy mathematics, this paper puts forward a relatively simple and operable synthetical assessment index system and method of sustainable development of human-environment system. The assessment results show that the state of sustainable development of human environment system rose gradually from 1980 to 1990, but descended after 1990 in Shenzhen City and rose gradually from 1980 to update in Dongguan City. The human-environment system both in Shenzhen and Dongguan are weak in the state of sustainable development recently, but that in Dongguan is slightly better than in Shenzhen. The descent cause of sustainable development state of human-environment system in Shenzhen is that the environmental quality became worse and the consuming rate of natural resources was too fast. According to the running pattern of human-environment system in rapid economic development area, two models are suggested:(1) the SEREN model under the condition that human-environment system is not adjust-controlled effectively, and (2) the SEREN model under the condition that human environment is adjust-controlled rationally. The recommendation for sustainnable development of hunan environment system in Shenzhen and Dongguan are also proposed.
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    DISCUSSION ABOUT ESTUARY DECLINE IN NORTH CHINA
    Feng Jinliang, Li Qingchen
    1998, 18 (2):  129-134.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.129
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    On the basis of field investigation and data processing, authors put forward a hypothesis that an estuary will wither away. Estuary decline contains estuary space and estuary function ecologically becoming feeble and die. The main reason of estuary decline is human activities like constructing reservoirs, diverting water, etc. In the end, the main questions aroused by estuary decline are discussed.
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    MAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS OF RECENT SEDIMENTS IN LAKE CHANGHU OF THE JIANGHAN PLAIN AND THEIR CLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS
    Yang Handong, He Baoyin, Cai Shuming, Frank Oldfield, Zhouxinyu, Neil Rose
    1998, 18 (2):  135-138.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.135
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    A research on magnetic measurements has been done on the sediments of core 92-5, which was taken in 1992 and was representative of environment changes in Lake Changhu in the Jianghan Plain, the core can be divided into 4 sediments on the parameters of the magnetic measurements: 1. Zone A (144-140cm in depth, before 1581 A.D.), each magnetic parameter is obviously small, the concentrations of magnetic minerals are low. 2. Zone B (140-74cm in depth, 1581 A.D.-1774 A.D.), each magnetic parameter changes slowly under the fundamental steady prerequisite. 3. Zone C (74-10cm in depth, 1774 A.D.-1964 A.D.), the magnetic parameters are relatively high, the undulations of the magnetic parameters are slightly more. 4. Zone D (10-0cm in depth, 1964 A.D.-1992 A.D.), owing to the growth of aquatic plants and human activities, changes of magneticparameters are complex. The concentration of component of the magnetic minerals in the sediment is high, if the temperature is high and/or the precipitation is large. The magnetic parameters corresponds to hot or cold climate. The magnetic parameters of core 92-5 show that the tendecy of the climatic changes is from cold to warm in the Jianghan Plain in recent 400 years. This is consistent with the historic records and sporo pollen analysis.
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    USER MORPHOLOGY OF COMMUNICATION NETWORKS ——Individual Choice of Communication Media
    Lu Zi, Liu Yan
    1998, 18 (2):  139-146.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.139
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    This paper discusses a model to analyze the medium choice for communication made by individuals. Section 2 turns out that model (2) is a specific form of model (1), and is a more general model. It is argued that two kinds of barriers may exist. The first is the traditional constraints that are in this context interpreted as barriers. The second kind is called relative barriers. It is detected when a certain subpopulation is significantly different from the whole population. Taking 1000 communication users of Shijiazhuang as a sample of communication media (letter and telephone) choice behavior, the authors find that the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population determine the form of their choice behavior, and since the profile of a user could not fully be "tested", our prognoses of their behavior are based on generality guesses. Yet despite this limitation, the experiences with communication may be investigated in regard to the time space constraints of users. They form the crucial factors in acceptance of new electronic opportunities.
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    FORAMINIFERAL TAPHOCOENOSE IN HAIZHOU BAY, JIANGSU (CHINA) AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENT
    Zhu Xiaodong, Shi Bingwen, You Kunyuan, Zhu Dakui
    1998, 18 (2):  147-155.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.147
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    Result based on analysis of 52 surface sediment samples collected from Haizhou Bay shows that the foraminiferal taphocoenose of the studied area consists of over 100 species dominated by Ammonia beccarii, Elphidium magellanicum, Elphidium advenum and Textularia foliacea. Three faunal assemblages ( Ammonia beccarii-Elphidium magellanicum, Ammonia beccarii-Elphidium advenum and Ammonia beccarii-Textularia foliacea ) are identified according to the dominant species. Planktonic forms are absent in the bay area meanwhile some small test size planktonic forms are frequently encountered in the Guanhe River mouth area near the south end of the bay. The spatial distribution of foraminiferal abundance, diversity, faunal composition and assemblages are basically parallel to the coastline and the distribution of water depth, salinity and sediment grain size.
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    THE LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
    Liu Huiqing, Xu Jiawei, Liu Fengmei
    1998, 18 (2):  156-162.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.156
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    In the 21st century, landscape ecology should be a subject with the ability to design the environmental construction. Based on the principles of landscape ecological engineering,such as adapting to the nature,symbiosis,adjusting the structure,improving the function and harmonizing the whole by controlling parts.Landscape ecological engineering,conserves biodiversity actively.
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    THE RAINFALL DISTRIBUTION OF RAINY SEASON IN YUNNAN INFLUENCED BY THE INDIAN OCEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE
    Wang Bing, Zhao Erxu, Zhang Jiguang
    1998, 18 (2):  163-168.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.163
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    In this paper, approaching the correlation between the Indian Ocean surface temperature and the rainfall of rainy season in Yunnan, using the materials from 1965 to 1992, with the calculation method of Chebyshev Polynomials in irregular grids, we set up a system of forecast equations between the Indian Ocean surface temperature field (20癝-20癗, 50癊-95癊) and rainfall field in Yunnan (20 meteorological stations). Through forecast test of the rainfall field in Yunnan in 1993 and 1994, the result is satisfactory.
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    STUDY ON AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTAL CAPACITY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON REGIONAL EXPLOITATION IN THE TUMEN RIVER REGION
    Tian Wei, Yu Muqing, Liu Guiqin
    1998, 18 (2):  169-175.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.169
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    Using COD as a control index, this paper calculated the monthly environmental capacity and the permited wastewater discharge capacity of wastewater within discharge standards of five rivers in the Tumen River region. The results indicate that the distribution of every month environmental capactity was very uneven, during the two_month abundant-water period, the environmental capacity was about 50% of the year, but during five_month less-water period, the environmental capacity was less than 10% of the year; even judged by wastewater discharge quantity in 1995, during the less-water period, the water quality of the five rivers controlling sections of the mainstream of the Tumen River did not reach the appointed functional water quality standards and there was no environmental capacity to use. Therefore, the river water environmental capacity has become the major restricting factor of exploitation in the Tumen River region, for keeping coordinate development between economic construction and environmental protection in this region, the effective pollution control countermeasures and steps must be taken.
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    ALLOCATION OF RESOURES AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT ——Taking Shaanxi Province as an Example
    Wu Dianting, Liu Xiaoyong
    1998, 18 (2):  176-182.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.176
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    In this paper, the atuthors describe an economic phenomenon Shaanxi phenomenon: rich in natural resources, strong in science-technology, but poor in economic development, the economic position in the country has declined in recent years; and hold that its reason is non-optimization of resources allocation. Then the authors discuss the optimization of resources allocation from three principles such as maxinum rate of final goods, comparative advantage and specialization; point out that the ways to accelerate the economic development of Shaanxi Province are to give full play to advance for technology, change economic development way to equilibrium growth.
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    A STUDY ON THE ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LANDSCAPE IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF SHANDONG PROVINCE
    Yan Chuanhai, Song Yongchang
    1998, 18 (2):  183-189.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.183
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    Based on the studies on climate, geomorphology, soil and vegetation, the landscape ecological classification system for the southern part of Shandong Province is established. It consists of two grades, including 7 landscape types and 17 landscape subtypes. Landscape type is divided by vegetation (vegetation type or cultivated vegetation type), and landscape subtype is classified according to topography and vegetation (formation group or cultivated vegetation group). Making landscape subtype be mapping unit, letting the Soil Map (1:1000000) of the Region be the base map, and consulting several kinds of maps relating to the area (e.g. landsat images, vegetation maps, landuse maps, geomorphological maps), Map of Landscape Ecological Types of the Southern Part of Shandong Province (1:1000000) is compiled. On the map the areas of landscape types and Landscape subtypes are measured. Lastly, the ecological problems of the main landscape types in the southern part of Shandong Province (e.g. sparse vegetation landscape, evergreen coniferous forest landscape, deciduous broad leaved forest landscape, crop on dry land lsndscape, rotation of paddy and dry land landscape, lake landscape) are analysed in detail, and the corresponding strategies are put forward.
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    THE CLIMATIC RESOURCE IN THE QINGJIANG RIVER VALLEY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION
    Wu Yijin, Deng Xianrui, Chen Xiaoguang, Qiao Shengxi
    1998, 18 (2):  190-195.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.02.190
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    This paper discussed the unique climatic resource in the Qingjiang River valley. The features of the climatic resource in the area can be concluded as follows. (1) It is very warm in winter and frost period is short. (2) There are two different heat zones along the river valley, that is, north subtropic and centeral subtopic zones. (3) According to the sea level elevation, the mountain can be divided into several climate zones. (4) Precipitation is even around the whole year and rainfall can be used effectively by crops. In addition, it has been found that both totography and meteorological systems rusult in these features. In order to exploit the climatic resource, we have recommended some crops for the different heat zones. These crops must be: under suitable climate condition,high economic value and great market demand. Therefore, It is suggested that: (1) below the sea level elevation 500 m is suitable for citrus and tung oil tree, (2) tea tree and masson pine could be planted between 500 m and 800 m, (3) mushroom and Chinese chestnut are suitable for the elevation 800 m-1200 m, (4) the land above 1200 m can be used for forage grass and medicinal materials. Finally, the dangers of climatic resource used in this region have also been evaluated in this paper.
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