PROGRESS OF RESEARCHES ON ALPINE TUNDRA IN CHANGBAI MOUNTAIN
1999, 19 (1):
The alpine tundra discovered in Changbai Mountain in 1959 is a unique typical arctic landscape type in China. Thereafter, continuously integrative researches on the natural environment, ecosystem components and their physical, biological and chemical process of alpine tundra have been carried on and made mighty advances. The exsiting eco environment of alpine tundra is described and analysed integratively in this paper. First, climate conditions, that is, severe cold, high humidity and strong wind, result in vegetation type of alpine tundra. Moreover, snow cover in winter and near surface mircoclimate in summer favor the growth of shrub, subshrub, perennial herb, moss and lichen. Second, the volcanic landform, glacial landform and periglacial landform on alpine zone, which not only form geomorphic complex but also construct various microhabitats, restrict the formation and distribution of tundra vegetation and soil. There are not many kinds of plants on alpine tundra zone. According to statistics, there are 110-131 species of vascular plants belonging to 31 families and 78-87 genera; 135 species of moss belonging to 38 families and 67 genera and 70 species of lichen under 11 families and 22 genera. As for the plant community, different scholars have different dividing schemes. In view of the similarity of alpine tundra to arctic tundra, the appearance, composititon, floristic elements and ecological characteristics are explained respectively. Because alpine tundra is regarded as a special biogeochemical unit, the comprehensive researches on the chemical elements in all environmental components, including elements composition, content, distribution, migration and circulating laws etc., are discussed in this paper. Since the author once investigated tundras in Lapland (Finland) and Daisetsu (Hokkaido, Japan), the comparative study was accomplished, too. The result verified the scientific conclusion of the south boundary of mountain tundra distribution in the east of Eurasia.
Related Articles |