Table of Content

    20 May 2002, Volume 22 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Discussion on the Spatial Interaction Between Two Cities——Beijing and Tianjin
    DAI Xue-zhen
    2002, 22 (3):  257-262.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.257
    Abstract ( )   PDF (627KB) ( )   Save
    Based on analyzing history, present, and future relationship of spatial interaction between Beijing and Tianjin, it is concluded that Beijing and Tianjin have been interdependent for quite a long time historically, and interaction strength between them increases annually and is developing towards integration direction since the era of Chinese economic reform and opening to the outside world. Its acing factors include distance, size, complemantarity, and intervening opportunities etc. According to the theory of spatial interaction, Beijing and Tianjin is adjoining and large, the radiation range is overlapping, and there exists strong complemantarity in natural resources, social and economic condition etc. Further, Intervening opportunities provide good conditions for the development of other provinces, cities, counties towns, and developing areas except Beijing-Tianjin economic region. Moreover, a new factor, institutions is introduced into the theory of spatial interaction, which possesses Chinese features. In order to provide suggestions for making policy in coordinate development of Beijing and Tianjin, its affection was also explored based on the history, present as well as future of spatial interaction between Beijing and Tianjin.
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    The Preliminary Research on the Mode and Policy Tendency of Beijing Being Constructed into a World City
    LI Guo-ping, LU Ming-hua
    2002, 22 (3):  263-269.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.263
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    In the paper, the author first explains the relationship between development of the world city and economy growth, the innovation of science and technology, regional foundation and then summarizes the general law of the world city structure evolution and growth process. Based on the comprehensive analysis of interior and external environment, the authors put forward the basic economy mode and spatial structure mode of Beijing's constructing the world city. The basic economy modes are as follows: enlarge opening; carry forward the industry value chain division; improve the proportion of advanced producer service industry and high technology industry in economy structure; attract actively the transnational corporation headquarters and R&D institutions; intensify the ability to configure the global economy resources. To form the reasonable spatial division in the Metropolitan Area and the Area Around Bohai and change the single core region structure into multi-core region structure are the basic spatial structure modes. Finally, the authors further put forward six policy tendencies of Beijing's constructing the world city.
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    Regional Evaluating Paradigm for Ecological Services of Environment and Ecosystems
    LI Shuang-cheng, ZHENG Du, ZHANG Yi-li
    2002, 22 (3):  270-275.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.270
    Abstract ( )   PDF (551KB) ( )   Save
    Many researches recently have been focused on analyzing ecosystem services and evaluating natural capital stocks of environment and ecosystems due to their huge social welfares. According to methodological analysis, most of the evaluating researches belong to type paradigm, and some works failed to pay attention to spatial heterogeneity of ecological assets and its related factors. This paper, thus, attempts to calibrate those deviations and to present new paradigm for monetary evaluation of ecosystem services and its capital stocks. New paradigm that we proposed is a regional evaluating approach, which gives more considerations for spatial differentiation of environment and ecosystem than that of type paradigm. The features of new paradigm are as follows: (1) both on-site values and off-site values of ecosystems are equally incorporated; (2) the spatial patterns of scarcity of ecosystem and environment resources are considered; (3) the social demands for ecological assets, which are decided by socio-economic development level, are paid more attention to.As the application of new evaluating paradigm, the ecological assets of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were assessed in this paper. Firstly, an eco-regionalization version Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for assessing ecological assets was developed, and then functional division of the research region was finished. Secondly, the spatial distribution and the relative value grades of ecosystems according to the previous data such as NPP and vegetation maps are determined. Finally, spatial pattern of environment and ecosystems’ natural value was identified by using GIS and modelling methods. In top hierarchy, the ecological assets of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are classified into 5 grades and 6 regions.Our researches show that regional evaluating paradigm is an alternative approach though it has some deficiencies. The next works will incorporate the integration between the type and regional assessment paradigms.
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    Regional Differences of Households Consumption in China
    XIANG Qing-cheng
    2002, 22 (3):  276-281.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.276
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    The paper analyzed the changes of regional differences of households consumption in China since 1949 and reached the following conclusions:(1) the regional distribution of households consumption in China has been uneven since 1949,but the regional differences were reducing gradually before reform and openness and have been enlarging rapidly after reform and openness; (2) great changes of foundational pattern of regional differences have taken place among all provinces and between the south and north, but little change of them between the east and west as well as between the urban and rural; (3) the difference between the east and west in the structure of regional differences is becoming increasingly conspicuous .The main reasons for causing above changes lie firstly in the reflection of imbalance of economic development among all regions, and secondly in the changes of the economy system ,in the transfer of focus of the economy distribution, and in the reflection of regional policy. The conclusion of the paper put forward some suggestions and countermeasures on reducing regional differences of households consumption in China.
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    A Preliminary Study on the Interactive Relationship Between Population and Environment in Mountains
    CHEN Yong, CHEN Guo-jie, WANG Yi-qiang
    2002, 22 (3):  282-287.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.282
    Abstract ( )   PDF (903KB) ( )   Save
    All ecosystems on earth have been under the influence of human beings. It is also true for mountain ecosystem. Comparing with ecosystem on plains/low lands, mountain ecosystem is characteristic of complexity and uncertainty, fragility and sensitivity. Mountains are three-dimensional systems, of which the complexity is displayed in their verticality, non-verticality and compilation of both. Due to the complexity of mountains, it has been very hard to give mountain a well-understood definition. The uncertainty of mountains lies in their instability of internal structure and high potential energy. The fragility and sensitivity of mountain eco-environment is displayed in that mountain ecosystems usually have a low capability to resist external disturbance and it is easy for them to exceed ecological threshold or even to go to collapse under external influences. The fragility of mountain eco-environment is determined by its bio-physical features: high elevation, cold climate, thin air, thin layer of soil, low concentration of organic matters in soil and slow biochemical process. It is usually hard for soil and vegetation in mountains to rehabilitate and restore once they are destroyed. In most cases degradation of mountain environment is an irreversible process. Due to physical constraints, mountain settlements or communities have showed their characteristics of scattering, closeness and stability. Considering the interaction between population and environment in mountains, environment, on one hand, may be a constraint for human activities. Although human being is a keystone species in earth ecosystem, human activities are always constrained by environment. It is more like this in mountains where physical environment is harsh. Humans,on the other hand, are able to adapt to their environment by transhumance, physiological adaptive reaction, storage of foods and cultivation of wild plants. The man-earth relationship in mountains may take two forms: mutual deterioration or mutual amelioration in different types of land use such as farming, animal husbandry, forestry, settlement construction and mining.
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    Land Reserve and its Model Choice Under Socialism Market Economy
    FENG Chang-zhong, SONG Jia-bo, ZENG Zun-gu
    2002, 22 (3):  288-293.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.288
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    With the establishment and improvement of socialist market economy, it is necessary to transform the traditional strategy of land management: the first way is to transform the land management from by the system of planning economy to by the system of market economy; the second is to transform the land use from extensive pattern to intensive pattern. Under those backgrounds, Land reserve, as a method for government to manage urban land, was put forward to help government to persevere resources and estate property in the practices of land management. This paper systematically demonstrated the land reserve's implication, origination and practice in China, analyzed its operational mechanism and anticipated goals, summarized the basic ways for land reserve in China, namely the Shanghai land reserve way directed by market, the Hangzhou land reserve way directed by government and combined with market operation, the Tianjing land reserve way with double reserve and control, and Nanjing land reserve way with land reserved by the society, and put forward two patterns for land reserve, namely the direct land reserve and indirect land reserve. At last, this paper gave out the key principles and methods for local government to implement these two land reserve patterns.
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    Influence of Human Activities on Hyperconcentrated Flows in the Middle Yellow River
    XU Jiong-xin
    2002, 22 (3):  294-299.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.294
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    Hyperconcentrated flow is a hazardous streamflow, which is typical in the Loess Plateau of China. Strong human activities such as deforestation and steep-land cultivation in this area can be traced back to 2000 years ago. Since the 1960s, large-scale soil conservation measures have been put into practice. All these have far-reaching effects on the hyperconcentrated flows. The middle Yellow River mainstream, the Wudinghe River and the Weihe River have been selected for a study on the influence of human activities on the hyperconcentrated flows. To quantify the occurrence of hyperconcentrated flows, the concept of the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows is proposed, which is defined as the number of days with daily suspended sediment concentration >300 kg/m3 in a given period, usually in a year. Then, this index is correlated with those indices that quantified the human activities. The results show that the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows is negatively correlated with forest cover, implying that the deforestation by humans in history may lead to a higher frequency of hyperconcentrated flows. The data from the Wudinghe River and the Weihe River show that the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows declines with the increase of the area with soil control measures and with the sediment reduction by soil conservation measures. However, the interception of clear water from the upper Yellow River by the Longyangxia and Liujiaxia reservoirs significantly increases the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows in the middle Yellow River mainstream. The temporal variation of hyperconcentrated flows in the past 50 years can be generalized as a three-stage model. In the 1950s to 1960s, the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows increased due to the destruction of natural vegetation by humans. From the late 1960s to the mid-1980s, the practice of large-scale soil conservation measures resulted in a decline in the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows. However, the frequency of hyperconcentrated flows has increased again since the late 1980s, because large quantitis of clear water are intercepted by reservoirs in the upper Yellow River for hydro-power generation.
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    Assessment of Debris Flow Risk of Yunnan Province by Using GIS
    TANG Chuan, ZHU Da-kui
    2002, 22 (3):  300-304.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.300
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    To satisfy the increasingly urgent demand for prediction of natural disasters, risk assessment is one of the fundamental tools for helping the decision-making process. Even though individual components of debris flow risk are difficult to be accessed, the availability of geographic information systems helps in proposing pertinent methods for the mapping of such risk. This paper describes the systematic methodology used to establish a GIS capable of identifying and quantitatively rating areas of debris flow risk. In this study we elected 6 causal factors from the initial set for susceptibility analysis of hazardous degree in Yuannan Province as study area. By overlaying vulnerability map of the study area to hazard map, debris flow risk map was created, which depicts relative risk susceptibility of areas to debris flows under existing natural conditions and human activities. The proposed method for debris flow risk assessment by geomorphologists is one of the most important methods to show hazardous situation, assure objectives of disaster-reduction, optimize prevention and control measures.
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    Landslides in Crows Induced by Irrigated Water in Loess Area
    WANG Jia-ding, HUI Yang-he
    2002, 22 (3):  305-310.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.305
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    Due considerations have been paid to the characteristic features and phenomena of the tremendous loess landslides in crows induced by irrigated water. All of them occurred in Loess Plateau of China. Based on these features and phenomena, such as large extents, high-speed and long traveling distances, their universal law, mechanism, kinematical approach and slope stability are analyzed. A regional prevention rules that take drainage work as the dominant factor and the simple engineering preventions the second one is presented.
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    The Characteristics of Summer Drought and Flood in Northeast Area of China
    SUN Li, AN Gang, DING Li
    2002, 22 (3):  311-316.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.311
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    With Z index according to the Person Ⅲ distribution, REOF and Wavelet analysis methods, the spatial anomaly features and time evolution rule of summer drought and flood in northeast area of China are studied by using the precipitation in June, July and August for the period 1961-2000 from 80 observational stations. The results show that the summer drought and flood in northeast are of China have the obvious characteristics of periodic change, interannual and inter-decade variations. The northeast area of China can be divided into seven dryness/wetness anomaly areas. In each area, the drought and flood coincide relatively.
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    Study on Spatial Pattern of Urban Heat Environment in Shanghai City
    CHEN Yun-hao, LI Xiao-bing, SHI Pei-jun, HE Chun-yang
    2002, 22 (3):  317-323.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.317
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    The spatial heat environment is a thermal phenomena of whole spatial environment of a city. The research of urban spatial heat environment will find the change of urban spatial structure and urban scale and lead to sustainable urban development and improve the quality of human habitation environment. Urban heat environment synthetical phenomina reflecting urban environment and spatial thermal environment have full impacts on microclimate and urban zoology. The aim for this paper is to seek an effective method to analysis spatial pattern of thermal environment. Supporting with the remote sensing technology and GIS, the authors studied the estimate system of heat environment spatial pattern and dynamic evolvement. The main results are as fellows: (1) A method to analysis spatial pattern of urban heat environment was pointed out with GIS and remote sensing technology supporting in this paper. Using the viewpoint of landscape ecosystem for reference, the authors generated the idea of "thermal landscape", analyzed the mechanism of "thermal landscape" and developed estimate systems of spatial pattern of thermal landscape and dynamic variety. (2) Through research on Shanghai City by viewpoint of "thermal landscape", it was proved that "thermal landscape" in this city is felling to pieces and increase consumption of heat energy and expend the area of greenbelt and water is an effective way to weaken heat affect.(3) Supporting with GIS, the authors studied dynamic evolvement of "thermal landscape" and its change process according to the change of multi-temporal "thermal landscape" in Shanghai in 1990,1995,1998 based on remotely sensing data. The change intension trend of dominance degree of thermal landscape from 1990 to 1998 in Shanghai City were pointed out. The method to study spatial structure and thermal landscape pattern of urban heat environment promoted the development in the field into quantitative segment. In the present study, this model seems to be a viable method for city programming in the metropolis.
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    A Preliminary Discussion on Town-Information Atlas
    ZHOU Jun, XU Jian-gang
    2002, 22 (3):  324-330.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.324
    Abstract ( )   PDF (915KB) ( )   Save
    "Tupu" is a methodology that means to use iconic or graphic language for integrate the spatial and temporal analysis together, including a series maps such as symptom map, diagnose map and action map. "Geo-informatic Atlas" is a series of multi-dimension diagram for geo-scientific analysis, which isn't only for the present description, but also includes spatial and temporal geographical modeling for past reconstruction and virtual future forecasting. "Atlas" may be used not only for data collection, data mining, but also for scientific forecasting and decision-making.The main model of rural economic development of China will be small towns' construction. But there is little study on the spatial evolution of small towns. Integrated with the modern spatial technique and information science, Tupu may create some new conceptions for the study of the small town.In the first part of the paper, the authors discuss the pedigree, elements and characters of the geo-information Atlas of small towns. The development of spatial organization of town system, the outer morphology and inner structure of small towns was demonstrated in detail.In the second part of this paper, owing to methods of atlas and technology of GIS, taking Taizhou and Yongchang as examples, the authors probe into the geo-information atlas of small towns by the symptom maps of the town system, the symptom maps of the outer morphology and the symptom maps of inner structure.Finally base on the preliminary study and application of atlas method, the authors draw the conclusion that the town-information atlas is a good method for interpreting the development of the small town and it is also a good method for the government to making decision.
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    Annual Laminations of Grain Size in Angulinuo Lake and the Environmental Changes in Bashang Plateau
    ZHAI Qiu-min, LI Rong-quan, GUO Zhi-yong
    2002, 22 (3):  331-335.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.331
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    Annual lamination plays an important role in the research of environmental changes. Through coring a sample mud column without disturbing it in the lacuster of Angulinuo Lake, getting some thin sections from the core, and observing the sections under scanning electronic microscope, the researchers have discovered annual laminations of grain size that are made up of lacustrine deposits and eolian deposits, and the eolian deposits are transported by winter monsoon. By counting the layers the researchers have set up a time scale of annual laminations, and by calculating the grains in each layer the researchers have reconstructed the palaeoenvironment around Angulinuo Lake since 8507 a B.P. During 8507-5429 a B.P., the winter monsoon was weaker; but in the latter time of the period, the monsoon was unstable. During 5429-3244 a B.P., the winter monsoon was stronger. In 3244-2494 a B.P., the winter monsoon became weaker. In 2494-1165 a B.P., winter monsoon became a little stronger. Since 1165 a B.P., the winter monsoon has become weaker. The changes of winter monsoon reflected by annual laminations of grain size in Angulinuo Lake correspond well to the environmental changes in the northern area of China and to the changes of the sea level in the same period.The weak period of the winter monsoon responds to the period of high sea level; while the strong period of the winter monsoon corresponds to the new periglacier stage and the period of the low sea level. And the unstability of the winter monsoon is in accord with the unstability of environment in existance in in the northern area of China.
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    Impact on Soil Erosion and Soil Properties by Human Disturbance —Case of the Low Mountains and Hills of Yixing, South Jiangsu Province
    ZHANG Yan, PENG Bu-zhuo, GAO Xiang, TANG Xiang-yu, YANG Hao
    2002, 22 (3):  336-341.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.336
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    The soil erosion and the soil properties change in the low mountains and hills of South Jiangsu Province are chosen as a target of study. And the uncultivated soil that is hardly disturbed in the miscellaneous forest is used as a reference. The soil erosion rates in the study area are estimated based on the redistribution of cesium-137 tracer element. Then the change amount of soil properties are discussed by means of some description indexes of the ratio of the coarse-particle to the fine-particle, the content of organic matter, the content of water and the change amount of indexes per unit slope length and by comparison between the cultivated soil and the uncultivated soil. The results of research show that human disturbance may increase soil erosion and raise the ratio of the coarse-particle to the fine-particle. Although some rational measures are available to slow down the pace of soil properties degradation, it is best way to control the soil erosion.
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    Sodium Bicarbonate Saline Soil Improvement Using Gentle Salty Water Leaching Techniques
    LI Qu-sheng, WANG Zhi-chun, LI Xiu-jun
    2002, 22 (3):  342-348.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.342
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    The sodium bicarbonate saline soils contain plenty of clay minerals such as montmorillonite, which absorb a lot of exchangeable sodium cation in their crystals. The clay particles with highly diffusion and very low hydraulic permeability become a main obstacle for soil improvement. According to "effect of added electrolyte" and chemical exchange theory, the techniques using gentle salty water leaching for sodium bicarbonate saline soil improvement is proposed. Selection of water quality or mineralization for leaching depends on the concentration, SAR of the saturated extract solution of the soil needed to be reclaimed; the crop's salt tolerance; the relationship among EC, SAR and infiltration. The water quality for leaching is generally 1-3g/L. But as long as its EC is smaller than that of soil saturated extract solution, the saline soil would be improved by leaching. Determination of the crop water requirement is the key problem for leaching fraction design. The Hargreaves method which is relatively simple and accurate was used for crop water requirement determination in experiment area. Perennially, the water requirement of wheat-Chinese cabbage, corn and soybean is 528.5mm, 525.4mm and 479.4mm respectively; the water deficit is 127mm, 139.1mm and 104.5mm respectively; the minimum leaching amount is 31.8mm, 34.8mm and 26.1mm respectively. If increasing leaching fraction, the soil improvement will be more quickly. To calculate the crop water requirement and leaching amount for a specific year, the specific climate data such as temperature, precipitation are needed. The field experiment shows that the salt content, ESP of arable soil layer decreased 28%-50% and 80% respectively two years later by 250mm leaching fraction. The possible planting crop was only sunflower, but now can be soybean and corn. The land economic benefit is doubled.
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    The Relationships of Higher Plants Diversity and Elevation Gradient in Foping National Reserve
    YUE Ming, ZHANG Lin-jing, DANG Gao-di, GU Tian-qi
    2002, 22 (3):  349-354.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.349
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    The relationships between species diversity indices of plant in communities and altitude gradient of Foping National Reserve were studied using multiple regression analysis. The results are as follows: 1) The Shannon index, Simpson index and species richness of communities are negatively related to latitude significantly. 2) The species diversity of arbor layer showing a rule of "Mid-altitude bulge" with change of altitude, means that it is higher in intermediate altitude while lower in lower and higher altitude. 3) There is a no obvious peak value of species richness of shrub layer at Alt. 1600-1700m, while the other four diversity indices decreased monotonously with altitude. 4) All of the species diversity indices of herb layer are lower at intermediate altitude.
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    The Distribution Law of Total Suspend Particulate (TSP) in Atmosphere in Changchun and Its Source Resolution
    WANG Qi-chao, LI Dong-xia, FANG Feng-man
    2002, 22 (3):  355-359.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.355
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    According to the monitoring results of TSP in the six function districts, the spatial and temporal distribution law of TSP in the atmosphere in Changchun City was analyzed.The total trend of TSP concentrations in a year are: the first quarter>the fourth quarter>the third quarter>. This is the result of interaction between the sources characteristic of TSP and climate condition.The first and forth quarters were heating season. The second quarter often has wind, and causes a lot of wind-blown dust. The third quarter has a lot of rain, which can scavenge part of TSP. In some year, the TSP concentration in second quarter was higher than that in the fouth quarter, which indicates that wind-blown dust plays an important role in TSP. The order of TSP concentrations in each function district is: the scattered heating district>the special industrial industrial district >the ordinary industrial district>the center heating district>the tourism district>the contrast district. The highest concentration of TSP appeared in January and November, and the lowest concentration appeared in July and August. Divide TSP into two parts: the primary particle and secondary particle. The source of TSP was estimated by analyzing the change of TSP concentrations before and after precipitation. The original particles emitted by boiler and vehicle was the main source of TSP in heating season, while the secondary particles such as wind-blown soil material accountted for a small part of TSP. The secondary particles contributed a large amount of TSP in most of the monitoring site in nonheating season; while the original particles contributed a small part of TSP. Particles has different sources in different site. In special industrial district, the primary particles still plays an important role in TSP. So, according to the source of TSP in each function district in different season, it should take corresponding measure to control TSP pollution.
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    Provincial Characteristics of Ozone Pollution in Beijing
    WANG Shu-lan, CHAI Fa-he
    2002, 22 (3):  360-364.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.360
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    Ozone is an important minor constituent of the natural atmosphere, whose average content is 10-2-10-1μg/cm3. It mostly gathers in 10-30km stratosphere, only about 10% is distributed in troposphere. Ozone plays an important role in atmosphere chemistry, and it can protect human and environment in stratosphere. But if ozone content is too high in troposphere, the health of human will be harmed.Ozone in troposphere results from photochemical reaction of NOx or/and hydrocarbon released by natural and artificial sources. Recently, with the increase of autombiles in possession and the use of fuel, oil products and organic dope, the concentration of NOx and VOC rise in atmosphere. Ozone pollution in troposphere is more and more serious. In this article, a network of sampling stations is designed and optimized, ozone and its precursors NO2, NOx are monitored in Beijing, and the current important characteristics of ozone pollution are analyzed and described. Through analyzing and processing data, ozone formative mechanism in troposphere and correlativity between main precursors concentration and ozone in troposphere are discussed.
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    The Recent Development of Research on Karst Ecology in Southwest China
    LI Yang-bin, HOU Jian-jun, XIE De-ti
    2002, 22 (3):  365-370.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.365
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    Karst environment is distributed largely in Southwest China. Soil and vegetation are the most sensitive elements to the variation of Karst environment. The weathering of carbonate is important soil formation mechanism in Karst areas, but its soil forming ability is so poor that soil layer thickness becomes thin by the water erosion, though the soil loss is insignificant but serious. The character of Karst plants is firmly connected with the environment condition, i.e., lack of water, richness of Ca2+, poor soil and shortage of organic matter , the plants have low pace growth and low life-form resource, and is vulnerable under the disturbance of irrational human activities. Therefore, the rocky desertification is the end of Karst ecosystem degradation, but these degradation processes are depended on different land use patterns. Further, this paper discusses the assessment of the fragility on Karst ecosystem and raises vital problems on how to improve productivity. Finally, this paper suggests some solutions about rehabilitation of ecology to solve the problems of man-land relation in Karst environment in Southwest China.
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    Development and Sustainable Utlization of Huangshan Mountain
    HU Shan-feng
    2002, 22 (3):  371-374.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.371
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    Huangshan Mountain is well known as the tourism hot area all over the world, whose most merit is the mixture of many splendid natural & humanism sceneries. It is famous for its four orders: strange pine trees, unique rocks, hot springs & cloud seas. It is also a place rich in biological species, which has over 700 species of plants & 170 animals. Huangshan Mountain is human's common heritage created by nature & forefathers. In 1990, it was placed on the list of World Cultural & Natural Heritage by UNESCO. Huangshan Mountain is treasure of human. With the increasing of its reputation, many foreign & domestic tourist come to sightsee it. In 2000, there are more than 1,200,000 tourists and it make the highest record in the history. However, some worrying problems and worries that lie deep down have appeared during the process of development. On how to use the tourism resource of Huangshan Mountain, the author put forward his own idea, that is, not only using it to develop the region economy but also paying attention to its ecological resources to keep ecological balance. In order to protect the environment, the article has pointed out that the construction of hotel, road, railway ,water electricity, polluted water and how to deal with the rubbish should be planned well. Second, on how to measure scientifically the burdening ability and the capacity of the tourism district, the article has also included his own viewpoint. From the angle of the ecological balance, the protecting of environment, the tourist capacity of the scenes during high peak, how to properly, scientifically develop the mountain and how to persistently use it, the author put forward his own ideas.
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    The Study on Water Environmental Mutation for Tremendous Flood Using Factor Analyses Method
    TANG Jie, LIN Nian-feng, HUANG Yi-long
    2002, 22 (3):  375-378.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.375
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    On the analysis of characteristics of tremendous flood in the Huolin River in 1998, two variables that include underlying surface cotroled factors and compound controled factors have been selected and mathmatics expression of each variable has achieved using factor analyses. Then the model of needle mutation has been simulated and mutation rigion of water environment have been classed after flood. The study has an important significance for developing reasonable natural resources and defensing flood disaster. It provides a new model to study the influence of environmental mutation after the tremendous flood.
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    The Situation and Developing Prospect of Corn Zone in Jinlin Province
    QI Xiao-ning, WANG Yang, WANG Qi-cun, LIU Zhao-yong, BAO Qiang
    2002, 22 (3):  379-384.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.03.379
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    The general situation of corn production and position in food production in our country is outlined in this paper, with emphatic discussion on the issue which is brought about by the food productive structure in the corn zone in Jilin Province where the main crop is corn. On the one hand, the output is over the demand, the processing type is single, corn production is overstocked; on the other hand, because of the high production cost and low profit and the low income for the farmer families as an major engagement, the zeal of farmer to produce corn is restrained; At the same time, the local governments are burdened with heavy finances for the insurance of protecting purchase of corn. After the entrance of WTO, these problems will have big influence on the production of corn in Jilin Province. Therefore, the authors propose five improving measures: making a good plan and reducing corn planting area, establishing high-typed transforming and processing systems, thus, the corn production will be developed sustainablly and stably.
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