Table of Content

    20 January 2003, Volume 23 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Division of the Terrestrial System in China: A case study from Huang's theory on terrestrial system science
    GE Quan-Sheng, ZHAO Ming-Cha, ZHENG Jing-Yun, DI Xiao-Chun
    2003, 23 (1):  1-6.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.1
    Abstract ( 158 )   PDF (972KB) ( 24 )   Save
    In this paper, a brief review are introduced on the development of Terrestrial System Science and the significance for the study on division of the terrestrial system in China, and the objective, principle and methodology for the study on division of the terrestrial system are discussed. Based on the idea of Top-down and Bottom-up advocated by Huang Bingwei, 5 integrated divisions in China, including the Physico-geographical division, the ecological division, the potential agro-productivity division, the economic division, and the response to global warming of China, are integrated to divide the terrestrial system of China into 9 regions at the first level. Then by evaluating the Pressure, State and Response on 46 components for 344 prefectures in China with the PSR Models, the criteria in seven grades for terrestrial system status in every prefecture are established, and terrestrial system status for 9 regions are assessed. The result shows: (1) The regional differences in landforms and climate are the dominant priority to the regional terrestrial system status. (2) The socio-economical development dominated by human dimension is the secondary priority to the regional terrestrial system status. (3) For terrestrial system status in 9 regions, North China, Southeast China and South China are in better level; the Northeast China is in middle level; the Southwest China and Shanxi-Inner Mongolia- Gansu-Shanxi are in poor level; the Northwest China and Qinghai-Xizang are in the worst level.
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    Situation and Countermeasures of Industrial Structure Adjustment and Escalation of Northeast China
    LI Cheng-Gu, LI Pei-Xiang, TAN Xue-Lan, LIU Wen-Xiu
    2003, 23 (1):  7-12.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.7
    Abstract ( 215 )   PDF (805KB) ( 2 )   Save
    The author considers that industrial structure adjustment and escalation is pivotal to develop Northeast China vigorously and to achieve the sustainable development, and the goal of industrial structure adjustment is to make it opened, higher, clean and integrated. On the basis of analyzing industrial actuality and having newly surveyed area comparative predominance of Northeast China, the paper presents the structure adjustment strategy that industry structural system of integrating the traditionary industry with high-technology industry should be built. At the same time it is put forward that to form the Chinese equipment industrial base, modern green agricultural base, resource refined base and industry base of science and technology should be the main future character of Northeast China. The paper settles the industrial functional position of Northeast China and confirms the strategic emphasis and countermeasure of adjustment and escalation of industry structure, which is achieved by viewing from an integrated visual angle. Structure adjustment of utilizing resources, integration of industry and economic area, optimization of ownership and enterprise structure, promotion of urbanized progress, system construction of area innovation, integration of infrastructure construction and environment protection, all are concerned.
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    The Intersity of Surface Heat Source and Surface Heat Balance on the Western Qinghai-Xizang Plateau
    LI Guo-Ping, DUAN Ting-Yang, WU Gui-Fen
    2003, 23 (1):  13-18.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.13
    Abstract ( 140 )   PDF (1367KB) ( 9 )   Save
    On the gradient observational data of the atmospheric surface layer from November 1997 to October 1998 collected by two sets of Automatic Weather Station (AWS) installed in Grz and Shiquanhe on the western Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, the bulk transfer coefficients each day are computed by the profile-flux method, and surface fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat each day are further estimated by the bulk formulas. The results show that the surface on the western Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is a heat source during this period whether in summer or in winter, the intensity of this heat source exhibits an obvious seasonal variation, yearly means of intensity of this heat source at the two stations are 82.5W/m2 and 8.2W/m2, respectively. The surface heat balance is discussed by involving the observational data of radiation and soil heat transfer, and the closed test of the surface heat balance equation is made.
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    On the Development Model for Mountain Forests in Arid Land——A Case Study of the Oytag Valley of the Kunlun Mountains
    ZHANG Bai-ping, CHEN Xiao-dong, LU Zhou, Paizila-Shlamu, JIANG Feng-Qing
    2003, 23 (1):  19-24.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.19
    Abstract ( 102 )   PDF (277KB) ( 14 )   Save
    Mountain forests are characterized by multifunctionalities and play crucial roles in the sustainable development of mountain regions. In addition, they also serve as the ecological defense for the areas downstream. Mountain forests are usually very limited in arid lands, and they are of special value to the local people. They should be well protected and managed. As a result, many mountain forest development models have been worked out or identified around the world, including legislation/law, multifunctional land use strategies, support/extension, community organizations, economic instructions, coordinated knowledge sharing, and even religious practices. In northwest arid China, high mountains are the basis for the existence and development of oases, simply because the high mountains provide nearly the only water source for oases. And mountain forests are the key body of mountain systems. Their multifunctionality includes production, ecological protection and welfare. The Oytag Valley is one of the few forest areas in western Kunlun Mountains and very close to the population center of Southern Xinjiang. Since the 1950s, forests in the valley have experienced marked changes. Large-scale deforestation began in 1954 and culminated in 1958-1960. Investigation shows that almost all usable trees were cut in the process. It is 1979 that deforestation was stopped and in 1992 forest regeneration was started. But contradictions stand out among forestry, animal husbandry and tourist development. Animal husbandry is now the backbone of the economy of the Oytag valley and needs considerable area of pastureland to support its development. Forest regeneration needs to fence some of the forestland, which has served as pastureland for a long time. Thus contention for land arises. Besides, domesticated animals often go into the fenced forestland and tread the seedlings of spruce, impacting forest regeneration. Moreover, the increasing number of tourists exerts pressure to the environment of mountain forests. Forest sustainable management asks for proper coordination of the relationship among forestry, animal husbandry and tourism. It is in this valley that a model has been developed for the sustainable management of mountain forests during the process of coordination of forestry, animal husbandry, tourism and local people's daily life. The related stakeholders jointly manage the forests and tourism and share the benefit from the tourism. The sustainable development of mountain forests in northwest arid China consists in (1) increasing the awareness of mountain issues and mountain forests; (2) setting in motion compensation mechanism for mountain forest management at regional level; (3) resolving the problem of land contention between forestry and animal husbandry; (4) dealing with the problems of subsistence and development of mountain forestry;and (5) restoring forests below the present forest belt.
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    Model of Minimum Energy Dissipation in Evolution of Valley Longitudinal Profile of Debris Flow in Southeast Tibet Area
    JIANG Zhong-Xin
    2003, 23 (1):  25-31.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.25
    Abstract ( 156 )   PDF (311KB) ( 12 )   Save
    The debris flow in southeast Tibet area can divided into three genetic types: a rainwater type, a ice-snow melt-water type and a glacial-lake burst type. Theory of minimum energy dissipation is observed in longitudinal profile evolution of the debris flows. The theory is increase of velocity with adjustment of longitudinal gradient in valley. It is expression of the theory that average value (ū) of velocity along the valley relates to a forming index (N) of the valley longitudinal profile: ū∞f(N). The f(N) is a velocity function. For debris flow valleys of rainwater, melt-water and burst types, the f(N) are respectively {1/3-2/[(N+1)(N+2)(N+3)]}1/2,{2/3-2/[(N+1)(N+3)]}1/2 and [N/(N+1)]2/3. In process of evolution of the valley, increase of the value N with increase of the value ū,and shape of the valley longitudinal profile develop to a concave parabola pattern from a convex one, and morphological stages of the debris flow are a brow stage, a developing stage, a exuberant stage and declined stage, and stable stage of the basin in order. As examples with model debris flow valleys in southeast Tibet area, above model and regular of morphological evolution in the valley are examined.
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    Study on Mire Development and Paleoenvironment Change since 8.0 ka B.P. in the Northern Part of the Sangjiang Plain
    YANG Yong-Xing, WANG Shi-Yan
    2003, 23 (1):  32-38.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.32
    Abstract ( 152 )   PDF (837KB) ( 14 )   Save
    The paper makes relative high-resolution approach on the relationship among mire development, paleoenvironment change and human activity since 8.0 ka B.P. in the northern part of the Sanjiang plain. The model of the climate change can be reconstructed as high temperature period at 8000-5590 a B.P., warm period at 5590-1851 a B.P., slowly dropping period in temperature at 1851-1110 a B.P.,rapidly dropping period in temperature at 1110-649 a B.P., dropping in temperature and then warming period at 649-0 a B.P. The vegetation succession can be divided into five stages in proper corresponding period above-mentioned, i.e. temperate deciduous broad-leaved foreste, needle-broad-leaved mixed forest and grassland, needle-broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by deciduous broad-leaved trees and grassland, broad-leaved forest dominated by Betula, needle-broad-leaved mixed forest and needle-broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by Pinus and grassland. The close relationship was found between mire development and paleoenvironment change in the five periods in proper corresponding period above-mentioned in the given order, i.e.the breeding and germinating development of paludification process period, the vigorous development period, slow development and shriveling period, fluctuation period, shriveling period. On the whole, the mire has been in the stage of eutrophic mire stage. Although the environment changed frequently since 8.0 k a B.P., it was still favorable to the formation and development of eutrophic mire. The mire development and paleoenvironment change were mainly driven by nature environment factor, but the human activities gave a strong influence on them too. In 1851-1317a B.P., 649-309 a B.P. and 309 a B.P.-0, the mire was degraded by the human activities, i.e. agricultural production, deforestation and mire exploitation. The mire-profile of 30th team, Qindeli farm can be considered as the standard profile since 8.0 ka B.P. in this region.
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    Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Design Parameters of Coastal Engineering in Guangdong Province
    HUANG Zhen-Guo, ZHANG Wei-Qiang, CHEN Qi-Li, CHEN Te-Gu
    2003, 23 (1):  39-41.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.39
    Abstract ( 147 )   PDF (384KB) ( 7 )   Save
    It is forecasted that the relative sea level may rise by an amplitude of 10-30 cm during 1990-2030 in the six coastal regions of Guangdong Provice.This amplitude can be regarded as a parameter to raise the design base level of coastal engineering.From the forecasted amplitude of sea level rise,using by hydraulic model the rising amplitude of floodtide water level can be calculated.Based on the calculated result, the highest design tide level should be raised correspondingly.If the sea level rises 10-30 cm,the increase amplitude of the highest floodtide water level is calculated for 20 stations.Comparing the calculated result with the highest floodtide water level at present,the change of reappearing period can be forecasted.Rising of sea level leads to heighten the wave.At present the design wave height is on the low side.According to the calculation for 20 stations, the design wave height should be raised by 15-19cm and 23-27cm when the sea level rises 20cm and 30cm respectively.
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    A Comparative Study About Effect of Urbanization on the Indoor and Outdoor Air Temperature on Different Cities of China
    ZHANG Yi-Ping, HE Yun-Ling, MA You-Xin, ZHANG De-Shan, LI You-Rong, LIU Yu-Hong
    2003, 23 (1):  42-48.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.42
    Abstract ( 207 )   PDF (315KB) ( 21 )   Save
    Based on different cities such as Beijing (located in temperate zone), Kunming (a city of high plateau and low latitude) and Jinghong (lies in tropical zone), the data root in the urban weather station, which have been affected by urban expansion in and in suburb weather station, which have not been influenced by urbanization. The results indicate that the global climatic warming bring about the average air temperature increased (15.6-20.7)×10-3℃/a or so in three cities, Beijing is the most marked. Because of urbanization, the average air temperature rise (40.5-45.9)×10-3℃/a (Kunming exceed other two cities), and indoor air temperature go up (20.6-133.1)×10-3℃/a (Beijing goes beyond other two cities). The variation of air temperature is the greatest in Beijing during November-April and in Kunming during May-October, which indicates that the variation has a tendency to increase when air temperature is lower. With city area expanding, the outdoor and indoor air temperature rise, furthermore, the range-ability of temperature rising in November-April go beyond that in May-October, and indoor exceed outdoor in Beijing's Chaoyang Weather Station and Kunming Weather Station. These results may provide a reference for studying fundamentals about urbanization effect on urban climate, city planning and architecture design.
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    Discussion on Relationship between Holocene Sea Level Fluctuation and Biaokou Section, Ninghe, Tianjin, China
    XUE Chun-Ting
    2003, 23 (1):  49-51.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.49
    Abstract ( 126 )   PDF (376KB) ( 12 )   Save
    The main part of the Holocene stratigraphic section at Biaokou Village, Ninghe County, Tianjin Municipality is composed of oyster reef and 6 silt interbeds. This sedimentary sequence was thought to be products of sea level fluctuation in the period of 6500-3000 a B.P. by some scientists. The present mollusks Ostrea gigas and O. virularis, which compose the oyster reef, live in the environment from low tidal level to 10 m sea water depth and more with salinity of 10‰-30‰. Ostrea gigas and O. virularis are not ideal water depth indicators, although can give some information. Growing up and disappearance of the oysters in the section was controlled by the changes of depositional rate but not sea level fluctuation. The Holocene stratigraphic section at Biaokou Village can not indicate existences of high sea level during 6500-5000 a B.P. and sea level fluctuation during 5000-3000 a B.P.
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    Study on the Theory and Method of Tourism Planning
    GU Chao-Lin, ZHANG Hong, XU Yi-Lun, HUANG Chun-Xiao, YU Tao-Fang, ZHEN Feng, WANG Hong, ZHU Chuan-Geng, WU Hong
    2003, 23 (1):  52-59.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.52
    Abstract ( 136 )   PDF (1314KB) ( 11 )   Save
    In China, it is paid more and more attention on tourism. Based on amounts of tourism planning practice, such as for Jilin, Jiangsu, Fujian Province and other areas, with references to the outcomes about tourism researches, this paper discusses systematically about the theories and methods of the tourism. This paper is mainly composed of three parts. The first part gave a review of tourism planning. The second part is about the basic theories of tourism planning, including the objectives of the tourism planning, the evolvement of the planning theory, the hierarchies of the tourism planning, the sustainability of the tourism and the procedure of the tourism planning and design. And the last part of this paper is aimed to discuss the basic methods of tourism planning. In this part, the tourism planning procedures, the evaluation of the tourism resources and structural division, the tourism market analysis, the concept planning for the tourism areas and the planning of the relative facilities are discussed in detail step by step.
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    Preliminary Study on Dynamic System of Tourism Development in Developed Region: Conception, Structure and Component
    ZHONG Yun, PENG Hua, ZHENG Xin
    2003, 23 (1):  60-65.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.60
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (722KB) ( 7 )   Save
    In view of that the regional tourism is driven by not only the scenic spots but also a complex system which comprises anumber of components, and on the basis of the studies of the tourism system, the authors develop the Dynamic System of Tourism Development (DSTD). And according to the research of the relationship between economic development and tourism development in the developed region, it is found that the level of regional economic development impacts the regional tourism development prominently. Therefore the model focuses on the economic factors especially, and regards the economic factor as a quite distinct feature for tourism development in the developed region from other types of regions. The model is defined as the DSTD of the developed region. For the uncertainty of the demand, it is more difficult to account the effects of the demand than the supply to the tourism development. So the model is developed mainly from the view of supply side. The DSTD is consisted of three subsystems, which are the attraction system, the supporting system and the medium system. And each subsystem involves several elements. The attraction system that comprises each type of tourist attractions includes the physical attraction subsystem and the non-physical attraction subsystem. The supporting subsystem contains the hardware subsystem and the software subsystem. It refers to the environment that supports the survival and development of tourist attractions or tourism organizations that contact the tourists directly. The tourists would not contact the supporting system directly, but their travel must be affected by it inevitably. And the medium subsystem involves the tourism information subsystem, the tourism transportation subsystem and the management subsystem, which associates the demand side with the tourist attractions and assists to accomplish the travel. Scenic spots, regional panorama, establishment for accommodating and public service and regional trade and tourism event are the components belonging to the physical attraction subsystem. The non-physical attraction subsystem involves cultural distinction, quality of tourism service, regional image and public praise for regional tourism. As to the supporting system, the hardware subsystem includes location, regional infrastructure and regional eco-environment, and the software subsystem contains the components named level of regional economic development, vigor of regional economic development, cultural environment of the region, policy and statute of tourism and manpower resource of the region.Though there will be some differences in applying the DSTD in other regions that belong to another tourism development type, the structure and the thinking approach of the DSTD of the developed region can still be referenced.
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    Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Regionalization Study
    WANG Xiu-Hong
    2003, 23 (1):  66-71.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.66
    Abstract ( 114 )   PDF (657KB) ( 11 )   Save
    Various types of indices commonly used to illuminate the properties of evaluated unit just reflected its situation from a few of the sides; therefore, simple using of these indices to proceed mathematical analyses and to do regionalization research would usually deviate from the right direction. Taking the basic principles for regionalization as a directing framework, the use of mathematical method would be more reasonable, apart from getting more typical and exacter data. The use of classical principles for regionalization in mathematical analyses is helpful to the selection of evaluated unit, as well as explanation of the result of mathematical analyses. Cluster analysis based on factor analysis could carry out some principles for regionalization, such as the linking of integrated analysis with dominant factor, comparative consistency, and conjugate. The rational use of mentioned method would improve the regionalization study. By using the mentioned principles and multivariate statistical analysis, selecting 30 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities as evaluated units, China could be divided into 5 regions and 12 sub-regions concerning its land use degree and benefit.
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    Theories and Application of Salt Distribution Field in Water-Soil Environment on study of soil salination in Songnen Plain
    SONG Xin-Shan, HE Yan, WANG Yong-Hui
    2003, 23 (1):  72-76.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.72
    Abstract ( 148 )   PDF (657KB) ( 7 )   Save
    According to regional distribution characteristics of salt in water-soil environment, the theories of Salt Distribution Field in Water-Soil Environment are put forward. Variation function offered is used to model quantitatively space differentiation of salt in water-soil environment, and its space distribution can be modeled quantitatively by Kriging interposing method offered. At last, this method is applied by integrating experimental data in saline soil of Songnen Plain, and get EC sample variance map in paddy field and saline badlands, at the same time, get different direction EC sample variance and soil EC Kriging interposing isoline in paddy and saline badland. This theories can be used quantificationally study on saline and alkaline water-soil environment.
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    Characteristics of Spatial Variability of Total Phosphorus in Soil of the Typical Area of Taihu Lake Watershed
    LIU Fu-Cheng, SHI Xue-Zheng, PAN Xian-Zhang, YU Dong-Sheng
    2003, 23 (1):  77-81.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.77
    Abstract ( 187 )   PDF (700KB) ( 18 )   Save
    Nonpoint sources of P in agriculture soils have been identified as one of the main causes of freshwater eutrophication. Studies have showed that decades of P fertilization at rates exceeding the amount removed by crops have resulted in widespread accumulation of P in agriculture soils in Taihu Lake watershed, and the accumulation of P will increase the potential of sol P loss to surface waters. Therefore, studying the spatial variability of soil P at large scale will be helpful to develop management practices for controlling agriculture nonpoint P pollution. In this paper, a geostatistics method, with Geographic Information System (GIS), was applied to study the spatial variability of total soil P in the typical area of Taihu Lake watershed. The results showed that the spatial distribution features of the total soil P could be quantitatively described by semivariogram which could be fitted by exponential model. The ratios of nugget to sill at different lag intervals varied from 0.396 to 0.445, indicting that the total P in soil of the studied area had a relatively good spatial autocorrelation, and the range of autocorrelation extended to about 11km. The maps of the total soil P made by block kriging based on the fitted model depicted that the river shore land of northern part of Jiangyin county and low limnetic plan of the studied area generally had more P than the other places,and much more attention should be paid to such places for the sake of protection of surface water quality.
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    A Study on Paleo-geography of Late Quaternary and Engineering Geological Condition of Suzhou Urban District
    JIANG Hong-Tao, WANG Fu-Bao, YANG Da-Yuan
    2003, 23 (1):  82-86.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.82
    Abstract ( 221 )   PDF (739KB) ( 21 )   Save
    Based on the analysis of the bore cores of more than 10 projects and the drilling materials of more than 2000 bores, the shallow soil layers within 50 m deep are analyzed, including the origin, time, composition and the physical mechanics properties. The terminology table of the soil layers is made, according to the demand of the foundation engineering. The distribution maps of engineering geologic condition for natural foundation and for pile foundation are compiled in light of spatial distribution and structural characteristics of soil layers. The study is of great signification for engineering construction of Suzhou urban district and the southern part of the Changjiang River delta.
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    Structure and Spatial Analysis of Evaluation of Residential Environment in Dalian City
    WANG Mao-Jun, ZHANG Xue-Xia, LUAN Wei-Xin
    2003, 23 (1):  87-94.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.87
    Abstract ( 180 )   PDF (1094KB) ( 13 )   Save
    Firstly the paper builds residential environment structure consisting of circumambient environment, convenient environment and human environment by means of factor analysis, on the basis of questionnaires about evaluation of urban residential environment in Dalian. And from the result of multivariable regression analysis, we can see that importance of circumambient environment, convenient environment and human environment falls in turn. Secondly the studied area is divided into 162 grids of 1km?1km on the platform of ARC/INFO, which is used to analyze spatial structure of evaluation of residential environment. High evaluation of circumambient environment lies in the skirt of Dalian City and parts of downtown. The latter bear on squares and greenbelts of the city. The result of evaluation of convenient environment falls from the downtown to the skirt gradually, which has negative correlation with the distances between each area and the downtown. High evaluation of convenient environment lies in the block of the city. There is not obvious discrepancy law in evaluation of convenient environment. In the last, the paper brings into play the function of overlay and query to evaluate residential environment and builds double-kernel spatial structure model map of evaluation of residential environment on the platform of ArcView.
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    GIS-Based Eco-environmental Vulnerability Evaluation in West Jilin Province
    HUANG Fang, LIU Xiang-Nan, ZHANG Yang-Zhen
    2003, 23 (1):  95-100.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.95
    Abstract ( 172 )   PDF (743KB) ( 14 )   Save
    The west Jilin Province is located in the transition zone from semi-humid climate to semi-arid climate with many types of ecological landscapes and is a typical area between agriculture and husbandry. Since the 1980's, the land use/cover in this area have undergone dramatic changes. Under the pressure of population growth and excessive land exploitation, such as over grazing and over reclamation, the ecological environments that have been fragile become more vulnerable and unstable. On the basis of systematical analysis on the natural and artificial factors and their relations influencing environment evolution, the leading factors of eco-environment degradation are extracted qualitatively in this area. Under the GIS technology, digital environmental model is established. Using 100m?100m real area as basic unit, the spatial principal components analysis method is applied to calculate the eco-environment synthesis exponent according to the weight of some indexes. The eco-environment vulnerability index (EVI) is produced to evaluate the eco-environment fragile status during 1986-2000. Results show that the eco-environment quality gradually declines from the central to peripheral. The fragile status of some areas in the south sand land region, the central alluvial plain region and the north floodplain region has been exacerbated remarkably in recent 15 years.
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    Importance of Agricultural Soil Sequestering Carbon to Offsetting Global Warming
    YANG Xue-Ming, ZHANG Xiao-Ping, FANG Hua-Jun
    2003, 23 (1):  101-106.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.101
    Abstract ( 70 )   PDF (997KB) ( 5 )   Save
    Global climate change resulting from human activities, particularly related to anthropogenic release of CO2 to the atmosphere, is one of the most critical environmental problems facing human beings today. Scientists in West Country, mainly in US and Canada, are seeking to sequester C in agricultural soil (C sink) to offset their commitment to the Kyoto act. This paper reviews the progress in this field and suggests that the potential of Chinese agricultural soil sequestering C is over the sum of the US and Canada's. Studying C sequestration in Chinese agricultural soil not only can help to recover our degraded farmland, but also can benefit Chinese industry in future global negotiation over greenhouse gas release control.
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    Summary on the Study of Planation Surface
    REN Xue-Mei, CHEN Zhong, LUO Li-Xia, ZHOU Xin-Qin, WANG Jian-Li
    2003, 23 (1):  107-111.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.107
    Abstract ( 200 )   PDF (222KB) ( 5 )   Save
    This paper generalized the research situation of planation surface on its definition, discrimination, classification, formation, dating, and so on. We think that planation is a wide-ranging and undulating surface formed by deplanation in a long and relatively stable period. Planation is always be uplifted by the later tectonic activities. Planation has such features as large area,low altitude and small gradient. Discrimination of planation is based on inside plotting and outside investigation. This method mainly depends on subjective knowledge which is lack of accurate,objective and quantitative analysis.New mathematical methods have been used in this field.Although they are not accurate yet,there are still many improvements. There are lots of ways to classify planation in terms of different standards.The same planation may show different type when it is in different system.The same planation even has distinct forms at different places. We strengthen the investigation of natural factors such as pre-construction,erosion base level,climate,lithology,time and tectonic activities, which affect planation's formation and preservation. Pre-construction provides a foundation for planation forming.Erosion base level is the base line for it.Climate and lithology influence the rate of formation and preservation.Time produces different degrees of planation forms.Tectonic activities are unbenefical to preservation. Chronology of planation's forming is one of the most important part of the study.It means the end of the deplanation.Phase-transition analysis,age-boundary line analysis,correlation and crust of weathering analysis are all used in determing the age of planation. We also disscuss the perspective researching trends on the study of planation surface.
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    The Statistical Analysis of Response of the River Mouth Passage to Water and Sediment Discharges from the Changjiang River
    ZHAO Qing-Ying, YANG Shi-Lun, ZHU Jun
    2003, 23 (1):  112-117.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.112
    Abstract ( 84 )   PDF (665KB) ( 13 )   Save
    Based on the data of the south passage of the Changjiang River Mouth and the data of water and sediment in Datong Gauging Station, and with the technology of GIS and mathematical statistics, this article analyzed the relationship of the change of the topography of south passage in the Changjiang River Mouth and water and sediment discharges from the Cangjiang River. The results are as follows: (1) There is a law of accretion in flood season and erosion in dry season in the south passage of the Changjiang River Mouth. The mean thickness of erosion and accretion is biggest in August and smallest in March. The biggest thickness of accretion is in August and the biggest thickness of erosion is in December. (2) There is good negative correlation between the monthly mean water depth in the south passage and the monthly mean riverine discharge, the monthly mean rate of the sediment discharge and the monthly mean suspended sediment concentration. The correlation is best when the monthly mean water depth is lagged about one month or one and half months from the monthly mean riverine discharges, the monthly mean rate of the sediment discharge and the monthly mean suspended sediment concentration. The reason may be that there is a distance about 640 km from Datong Gauging Station to the estuary and it must take some time for the river to reach the estuary from Datong Gauging Station. In fact, the negative correlation between the monthly mean depth and the monthly mean riverine discharge is false,for there is evident positive correlation between the riverine discharges, the rate of sediment discharge and the suspended sediment concentration. (3) In their correlation, the correlation between the monthly mean depth and the monthly mean suspended sediment concentration is best and the correlation between the monthly mean depth and the monthly mean riverine discharge is worst. This shows that the factor of sediment is more important than that of water for the erosion and accretion in the river passage. (4) According to the examination of F, the relationships between the monthly mean riverine discharges, the monthly mean rate of sediment discharges and the monthly mean suspended sediment concentration and the monthly mean depth of the south passage lagged about one month, one and half months and two months are linear correlation. The correlation is significant under the level of 0.01 or 0.05. (5) The human activities in the valley may affect the change of erosion and accretion of the estuary passage by changing the condition of water and sediment. We can select a best correlation equation to forecast the seasonal changes of the South Passage according to the condition of water and sediment in the future. Then we can make the groundwork in establishing the critical value of erosion and accretion. The critical value of erosion and accretion is significant to the forecasting of the change of erosion and accretion in the estuary passage. When the variable is the erosion-accretion value of the consecutive two months, we can get a critical value by the corresponding equation. It is indicated that the erosion and accretion in the estuary is very sensitive to the changes of the condition of water and sediment discharges from the valley and there is of special significance to recognize the correlation and create the correlation when the sediment discharge from the river to the sea is generally decreasing in the globe range.
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    An Analysis of Water Property Right Transaction Market Based on Contract
    ZHANG Yu, LU Dong-Hui, QIN Li-Jie
    2003, 23 (1):  118-121.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.118
    Abstract ( 173 )   PDF (178KB) ( 16 )   Save
    Nowadays China's water problem is enormous, strengthening economic management on water resources is objective claim of socialist market economy. Water property right transaction may optimize disposition of water resources by market and price signal and accomplish national macroscopic economic regulation. In the paper the author puts forward and analyses a pattern for water property right transaction market based on contact. The contract should be standardized and bound by laws. In the end the author analyses that water property right transaction market based on contract may have great functions in solving water shortage and promoting national economic development.
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    The Problems of Land Use and Countermeasures in the Developing Process of Small Town in Anhui Province
    CHENG Jiu-Miao, YAN Deng-Hua, YU Hua
    2003, 23 (1):  122-128.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.122
    Abstract ( 185 )   PDF (883KB) ( 14 )   Save
    The small towns in Anhui Province are numerous and small in scale. In the process of the development of small towns,the exploitation of land is increasing too fast,besides,its development is at the expense of sacrificing cultivated land. The structure of the exploitation of land is not reasonable and there is too much waste,the utilization ratio of land is low. At the same time,the environment of production and living in small towns is poor.The reasons are as follows:(1) The level of the economic development of the society is relatively low,and the motive force of the development of small towns is lacking.(2) There is no unified,scientific and comprehensive plan for small towns'construction.(3) The investment in infrastructure construction is insufficient.(4) The traditional dual system of registered permanent residence and the great cost of moving to towns restrict the moving of peasants to towns.(5) The original policy on land isn't geared to the requirements of market economy,and it is difficult to cultivate the land market of small towns.(6) In the occupation and supplying of cultivated land,quantity is paid attention to,while quality is ignored.(7) The illegal exploitation of land in small towns'coustruction is obvious and shocking.(8) The administration of land of small towns is weak.To realize the sustainable exploitation of the land of the small towns in Anhui Province,the plan for small towns'system must be perfected,and the small towns must be orientated scientifically and developed step by step. The function of centralized adjusting and controlling in the land use plan should be strengthened and the utilization ratio of small towns'land should be increased. The reform on the relevant systems and policies should be carried out. The reasonable distribution mechanism of land income must be established,and the land market of small towns should be cultivated. Administration of land must be strengthened to maintain the order of land market.
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