Table of Content

    20 January 2008, Volume 28 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Contributions of Academician Wu Chuanjun to Modern Agricultural Geography in China
    LIU Yan-Sui
    2008, 28 (1):  1-5.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.1
    Abstract ( 234 )   PDF (824KB) ( 14 )   Save
    Academician Wu Chuanjun is a distinguished geographer as well as a geography educator in China. He was born in Suzhou city in April 2, 1918. In his more than 70 years of scientific research and education career, Academician Wu has opened up a series of important research fields in contemporary Chinese geography, and has made academic contributions for the development of China's geography, professional personnel training. Mr. Wu is hereby value of his ninetieth birthday, this paper briefly describes his outstanding contributions in terms of his work in modern agricultural geography for which we extend our sincere congratulations.Academician Wu keens on research in the field of agricultural geography more then half century; he is one of the main inaugurators of Chinese modern agricultural geography. His contributions of theory and practice in agricultural geography study are as the follows: take the lead in investigating agricultural resources, agricultural regionalization theories and methods; systematically study and synthesize the agricultural geography theory; reveal the different types and directions of regional agriculture and rural development under the recent process of the rapid urbanization and industrialization in China.
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    Regional system of man-land relationship evolves into regional system of man-sea relationship: Academician Wu Chuanjun’s contribution to studies on marine geography
    ZHANG Yao-Guang
    2008, 28 (1):  6-9.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.6
    Abstract ( 246 )   PDF (855KB) ( 31 )   Save
    Any rising country in modern times all around the world must give its credit to the ocean. China, as a country with extensive territory of both land and sea, relies more and more on the sea for its soci-economic development. As a distinguished geographer, Academician Wu Chuanjun has made great contribution to the development of this academic subject of geography. He is the first one who developed the insightful theory of regional system of man-land relationship. As Mr.Wu holds, and we all acknowledge, that regional system of man-land relationship is the core of the studies of geography. Mr. Wu is also a practitioner, advocate and organizer of studies on marine geography. Studies on man-land relationship owes it to Mr. Wu, who argues that geography be targeted at the sea as well, to branch out to man-sea relationship. Mr.Wu brought it up more than once that China is such an important country boasting wide range of sea territory that geographical studies should never be limited to land territory. It is suggested that a "waterborne army" be set up to study the sea. This paper tells in detail stories of Academician Wu’s hands-on practice in studies of marine geography, of his guidance and support for young generation of geographers, and of his introducing China’s geographical studies to the international community.
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    Review and Prospect of Development of Geography in China
    LI Run-Tian
    2008, 28 (1):  10-14.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.10
    Abstract ( 211 )   PDF (567KB) ( 10 )   Save
    As a disciplinary of studying the temporal and spatial changing regulation of natural and human elements on the earth surface, geography has the attributes of both natural and social science when facing the worldwide scientific problems of global change and sustainable development. On the base of fully reviewing and studing the development of geography in the 20 century, the author made a prospect of the development of geography in China, and make points that, to advance the development of geography in new century, the following aspects must be paid great attention: 1) the development of geography in China must absorb the latest thoughts, theories and results overseas; 2) to construct the geography of Chinese characteristics, and pay more attention to the development of basic theories; 3) geography should play a great role in field of application research and basic research, and make breakthrough in integration research; 4) to enhance the development of weak branches in the geography, and initiatively adapt to the development of our modernization; and 5) to intensify the theory and methods study of the geographic information systems, and search new application technology, models in analyzing the geo-space information.
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    Structural and Functional Optimization of Urban Agglomerations in the Northeast Old Industrial Base of China
    WANG Shi-Jun, WANG Dan, SONG Yang
    2008, 28 (1):  16-21.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.16
    Abstract ( 194 )   PDF (1397KB) ( 18 )   Save
    The northeast old industrial base of China is the industrial system mainly composed of the industrial projects that China placed in the three provinces of Northeast China with emphasis during "First Five-Year" and "Second Five-Uear" period. On its way of developing resources-based heavy industry, this industrial base incubated the growth of the urban agglomerations in Northeast China at the same time of establishing the huge heavy industrial system. Urban agglomeration refers to the city aggregation formed by certain amount of cities with different scales, different grades, different or similar character and type within certain geographical scope. At present, there are three large urban agglomerations, namely urban agglomeration Central Southern Liaoning Province, urban agglomeration in central Jilin, in urban agglomeration Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar and northeast Heilongjiang, and other local urban agglomerations in Northeast China.Urban agglomerations in Northeastern China grow along with the construction, formation and development of the old industrial base. Up to present time, basic urban functions formed in the construction period of the old industrial base have been still remained in most cities of Northeast China. Though the allocation relation, the supply and sale relation formed in planned economy were broken down within and between those urban agglomerations, situations of the coordinating and stable relation with market being the impetus, element flows and industrial division being the principal part have not been established. Impacted by the decline of the old industrial base, those urban agglomerations still have obvious structural and functional problems. This kind of situation has somewhat become the bottleneck of revitalizing the northeast old industrial base. Based on the above-mentioned knowledge, this paper puts forward that urban agglomerations in Northeast China should adjust structures and optimize functions, focusing on the task of revitalizing the old industrial base and aiming at new-type industrialization and new-type urbanization. Urban agglomeration in Central and southern Liaoning Province should strengthen benefit mechanism and efficiency mechanism in the meanwhile of continuing the development of heavy industry and equipment manufacturing; urban agglomeration in central Jilin should consolidate industrial relation at the same time of sticking to the development of automobile industry and emerging industries; urban agglomeration in Harbin-Daqing-Qiqihar and northeast Heilongjiang should lay emphasis on resources-substitute industry and emerging industries. In the process of structural adjustment and function optimization, those agglomerations should also enhance interior urban function division, accelerate grads transfer of industrial structure and product structure, weaken the vertical administrative relation between cities of different grades and strengthen the horizontal relation of cities of the same grades, establish virtuous competitive relation and cooperative relation between different urban agglomerations, so to offer spatial carrier for the adjustment of the old industrial base and the economic development of Northeast China.
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    Utilization & Protection of Water Resources during Urbanization
    YAO Shi-Mou, CHEN Shuang, NIAN Fu-Hua, ZHANG Lei, FENG Chang-Chun
    2008, 28 (1):  22-28.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.22
    Abstract ( 130 )   PDF (1077KB) ( 27 )   Save
    In the current phase of the global economic incorporation, the speed of the industrialization and urbanization is growing, and the metropolis and residentialization corridor is expanding increasing, especially in the developing countries and Asian area. But during the urbanization, the protection of the environment, especially protecting and making good use of water resoucers, is ignored because lack of the scientific outlook on development, merely aiming at economic benefit and the increasing speed of GDP per capita. This paper discusses the characters and processes of the urbanization, the utilization and management of the water resources and how to protect the water resources in the lower Changjiang River valley through investigating some important cities deeply, especially the problems of water body pollution, protection and urbanization process in the area of Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou and the Changjiang River mouth are deeply investigated and analysized. At last some new methods about how to utilize and protect the water resources during the urbanization in the developed area are put forward in order to be used in the construction of the harmonious society. The methods and models of the harmonious development about the urban industrial structure adjustments and new industrialization road in the downstream area of Changjiang River are proposed particularly, which will benefit for sustainable development in this area.
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    Impact of Land Use Changes on Regional Flooding Control Capacity under Urbanization——A case study in Hexi area,Nanjing
    WU Yun-Jin, ZHANG Gan-Lin, ZHAO Yu-Guo, YANG Jin-Ling
    2008, 28 (1):  29-33.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.29
    Abstract ( 136 )   PDF (1145KB) ( 18 )   Save
    The dramatic land use/land cover change(LUCC) is a fundamental characteristic during urbanization which has a strong impact on urban ecosystem and environmental quality. In this paper we used Landsat TM images of two periods (1986 and 2003) covering Hexi area of Nanjing City as a basis to quantify the changes of land use and cover. We used transfer matrix, transfer probability and transfer proportion to explain the changes of land use in Hexi areas.In addition, we built models to calculate the capability of flood detention which can explain the effects of land-use changes on water regulation function of regional soil cover. The result showed that the main characteristics of land use changes in the studied areas were predominantly the conversion of other land uses to build and roads with sealed surface, and the transformation of paddy field to vegetable cropland. During this land use changes, the water storage capacity dropped drastically and amounted to 5.50?106 m3, which equaled to 86mm water depth. However, the contribution by soil compaction was only 31.2?103 m3, which accounted only 0.54% of the total capacity loss. The study showed that an environmentally-sound soil management, especially reducing surface sealing in urban area was essential in building an ecological friendly city.
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    Response of Farmer Households to "Grain-for-Green Project" and Quantitative Analysis of Its Affecting Factors——A Case Study of Daniu Watershed in Gansu Province
    MA Yan, CHEN Li-Ding, HU Chen-Xia
    2008, 28 (1):  34-39.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.34
    Abstract ( 181 )   PDF (271KB) ( 10 )   Save
    In 1999, the Chinese government initiated a "Grain-for-Green Project", aiming to reduce soil erosion and to improve regional environmental quality in the Loess Plateau. This project was firstly started in Gansu, Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces, and then was expanded to 25 provinces of China. As one of the largest ecological rehabilitation projects in the world, the attitudes and perceptions of farmers towards Grain-for-Green Project are significant for the successful implementation. However, it was less known at present.This paper focuses on the environmental awareness and the attitudes towards Grain for Green Project in two kinds of farmer households. The analysis is based on a semi-structured interview of 69 farmer households by means of participatory rural appraisal (PRA). According to the source of income, the farmers were divided into two groups, on-farm-oriented and off-farm-oriented. Although some differences remain, most respondents have positive attitudes towards environmental protection and Grain-for-Green Project. After that, binary logistic regression models were used to identify the major factors that influence the farmer’s responses towards environmental conservation and Grain-for-Green. The results indicated that the main affecting factors are age, education, household size, the number of labor, cropland area per capita, area of grain for green, but the effect is different between on-farm group and off-farm group. According to the results, some suggestions were given in this paper for improving the farmer’s attitude to the project, such as extending the period of subsidence in Grain for Green Project, re-employment of the rural surplus labor, and strengthening education of the local farmers.
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    Characteristics and Origin of Rare Earth Elements of Vermicular Red Earth in Middle Sub-Tropic Zone
    YE Wei, YANG Li-Hui, ZHU Li-Dong, LI Feng-Quan, WANG Jun-Jin
    2008, 28 (1):  40-44.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.40
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (377KB) ( 16 )   Save
    The vermicular red earth is a kind of sediment which is widespread in middle sub-tropic zone. It is similar to the loess in grain size, mineral composition of clay, sedimentary texture and so on. This study compared the rare earth element (REE) feature of the vermicular red earth in southern China with that of the loess and other Aeolian deposits in northern China, in order to understand the origin of vermicular red earth better. The REE contents of the samples were measured by using the ICP-MS. And 130 samples which were collected from Jiujiang, Xinzi and Shahe in Jiangxi Province, Jinhua and Anji in Zhejiang Province, Zhuzhou in Hunan Province were analyzed. The results suggest that the vermicular red earth is similar to dust deposits in REE features. Vermicular red earth also originates from well-mixed and multi-cyclic sediments. (1) The average REE content of vermicular red earth is 179.57μg/g, greater than that soils of China, but it is near to those of earths crust (178 μg/g), the dust storm deposit of Beijing suburb in Dec. 1998 (177.97μg/g) and Chinese standard loess samples (CJ-1 and CJ-2, average in 178.22μg/g). (2) The vermicular red earth show a similar REE distribution pattern as that of the dust deposits in northern China. The curve is sharp from La to Eu, and flat from Eu to Lu. The Eu shows negative anomaly. (3) The LREE content of vermicular red clay is dominant, but the average content of HREE is 14.26mg/kg (the percentage is less than 10%), obviously lower than the loess (18.89mg/kg) and Pliocene red clay(18.57 mg/kg) in the northern China. The ratios of LEE and HREE range from 9.86 to 15.15, which is higher than those of the loess and Pliocene red clay. The element Ce appears highly positive anomaly. (4) The calculation of provenance index (Pi) indicates that vermicular red earth is similar to the loess and Pliocene red clay in the northern China in chemical component. (5) Compared with the white parts, the red matrix of vermicular red earth is characterized by the low concentration and low ratio of REE, but the distributing pattern is identical. In a summary, all of the above evidences from REE suggest that the vermicular red clay in studied areas may originate from dust and have the same source as the aeolian deposits in the northern China. The dust has suffered stronger weathering than loess during the accumulating process.
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    Principle Component Analyses Based on Soil Knowledge as a Tool to Indicate Origin of Heavy Metals in Soils
    ZHAO Yan-Feng, GUO Heng-Liang, SUN Zhi-Ying, SHI Xue-Zheng, WU Ke-Ning
    2008, 28 (1):  45-50.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.45
    Abstract ( 309 )   PDF (1121KB) ( 31 )   Save
    Fristly, the origin of heavy metals in soils were researched with the aid of Principle Component Analyses (PCA) in Wuxi peri-urban area and in Zhengzhou suburb. In PCA, combined with soil heavy metals, soil basic properties were also utilized based on soil knowledge. Secondly, the results of PCA based on different sampling designs were compared. The results of this paper showed that it was helpful to distinguish the sources of heavy metals in soils using PCA based on soil knowledge. However the errors of PCA caused by unreasonable sampling designs should be noticed.
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    Knowledge Discovery and Spatial Data Exploring Analysis for Community's Residential Environment
    AI Bin, XU Jian-Hua, LI Xia1, ZHUO Li
    2008, 28 (1):  51-58.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.51
    Abstract ( 155 )   PDF (1479KB) ( 25 )   Save
    At present, as an important scale in the research field of GIS, community is attracted to many scholars. One of the hot spots to study is residential environment. Based on this, method integrated with GIS, spatial data analysis and grid computing to study community’s residential environment were proposed in this paper for knowledge discovery of spatial pattern. Selecting 131 streets in downtown of Shanghai as samples, firstly, 23 indices were chosen and fuzzy BP model was used to evaluate the quality of residential environment, secondly, spatial exploring analysis including global and local analysis was used. Several conclusions were drawn: community’s residential environment is influenced by different variables, which will result in special pattern in the space. In old core urban area, overall residential environment is general lower than other periphery area mainly for higher population density and too less vegetation coverage; on the other hand, due to the relationship between the variables, residential environment shows local dissimilarity and global similarity. Finally, according to the spatial autocorrelation of residential environment among the communities, strategies for planning the layout of communities were put forward in this paper.
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    Vegetation Pattern Dynamics in Zhangye Oasis Based on Two New Landscape Metrics
    LIU Chuan-Sheng, ZHANG Wan-Chang, YONG Bin
    2008, 28 (1):  59-65.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.59
    Abstract ( 122 )   PDF (1808KB) ( 27 )   Save
    By using RS and GIS techniques, PPU(Patch Per Unit) and SqP(Sq)(Square Pixel), the two new landscape metrics proposed by Frohn (1998), were utilized in dynamic analyses on vegetation pattern of Zhangye Oasis and proved to have favorable applicability and sensitivity in temporal landscape pattern analyses. It was demonstrated that the new metrics had similar transformation trends and statistical dependence for temporal landscape pattern analyses by comparison with the traditional landscape metrics (Contagion and Fractal Dimension). It was also found that PPU and SqP(Sq) showed more sensitivity than the traditional ones because of their higher coefficient of variation, thus the new metrics were provided with better predictable ability and sensitivity for landscape fragmentation and patch shape complexity, and had advantages in distinguishing the patch types comparing to Contagion and Fractal Dimension. Computation on new landscape metrics and dynamic analysis of landscape metrics behaviors for these time series images clearly revealed the general evolution trend of the oasis from fragmentation to contagion with the gradual enhancement trend of the spatial heterogeneity and patch shape complexity.
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    Responses of Corn and Rice Planting Area to Temperature Changes Based on RS in the West of Heilongjiang Province
    ZHU Xiao-Xi, FANG Xiu-Qi, WANG Yuan
    2008, 28 (1):  66-71.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.66
    Abstract ( 152 )   PDF (1978KB) ( 17 )   Save
    Global warming and its impacts in the past two decades have gained much attention worldwide. Human may adjust their behaviors to response to such changes. In this paper, the west of Heilongjiang Province, one of the main grain producing areas which is sensible to climate change, is chosen as the research area to analyze the response of the grain crops’ structure to climate warming. RS technique is used as the main research method in this paper. Two temporal series of TM images are interpreted to generate the crop land use maps of the west of Heilongjiang Province in 1988 and 1998 respectively. Then, based on the ≥10℃ cumulative temperature data of the same period, we find the response of crop structure to climate warming is very evident in the west of Heilongjiang Province. Because the isothermal lines of cumulative temperature move northward, the planting boundary of rice extended northward for 1.5 degree with the 2 200℃ isothermal lines of the ≥10℃ cumulative temperature, and the region of dense rice-planting area extended northward for 1 degree with the 2 300-2 400℃ isothermal lines of the ≥10℃ cumulative temperature. In the same way, two planting regions of corn extended respectively with the 2 800℃ isothermal lines and the 2 400℃ isothermal lines of the ≥10℃ cumulative temperature for 1 degree northward. Furthermore, rice had the priority in the process of substitute above.
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    Vegetation Water Content Estimation Using NDVI and LSWI from MODIS Images
    ZHANG You-Shui, XIE Yuan-Li
    2008, 28 (1):  72-76.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.72
    Abstract ( 304 )   PDF (555KB) ( 25 )   Save
    Estimating the water status of vegetation is most important in crop irrigation and prediction of forest fire. This paper analyzes the relationships between vegetation water content (VWC) and land surface water index (LSWI) and between fractional vegetation cover and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 8-day composite MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) surface reflection products (MOD09A1), and the distribution regularities of different type of vegetation and its surface water content in LSWI-NDVI space. Two years’ 8-day composite MODIS Surface Reflection products were used to estimate the minimal and maximal water content lines of the hypothetical trapezoidal shape of NDVI-LSWI in the study area. Instead of the theoretical trapezoidal shape of fractional vegetation cover and Ts-Ta that indirectly estimated water status per fractional vegetation cover (Ts-Ta is surface (soil and canopy) temperature minus air temperature at measuring time), the vegetation dryness index (VDI) developed in this study was directly used to estimate vegetation water deficits at the canopy level by the trapezoidal shape of LSWI-NDVI. The technique simply estimated vegetation water status without measuring Ts-Ta.
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    Urban Vegetation Stress Level Monitoring Based on Hyperspectral Feature Selection and RBF Neural Network
    WANG Fang, ZHUO Li, LI Xia, XIA Li-Hua
    2008, 28 (1):  77-82.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.77
    Abstract ( 181 )   PDF (1298KB) ( 22 )   Save
    Urban vegetation system has great ecological value to social-economic-natural ecosystem,but it was often submitted to different stresses caused by air pollution, water pollution, "heat island" problem, etc., which debases its ecological service functions, so it is important to develop methods to monitor urban vegetation stress level. Using the Hyperion hyper-spectral data, which has advantage in monitoring vegetation physiological characters on large scale, an urban vegetation stress level monitoring method was developed based on vegetation stress feature selection and RBFNN (Radial Basis Function Neural Network). Firstly, 14 hyperspectral vegetation indices were extracted from reflectance image of Hyperion and a feature selection based on correlation analysis was conducted to reduce the redundancies. Then an urban vegetation stress level classifier based on RBFNN was trained on the selected features and vegetation stress level was classified and mapped. Finally, the spatial distribution characteristics of vegetation stress in urban and some reasons were analyzed. The result shows that the RBFNN vegetation stress level classifier is able to identify vegetation stress level quickly and accurately. Vegetation stress level is correlated largely with urban traffic pollution and human disturbance, and vegetation in commercial and residential areas of urban center are apparently experiencing higher stress than vegetation in suburban regions; the stress level shows a ringy distribution around large greenbelts.
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    Characteristics and Tendencies of Annual Runoff Variations in the Heihe River Basin During the Past 60 years
    WANG Jun, MENG Ji-Jun
    2008, 28 (1):  83-88.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.83
    Abstract ( 154 )   PDF (1386KB) ( 19 )   Save
    This paper analyzes the characteristics, tendencies, and causes of annual runoff variations of the Yingluo Gorge (1944-2005) and the Zhengyi Gorge (1954-2005), which are the boundaries of the upper reaches, the middle reaches, and the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin. Methods used in the study include wavelet analysis, wavelet neural network model, and GIS spatial analysis. The results show that: (1) annual runoff variations of the Yingluo Gorge had principal periods of 7 years and 25 years, and the variation ratio was 1.04 m3/(s·10a); (2) annual runoff variations of the Zhengyi Gorge had principal periods of 6 years and 27 years, and the variation ratio was 2.65m3/(s·10a); (3) during 2006-2015, annual runoff variations of the Yingluo Gorge have ascending tendencies, and the increasing ratio is 2.04 m3/(s·10a); (4) the annual runoff increase of the Yinluo Gorge had causal relationship with the increased temperature and precipitation in the upper reaches, and the annual runoff decrease of the Zhengyi Gorge in the past decades was mainly caused by the increased human consumption of water resources in the middle researches. The study results will provide scientific foundation for making rational use and allocation schemes of water resources in the Heihe River Basin.
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    Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Water Environment Value Based on GIS
    HOU Ying-Zi, CHEN Xiao-Ling, WANG Fang-Xiong
    2008, 28 (1):  89-93.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.89
    Abstract ( 266 )   PDF (840KB) ( 26 )   Save
    On the basis of environment value theory, this paper analyzes the principle, method and achieved approach for water environment value, and presents fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of water environment value. It integrates fuzzy model and GIS technologies, and discusses the interaction of water environment and human being society based on GIS from the view of value. It uses GIS technologies to research evaluation of water environment value for the first time.
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    Fluctuation Process and Trend Prediction of Sea Level Change along Jiangsu Coast Based on Multi-scale Analysis
    YU Zhao-Yuan, YUAN Lin-Wang, XIE Zhi-Ren
    2008, 28 (1):  94-99.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.94
    Abstract ( 185 )   PDF (930KB) ( 20 )   Save
    In this paper three tide gauge stations along the coast of northern part of Jiangsu Province were selected as the objects of study, which were located in the sustainable slowly settlement areas of Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta. Fluctuation and trend of sea level change were analyzed in virtue of EMD and SSA methods comprehensively. The adjusted long-term trends were obtained through the sum of trends that extracted by EMD and long-term cycle components. Short-term wave cycles were gained from the rest components by means of SSA method and each station could be properly compared. Combined with the research findings of local ground rise or fall, the absolute sea level changes were discussed and prediction models were built according to the adjusted long-term trends. Based on the mentioned above, relative sea level changes in the coming one hundred years were calculated and compared with results of IPCC.
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    Geographical Probe into Shaanxi Literature
    LIANG Lu
    2008, 28 (1):  100-106.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.100
    Abstract ( 113 )   PDF (1165KB) ( 30 )   Save
    Literature geography is a newly arising branch in culture geography. It studies as well as analyses literature from regional and dimensional perspective. From the natural geography perspective and the human geography perspective, Shaanxi contemporary literature is investigated in the essay to explore the dimensional differentiation system in literature so as to set up the corresponding theory in literature geography. As far as literature dimensional differentiation is concerned, the differentiations in literature development and literature styles are of great significance. Shaanxi literature develops in an unbalanced way. In the regions where they enjoy geographical, economic and transportation convenience as well as more cultural communications, the literature development in these areas is comparatively higher. In a direct way, under the influence of natural sight, whether it being monotonous or complex,the style in writing will be modesty or gorgeous accordingly. In an indirect way, litterateurs are more affected by the unique regional economic types, living conditions, residents' customs and their folkway, which in return influence their writing styles. This is how the various styles and features are come into being. To be specific, the most developed literature lies in the central area of Shaanxi, which claims messiness and modesty in its literature style. The southern and northern Shaanxi are less developed in literature; however some developed areas are till exist. The north Shaanxi claims rugged and unconstrained in its literature style. The southern Shaanxi claims elegance and clearness in its literature style. This dimensional differentiation makes sharp regional difference in literature.
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    Research on Post-Emergent Event Tourism Crisis Based on Background Trend Line in Qin's Terra-cotta Museum
    SUN Gen-Nian, YU Li-Xin
    2008, 28 (1):  107-112.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.107
    Abstract ( 124 )   PDF (1000KB) ( 10 )   Save
    After analyzing the flaws of neighboring year comparison method in the evaluation of tourism crisis, the post-impact evaluation method of tourism crisis from emergent event was put forward based on the theory of tourism background trend line. Using the statistics data of Qin's Terra-cotta Museum from 1980 to 2005, taking the tourism crisis response to three breakout events in Qin's Terracotta Warriors and Horses Museum as an example, the four tourism background trend lines of inbound tourist, domestic tourist, total tourist arrivals and tourism income was found. And the post impact evaluation of three emergent events to Qin's Terra-cotta Museum's tourism development wasanalyzed, which are the Jun. 4 Event in Beijing in 1989, Asian Finance Crisis in 1998, and SARS pestilence in 2003, then the tourist loss, tourism income loss and impact time-table were explored.
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    Analysis of Spatial TourisT Structure and Optimizing for the Zhujiang River Delta Urban Cluster
    Chen Hao, Lu Lin, Shan Ting-Zheng
    2008, 28 (1):  113-118.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.113
    Abstract ( 169 )   PDF (1256KB) ( 203 )   Save
    The city was by way of the origin of the tourist and the alleyway in the researches to urban tourism anciently,as the tourism destination,the researches are mostly about the tourist image and the planning.There is little research about the tourism cities cluster.There are some cities cluster rudiment in China.So the research to the spatial tourist structure of the tourist cities cluster is very significant.The Zhujiang River Delta is much mature urban cluster in China. The paper analyses the area's shape, tolerance, the spatial connection and the understanding,analyses the spatial tourist grading stucture and the spatial organization of the tourism flowing, constructs the spatial tourist mode of the urban cluster,concludes the spatial tourist pattern of the Zhujiang River Delta.The high level of the tourist industry of the Zhujiang River Delta is concerned with the HongKong and Macao. The Zhujiang River Delta should strengthen the cooperation with them in the future.It is very necessary to strengthen the cooperation in the wider spatial dimension when the concept of the Extensive Zhujiang River Delta is advanced.With the bridge connecting the Hong Kong, Macao, Shenzhen and Zhuhai,the spatial tourist pattern will be more optimized.
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    Review and Prospects on Road Erosion Research
    ZHANG Ke-Li, XU Xian-Li, LUO Li-Fang
    2008, 28 (1):  119-123.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.119
    Abstract ( 92 )   PDF (516KB) ( 9 )   Save
    Road network plays an important role in initiating hydrological change and contributing to erosion process in a watershed because of the cutting of overland flow pathways and sediment transportation. Roads in a watershed can generate the flow collection along slopes and road-related erosion can also enhance gully erosion. Gully erosion occurring on the roads as well as corresponding sediment deposition may hinder traffic. In order to determine the contribution of road networks to soil loss, most attention has been given to road erosion and its impacts on hydrological and sediment transport process in a watershed in many countries over the world on the base of the data from field investigation and experiments. A lot of results dealing with road erosion process and sediment storage have been obtained. In this paper, we reviewed and discussed the researches on road erosion conducted in recent 20 years, and summed the results obtained by representative researchers in different parts of the world. At last, according to geographic features and soil loss, some suggestions and prospects on studies about road erosion in China have been given.
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    Development of Urban Social Geography in Western Countries and Its Significance for China
    LI Jian, NING Yue-Min
    2008, 28 (1):  124-130.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.124
    Abstract ( 149 )   PDF (980KB) ( 49 )   Save
    First, the paper retrospects the developing course of urban social geography in western countries, and then remarks the transformation of modern urban social geography and its theory basis. Based on some literatures, the paper divides modern urban social geography into four parts: 1) the significance of sociospatial structure; 2) the patterns of sociospatial differentiation; 3) urban space and institutional frameworks; and 4) deviant behavior in urban settings. Finally, it puts forwards some suggestions on the development and study of urban social geography in China. The paper also thinks that comparing with ripe urban social geography study in western countries, our study fields should be extended. The reason and mechanism of urban problem have a necessarity to go further to excavate. Urban social geography must pay more attention to the research progress of sociology since the 1980s and strengthen the theory analysis in the aspects such as urban management, institution, structurization, and so on.
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    Review on Intra-Urban Residential Mobility in the Western Country
    LIU Wang-Bao, YAN Xiao-Pei, CAO Xiao-Shu
    2008, 28 (1):  131-137.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.01.131
    Abstract ( 96 )   PDF (730KB) ( 84 )   Save
    As a spatial matching process between households and housing, and also the core question to understand mechanism of urban restructure,intra-urban residential mobility is an important research issue of urban geography, sociology and behavior science in the west. From three aspects, namely residential mobility decision models, residential mobility process and residential mobility and urban restructure, this paper reviews literatures on intra-urban residential mobility in the west. Then based on simple review on relative literatures in China, this paper attempts to advance several research directions on intra-urban residential mobility in China.
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