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    20 May 2008, Volume 28 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    论文
    Wetland Research Progresses in China —Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS
    LU Xian-Guo, LIU Xiao-Hui
    2008, 28 (3):  301-308.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.301
    Abstract ( 211 )   PDF (998KB) ( 64 )   Save
    Wetland is the very important natural resource and it is one of the important living environments for humans and wild propagations. The biodiversity is very rich in wetlands. There were thousands of histories for wetland researches. There were several processes of wetland researches which include from observation to long-term location experiments, from investigation to structure, function and process, and from research on marsh to research on all kinds of wetlands. Wetland researches have their own characteristics in China and have gained great advancements in recent years. It reviewed our own research results in China in nearly thirty years. It mainly included seven aspects, such as concepts and classifications of wetland, formations and development rules, the hydrological processes and function which represented providing space for water storage, pollution reduction and water purification, biogeochemical cycles which represented greenhouse gases emissions, metal elements migration and nutrients withholding, succession of vegetation communities in which the species diversity always changed and it declined when up to climax communities, services value estimation, and finally research on soil carbon fraction in wetland cultivation and reverting farmland to wetland. It puts forward the main problems in wetland research which include the weakness of wetland basic theories, the lack of wetland classification systems suitable for Chinese wetland types and the shortage of long-term orientation observations of wetland ecosystem. So suggestions about wetland researches in the future are proposed from two aspects which were the construction of wetland science system info should be strengthened and the directions of wetland research.
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    Review of Research on Marshes: Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes
    WANG Guo-ping, LU Xian-guo
    2008, 28 (3):  309-313.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.309
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (652KB) ( 9 )   Save
    The marsh wetland is a unique ecosystem within the Earth surface. Its forms and evolution existed obvious difference with other ecosystem. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology (former Changchun Institute of Geography) has rich accumulation of research on evolution and records of environmental and climate changes: In 1958, Chinese Academy of Sciences determined marsh as the main research direction for this Institute. For 50 years, several generation of researchers have contributed their youth time to wetland environment evolution research work, and have obtained the plentiful research results. This article will pay full respective to all of them when the 50th anniversary coming.
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    GeoCA Based Dynamic Site Selection Model —Shenzhen City as a Case Study
    WU Shao-Kun, LI Xia, Liu Xiao-Ping, Gong You-Fu
    2008, 28 (3):  314-319.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.314
    Abstract ( 142 )   PDF (963KB) ( 25 )   Save
    Most research papers of the site selection model, such Location-allocation, focus on the algorithm itself, while ignoring the influences of the city, as a complex geographic system which has uncertainties and will develop dynamically. Therefore, it’s quite possible that the results of such models will dissatisfy the new demands, or even be incompatible with the new situation after the utilities located have been put into service. Based on the GeoCA urban land use simulation model, this paper establishes a new dynamic Location-allocation model so that the selection result has characteristics of extension, forecast and sustainable development. Besides, all the sub models, e.g. the population forecasting model, of this dynamic site selection model are able to be optimized alone. Hence, this model has a highly flexibility and is competent for special region’s requirements.
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    Establishing and Operating Mechanism of Dynamical System of Regional Economic Development
    GU Guo-Feng
    2008, 28 (3):  320-324.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.320
    Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (1048KB) ( 14 )   Save
    Regional economic development needs motive force. It is always the key to solve the power problem for a long time in Regional Economics, Economic Geography, Development Economics, etc. Single motive force could produce certain efficiency to regional economic development, but it is a general existing problem in regional economic development to lack systematic motive force. Under the background of Scientific Development View, the paper classifies and analyzes synthetically regional economic development element, and puts forward the concept of "resultant force network ", then establishes the dynamical system of regional economic development tentatively, involving the subsystems for self-organization dynamical system, technological innovation dynamical system, institution innovation dynamical system and culture dynamical system. It also analyzes the interaction relationship and operating mechanism of dynamical system and its subsystems.
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    Industrial Agglomeration, Market Organization and Productivity —Empirical Research Based on Provincial Panel Data of China's Manufacturing Industries
    CHEN Liang-Wen, YANG Kai-Zhong
    2008, 28 (3):  325-330.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.325
    Abstract ( 105 )   PDF (586KB) ( 14 )   Save
    Agglomeration economy effect is considered as a key factor deciding the spatial distribution of economic activity. Many researches have examined the existence of agglomeration economy effect. The most common method to examine the existence of agglomeration economy effect is to investigate the relationship between industry or city size and productivity. Economy agglomeration is very distinct in China, and the trend has enhanced ever sine 1978. An obvious evidence is that the total GDP of Changjiang(Yangtze) River Delta Metropolitan Area, Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta Metropolitan Area and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area accounted for 34.74% of the whole China, but the ratio grew to 40% in 2004. We have to investigate the economic mechanism of the economic factors. This paper examines the existence of agglomeration economy effect in China’s manufacturing industries by investigating the relationship between industry size and productivity. We use the provincial panel data of 8 industries from 1987 to 2003, and the result approves localization economy effect and urbanization economy effect in most of the 8 industries. The detailed result is that the localization economy effect exists in the industries of foods manufacturing, textile manufacturing, processing of petroleum and coking, medicines manufacturing, transport equipment manufacturing, and the urbanization economy effect exists in the industry of textile manufacturing, paper and paper products manufacturing, raw chemical materials and chemical products manufacturing, processing of petroleum and coking, medicines manufacturing. In order to check the robustness of our model, we use the total output, instead of value-added of industry, to denote industry size. The result is almost the same with the original model, which approves the robustness of the model. It need to be pointed out that we do not find the relationship between industry technology level and agglomeration economy effect. We find urbanization in low technology industry as well as in high technology industry. The industrial market organization is also an important factor that influences the industry productivity.We consider the impact of industry organization in our model by introducing the variable of average firm size, and the result shows that the average firm size has positive influence on productivity". A feasible explanation is that internal scale economy inside firms has stronger influences on the industry productivity than the innovation effect does, which derived from competition. we just use the provincial level and two-digit industry data, so the next step is to use more detailed data to investigate the existence of agglomeration economy effect in future.
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    Industry-based Village in Zhejiang Province: Model Characteristics and Dynamic Mechanism
    ZHU Hua-You, JIANG Zi-Ran
    2008, 28 (3):  331-336.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.331
    Abstract ( 177 )   PDF (343KB) ( 13 )   Save
    Compared with agriculture-based and market-based village, the industry-based village is a typical one in China's new rural reconstruction which refers to the village relying on industrial production. It is a long research history abroad, but ours' begins till the implement of reform and open policy. However, as far as the documents about the industry-based village concerned, there are really few written records kept which can keep along with the highly developed social and economic level of Zhejinag province. Regarding as the industry-based village of Zhejiang province, it is with a character of "block economy" in space. Although some areas develop by leaps and bounds, the number of industry-based village's progress is in accordance with economy level. According to the features of different zones, they can be divided into two models-syntheses and endogenesis(taking northeast and southeast of Zhejiang for examples respectively), and especially the latter represents the typical features of industry-based village in Zhejiang province with deep internal dynamics and external force. Based on the analysis above, the author concludes that the development path of Zhejiang's industry-based village shows historical contingencies and path-dependence under the condition of reform and opening-up policy. Firstly, Zhejiang's industry-based village is formed under the internal and external factors and can not be achieved without one of them; Secondly, the production organization is very difficult to be transplanted. Based on contingencies, the industry-based village of Zhejiang demonstrates "path-dependence", and it appears "circulation-cumulative" effect. The formation way of industry-based village can be indicated as follows: "Market-oriented-endogenic force (primarily)+ The overflow effect (auxiliary)-enterprises agglomeration- rural industrialization". Finally, the author makes a comprehensive summary about the main idea and thinks that it is a very important issue to promote village's structure transition and upgrading.
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    Dynamic Model and Measures of Total Area of Farmland in China
    SUN Yan, LIN Zhen-Shan, JIN Xiao-Bin, Zhou Yin-Kang, XU Jian
    2008, 28 (3):  337-342.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.337
    Abstract ( 201 )   PDF (340KB) ( 38 )   Save
    The total area of farmland is decreasing at a rather high speed in recent years in China. The major reasons include: constructional land use, ecologic comeback, agricultural structure adjustment, catastrophic and so on, which will badly affect the food safety in China. By a new national plan, the insurance quantity of cultivated land should be 1.2108hm2 by the year of 2010.The author analyzs that the number of farmland in China will decrease in short time based on the intrinsic model function,and advances several dynamic equations on arable land change, brings forward three projects based on numerical simulation . The result of the study shows: we must adopt the most severe measures, for the aim to nsure quantity of cultivated land of 1.2108hm2. At last, the author presented three suggestions based on the numerical simulation results, which are to enhance the mprehensive plan of land use, to strengthen economical use of land, and to consolidate the management of land use.
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    Evaluation of Coordinated Development of Arable Land and Wetlands in Sanjiang Reserve
    ZHANG Chun-Li, TONG Lian-Jun, LIU Ji-Bin
    2008, 28 (3):  343-347.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.343
    Abstract ( 215 )   PDF (733KB) ( 17 )   Save
    The wetlands in Sanjiang Plain are significant for regional ecological security owing to their important ecological functions such as conserving water source, keeping biodiversity, and so on. On the other hand, Sanjiang Plain plays a very important role in ensuring the Chinese food security with its suitable climate and allocation of water and land resources. But, during the course of constructing Chinese commodity grain base, the expansion of the farmland led to the shrink of wetlands. Human activities changed the pattern of land use in Sanjiang Plain and negatively affected on regional ecology and led to the declination of the regional ecological quality, even menace the ecological security. To lessen those contradictions require the coordinated development of arable land and wetlands. In order to seek rational proportion between the arable land and wetland, this paper analyzes the relationship between arable land and wetland in Sanjiang Plain, and constructs a set of index system for coordinated development between both. With the help of the exponential evaluation model, the coordinated development level of arable land and wetland in Sanjiang Reserve is evaluated. The results show that the coordinated development level between the arable land production and the wetland environment is better from 1954 to 2000.The topmost point of coordinated development level was attained in 1995, while that of comprehensive development level in 2000. However the coordinated index and comprehensive index take on a great degressive trend appeared in 2000, which is mainly resulted from the decline of wetland exploitation carrying capacity, particularly the reduce of wetland value has threaten the sustainable development of Saijiang Reserve. From 1995 to 2000 when the coordinated index and comprehensive index attained the topmost point, the area of arable land was about 26, 000 hm2 and the wetland was 35, 000 hm2 in Saijiang Reserve, which can be taken as a reference standard when defining the level of wetland restoration.
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    Spatio-temporal Characteristics and Driving Factors of Farmland Change on Urban Fringe: A Case Study of Shunyi District, Beijing Municipality
    YU Bo-Hua, LU Chang-He
    2008, 28 (3):  348-353.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.348
    Abstract ( 221 )   PDF (851KB) ( 39 )   Save
    With the rapid economic development, land demands of different stakeholders are increasing the pressure on the limited land resources on the urban fringe, resulting in fast farmland loss. Based on the TM data in the years 1990 and 2000, combined with social-economical statistic data from 1978 to 2002, this paper explored the spatial and temporal characteristics of farmland change and its driving forces in Shunyi District, Beijing Municipality, by means of spatial analysis, GIS-based buffer analysis and mathematical statistics method. It was found that fast loss of farmland take place after the 1978. From 1978 to 2002, 38% of the farmland area in Shunyi was lost, which were mainly converted to built-up land (57%) and ecological land (43%), and driven by land demands for urbanization and better environment. Meanwhile, agricultural land use structure changed substantially due to the expansion of urban land and economic force/market change. For example, in 2002, the sowing area of food grain crops decreased by 35.12%, while the area of vegetable and orchard increased by 3 times compared to that in 1991. This change increased income of farmers, but led to a problem of food insecurity. Three major factors contributed to these land use changes. The first is the great gap of benefits among industrial and agricultural land use in Shunyi District. The second the investment of fixed asset, e.g., the investment to real estate increased 5 times from 1998 to 2003, while that to agriculture decreased to 1/29 at corresponding time. The third is development of transportation infrastructure to meet the need of its industrialization and urbanization. The quick development of villa and other residential land use with low plot ratio caused loss of fertile farmland and other ecological land. Additionally, this paper proved that the combination of Principal Component Analysis and Stepwise Regression was an effective means to discover driving factors of farmland loss. The former was used to distinguish main factors in each category, and the latter was used to give a rational explanation of land use change.
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    Sediment Storing and Releasing in Lower Huanghe River and Their Thresholds
    XU Jiong-Xin
    2008, 28 (3):  354-360.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.354
    Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (1186KB) ( 12 )   Save
    Based on data from the Huanghe (Yellow) River, the sediment storing-releasing process in an alluvial channel has been studied. The results show that in a hydrological year, sediment storing occurs during the high-flow season and sediment releasing occurs in the low-flow season. The amount of sediment storage in the high-flow season exceeds that of sediment release in the low-flow season, and net storage is positive for the whole year. Some thresholds for the critical storing-releasing state of the channel have been identified. When the event average suspended sediment concentration is smaller than 31.68 kg/m3, or the event sediment amount supplied from the "coarse sediment producing area" is smaller than 45.35?106 t, the channel would change from a state of sediment storing to sediment releasing. When the ratio of event water amount supplied from the "clear water source area" in the upper Huanghe River to the event total flood water is high than 0.70, the channel would also change from a state of sediment storing to sediment releasing. The event sediment delivery ratio (Rsd) of lower Huanghe River channel increased with the event mean water discharge (Qmean) to a peak, at which Qmean=4 000 m3/s, roughly equaling the bankfull discharge, and then Rsd decreased. This indicates that channel sediment storing is the least at bankfull discharges, and when Qmean is larger or smaller that bankfull, sediment storing increased.
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    Soil Erosion Change Characteristic of Different Watersheds of Sanjiang Plain during the Past 50 Years
    BU Kun, ZHANG Shu-Wen, YAN Ye-Chao, WANG Wen-Juan, ZHANG Yu-Bo
    2008, 28 (3):  361-368.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.361
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (1661KB) ( 18 )   Save
    By reasonable selection of different factors in the Usual Soil Loss Equation (USLE), the serial of soil erosion maps of Sanjiang Plain in 1951, 1976, 1986 and 2000 are obtained under the support of GIS. The calculated result is approved to be valid comparison with the result of the second remote sensing survey for soil erosion of China in 2000. Then the change of soil erosion of the 6 watersheds in the Sanjiang Plain is analyzed to indicate that the way of land use impacts soil erosion significantly, and the reclamation is the main reason for the area increase intensity and of the soil erosion. The expansion rate of soil erosion slowed down obviously after the reduce of wasteland reclamation and replanting some dry land to paddy field.
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    Spatial Patterns of Aboveground Biomass and Its Climatic Attributions in Typical Steppe of Inner Mongolia
    CHEN Xiao-Qiu, ZHENG Ting
    2008, 28 (3):  369-374.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.369
    Abstract ( 206 )   PDF (1072KB) ( 29 )   Save
    Studying a high spatial-resolution distribution pattern of observed aboveground biomass of grasslands and its climatic attributions within a continuous geographical area and during a specific time period is crucial for assessing responses of the net primary production of grasslands to climate change, and validating satellite derived and model estimated grassland aboveground biomass. Using statistical data of the grassland investigation in Inner Mongolia during the 1980s and Geographic Information System techniques, we produced a distribution map of the grassland aboveground biomass with a 1km?1km spatial resolution for the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, and then analyzed the spatial patterns of the aboveground biomass and its relation to thermal-moisture conditions. The grid aboveground biomass has a significantly positive correlation with latitudes and longitudes of the corresponding grids (P<0.001), representing a decreased tendency from north to south and from east to west. The aboveground biomass at meteorological stations has a significantly positive correlation with mean annual precipitation (P<0.001) and a significantly negative correlation with mean annual air temperature (P<0.001) and mean annual aridity index (P<0.001). It is worth to note that in areas with the mean annual aridity index between 1 and 1.5, the aboveground biomass has a very sensitive response to changes of the aridity index. The spatial patterns of the aboveground biomass was therefore shaped under the controls of thermal-moisture conditions: longitudinal distribution characteristics of the aboveground biomass were mainly determined by mean annual precipitation, whereas latitudinal distribution characteristics of the aboveground biomass were influenced by both mean annual air temperature and mean annual precipitation.
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    Character and Age of Loess along North Piedmont of Tianshan Mountains
    LU Hong-Hua, LI You-Li, NAN Feng, SI Su-Pei
    2008, 28 (3):  375-379.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.375
    Abstract ( 174 )   PDF (616KB) ( 41 )   Save
    The loess is of importance to understand the progress of environmental evolution in Northwest China, which should be based on the reliable age. Because of the limit of the dating means, the conclusions on the age of loess along the north flank of the Tianshan Mountains are controversial, which makes it difficult to understand the environmental implication of the loess. Loess-paleosol series and the dating method based on the structure of geomorphologic complexs make it possible to date the geomorphologic complex and the related deposites. This study aims at giving the age of the loess along the north flank of the Tianshan Mountains. Based on the detailed field work, seven fluvial terraces have been identified along major river channels, and the distribution of loess is thought to be related with these terraces and corresponding alluvial fans. The oldest loess in the north piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains is distributed on the highest terrace T7, and the younger loess on the T6 is more extensive. Loess-paleosol series and the ESR age indicate that the age of the oldest loess in the north piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains is 0.54 Ma.
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    Variation Trend Analysis of Annual Precipitation Series Based on Wavelet Transform in Well-Irrigation Area of Low-lying Wetland in Sanjiang Plain
    LIU Dong, FU Qiang
    2008, 28 (3):  380-384.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.380
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (431KB) ( 15 )   Save
    The rapid increase of paddy field acreage has led to widely descending of groundwater level in well irrigation paddy area of low-lying wetland in the Sanjiang Plain recent years. More and more "hanging pump" and partial overpumping have been occurring in well irrigation paddy area of low-lying wetland. Therefore, the groundwater resource balance in the Sanjiang Plain need to be recharged urgently. In order to solve above-mentioned problems, the authors took Farm 853 as example, analyzed the multi-time scales variation characteristics and jump characteristics of actual annual precipitation time series in Farm 853 through using the wavelet theory, and the main periods of annual precipitation change and variation trend of drought-flood in this area were revealed. The study can provide scientific gist for fully utilizing natural precipitation, groundwater resource recharge and sustainable utilization in Farm 853 so much as the entire Sanjiang Plain.
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    Location of Rainbelt of Meiyu During Second Half of 19th Century to Early 20th Century
    XIAO Ling-Bo, FANG Xiu-Qi, ZHANG Xue-Zhen
    2008, 28 (3):  385-389.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.385
    Abstract ( 191 )   PDF (823KB) ( 42 )   Save
    In this paper, an ancient diary named Xiangqilou Diary, which was written by Wang Kaiyun during 1869-1916 in the area around Changsha and Hengyang in Hunan Province where he lived, has been dug out. By using of the daily weather recordation in the diary, a series of average precipitation days of every ten days in summer-half-year (Apr.-Sep.) from 1869 to 1916 around Changsha and Hengyang, as well as series of precipitation days of every penta-day(5 days)during June to July, can be reconstructed. After comparing with meteorological observation data in Changsha (1951-1980), it is found that the end of Meiyu period (the third penta-day in July) was about two penta-days(10 days) later than present, and the length of Meiyu period (20-30 days) was about ten days longer. According to phenological recordation on cicada in the diary, the average date when cicada first sang around Changsha and Hengyang was the 30th June. Compared to the modern phonological data, the date was later than Changsha and Hengyang, while similar to several cities along the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, such as Shanghai, which are now in the core area of rainbelt of Meiyu in the eastern China. Consequently, climate during Meiyu period of the two has some similar characters, especially temperature and precipitation. In conclusion, during the second half of the 19th century to the early 20th century, Meiyu was more typical than present around Changsha and Hengyang, which means the area might be much liker to the core area of rainbelt of Meiyu, and the location of rainbelt of Meiyu then was about 1?-2? south to nowadays.
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    Difference Between Ancient Marine Eroded Landforms and Those with Similar Features: Morphology and Origination—An Example at Huangpu Town, Guangdong Province, China
    WANG Wei, ZENG Zhao-Xuan, WU Zheng, HUANG Shan
    2008, 28 (3):  390-395.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.390
    Abstract ( 132 )   PDF (3561KB) ( 20 )   Save
    The origin and the age of many ancient marine eroded landforms in the coastal areas of Guangdong cannot be determined due largely to no sediments kept with or within the landforms. Arguments about the origin for the marine eroded landforms are, therefore, often raised by the fact that non-marine eroded landforms also have similar morphological features. The difference between marine and non-marine eroded landforms is originally caused by the different erosion processes resulting in the different morphological features, although, some of which are similar. The focus of this study is trying to highlight a number of such differences important for distinguishing marine eroded landforms from non-marine ones. Ancient marine landforms found at Huangpu. Town is one with typical marine eroded features. In this article, morphological features of the ancient marine landforms at Huangpu were compared to those with similar features but formed from non-marine origin. The difference among those feature and their origins are analyzed based on the principles of dynamical geomorphology. The comparison indicates: (1) Ancient marine notches or caves associated with marine benches only appeared at a same horizontal level such as the hill foot that was a formal sea-level, and could cut off both hard and soft rock layers along this level. (2) Differential weathering or erosion by sheet flows on a hill slope with structural difference would produce notch-like features or grooves along the soft rock layers or the structural weaknesses of the slope, no matter they were horizontal or not. The notch like features could develop all the way from the top to the foot of the hill slope but without any benches formed in front of the grooves. (3) The lateral erosion of a river is also horizontal but could not produce notches and benches at the same time. (4) The dissolution process of river water was also horizontal, by which horizontal grooves were formed in limestone river banks at the height of the water surface. A prominent roof could often formed over the groove but no benches formed in front of it because of more dissolution under the water than in the air. (5) By the same reason, marine notches without marine platforms or benches developed on limestone coasts with short fetches. (6) The width of the marine bench apparently increased with greater wave energy.
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    Simulation on Influence of Complex Terrain on Urban Air Pollution
    LIU Ning-Wei, WANG Yang-Feng, MA Yan-Jun, HONG Ye
    2008, 28 (3):  396-401.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.396
    Abstract ( 306 )   PDF (1040KB) ( 60 )   Save
    In order to study the influence of complex terrain on urban air pollution, a sensitive test is made by using the new generation air quality models system Models-3 by means of modifying the terrain height of central Liaoning Province to research the meteorology and concentration filed in the course of pollution on 24 November 2006. The results show that the complex terrain will make the wind convergent, the wind speed diminish and the inversion temperature strengthen, all of which form the negative factors for polluants to be transported and dispers, causing the pollutant piles and resorts, therefore brings high concentration of the pollutant.
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    Characteristics of Phytolith Assemblages of Quaternary in Sangda Region of Lhasa, Tibet
    CHEN Ling-Kang, GUO Jian-Qiu, GU Yan-Sheng, CHEN Hai-Xia
    2008, 28 (3):  402-406.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.402
    Abstract ( 166 )   PDF (975KB) ( 12 )   Save
    Based on the section plane of Quaternary system at Sangda Village in Lhasa, Tibet, this paper analyses the phytolith characteristics such as morphological classification, combination character, warmth index and divides five assemblage zones. First assemblage zone is tooth model-smooth bar model, chip model, and muri block, reflecting the temperature of warm-cool. Second, the phytolith characteristic is rectangular model-smooth bar model, polyhedron model, it reflects the climate getting warmer. Thirdly, it is rectangular model, tooth model-smooth bar model, showing the climate drought; the next assemblage zone is rectangular model-dumbbell model, tooth model-smooth bar model, and polyhedron model, reflecting the weather getting warmer and dampness. Lastly, the phytolith characteristic is tooth model, cap model-smooth bar model, polyhedron model, and chip model, showing the climate getting colder. The study of morphological classification and combination could be applied for palaeoenvironment and paleo-vegetations of the Quaternary in the Sangda village, Lhasa area.
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    Impacts of Common Ions on Adsorption Mechanism of Heavy Metal in the Sediments from Baotou Section of Huanghe River, China
    XUE Hong-Xi, HE Jiang, FAN Qing-Yun, LÜ Chang-Wei, SUN Ying, LIANG Ying, BAI Sa-Ru-Li, SHEN Li-Li
    2008, 28 (3):  407-411.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.407
    Abstract ( 131 )   PDF (435KB) ( 27 )   Save
    Taking the surface sediments from the clear reach in Baotou section of the Huanghe(Yellow) River as the adsorbent, the heavy metal adsorption mechanism and affecting factor caused by ions of natural water on particulate was studied in this paper. According to the results obtained from the experiment, the affecting mechanism of heavy metal adsorption on particulate can be as follows: (1) the adsorption and disadsorpiton capacities of the heavy metal increased with the increasing of the ionic strength which caused the compress of electric double layer on mineral and reduced activity of heavy metal. As a result, there always is re-equilibrium between adsorption and disadsorption; (2) the additive cations have the competitive adsorption to the heavy metals when the cations and the heavy metals have the similar structure or physicochemical properties; (3) the heavy metal complexations caused by the anion lead to decreasing of the ionic activity and the valence state of the heavy metals, and effect on physical adsorption of the heavy metals caused by electrostatic pull. Generally, in slight acidic environment, the mineral with positive charge will adsorb the anion, and then cause the increasing of the adsorption of the heavy metals by complexations with the anion. As an important conclusion, the heavy metals into the water are affected by different adsorption and disadsorption mechanisms, and there are different dominant mechanisms in different ion concentration ranges.
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    Spatial Distribution Pattern of Soil Heavy Metals Under the Influence of Economic Gradient in Jiangsu Province
    WU Shao-Hua, ZHOU Sheng-Lu, ZHANG Hong-Fu, ZHAO Qi-Guo
    2008, 28 (3):  412-418.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.412
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (1053KB) ( 15 )   Save
    Seven kinds of heavy metals content at 22 norm sample plots were determined in Jiangsu Province. Using heavy metals content data, we analyzed the pattern of heavy metals and its influencing factor by TWINSPAN and CCA. The results showed that the distribution of heavy metals in Jiangsu Province was different obviously. Entire distribution feature of heavy metals distribution had a clear gradient with "Subei North Jiangsu-Suzhong (Central Jiangsu)-Sunan (South Jiangsu)". The elements which controlled the entire feature distribution of heavy metals were Hg, Cd and Cu in the Sunan region, Pb, Cr and Ni in the Suzhong and region Subei district. Spatial location, soil physicochemical property and human active intensive were the most important influencing factors which controlled the distribution pattern of heavy metals in Jiangsu. The explanation of three influencing variations accounted for 56.9%, of which the explanation location variation independently was 21.5%, soil physicochemical property was 17.5%, and the human active intensive is 17.9%, but 43.1% could not be explained. This research showed that the spatial distribution pattern of Theavy metals in soil was affected deeply by economic development gradient in Jiangsu Province. The method of WINSPAN and CCA is good for analysis the relations between heavy metals content and influence variations, and it may be a potential method for soil environment research.
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    Research on Information Tupu of Land Use Spatial Pattern and Its Change in Hani Terraced Fields
    HU Wen-Ying, JIAO Yuan-Mei, Fan Tao
    2008, 28 (3):  419-424.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.419
    Abstract ( 174 )   PDF (1131KB) ( 22 )   Save
    Taking Yuanyang County in Yunnan Province as an example, based on remote sensing, GIS spatial analysis and statistical analysis model, this paper establishes the information Tupu of land use spatial pattern and its change from the following three aspects: land use spatio-temporal change mode, the expansion process of space, and landscape characteristics. Then it analyzes the characteristics of these Tupu. The results show that: (1) The established land use spatio-temporal change premonition Tupu can reveal the basic modes of land use change in the study regions more visually, including the quantitative and structural changes of various land use types. Unlike the previous study, it provides the digital and vector graphics information for the further study of its spatio-temporal changes, and can real-timely update, edit, process, and use the time as the axis to describe and explain the process of land use change, and provides a spatio-temporal expression way. (2) The land use patch shapes and spatial expansion Tupu can provide the macroscopic and microscopic information of land use dynamic change. Through establishing mathematical models to analyze the expansion intensity and expansion patterns of various land use types, the land use spatial expansion process can be visualized, abstracted, and modeled, which has a certain theoretical research value for understanding the internal mechanism of spatial changes and then predicting the future land use changes.(3) The fractal dimensions of three land use types of forest, paddy field and garden are all positively correlated with the patch areas. Through the horizontal (the relation between patch area and landscape index) and vertical (the interannual variation of landscape index) quantitative description of indexes, the land use change and landscape characteristic Tupu has established the landscape index system for measuring the changes of spatial patterns to analyze the change trend of various land use types (i.e. the landscape types) in the study regions, and their relations with human activities, so as to provides the basis for the formulation of sustainable land use policies in the study regions.
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    Study on Land Degradation Assessment Indicators based on Literature Analysis
    XU Ning, GUO Xu-Dong, HONG You-Tang, ZHANG Cong, DONG Hua
    2008, 28 (3):  425-430.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.425
    Abstract ( 173 )   PDF (875KB) ( 34 )   Save
    The monitoring and assessment indicators of land degradation play a very important role in protecting and using land resources. In this paper, the authors respectively search the literatures on land degradation, soil erosion and desertification which were published at home and abroad, and then the authors record, count and analyze the indicators selected from those literatures based on the method of bibliometrics. The result indicates that these indicators can be divided into six classes, including soil, vegetation, society and economy, zoology and biology, climate and topography. According to the analysis result, vegetation cover, slope gradient, level of income, organic substance content and type of land use, etc. are frequently used in Chinese and English literatures about land degradation assessment, meanwhile vegetation factor, slope gradient, type of topography, organic substance content and type of land use are frequently used in the literatures about soil erosion assessment, and vegetation cover, percent of sandy land, type of land use, organic substance content, population, etc. are frequently used in literatures about desertification assessment. And for remote sensing monitoring, the high frequency indicators include vegetation cover, slope gradient, type of land use, etc.
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    Risk Evaluation of Urban Culture Heritage Landscape in Foshan Based on GIS
    LI Fan, FU Guo-Qiang, QI Zhi-Xin
    2008, 28 (3):  431-438.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.431
    Abstract ( 160 )   PDF (1354KB) ( 11 )   Save
    Being a major research object of cultural geography, urban cultural heritage landscape goes together with urban environment, but its vulnerability and risk are increasing with urban development, population increasing and environment changing. However research on risk of urban cultural heritage landscape was lagged behind. Foshan City is chosen as the study area. As one of the famous historical cities in economically developed region, Foshan is changing greatly in natural and sociocultural environment. Thus it is most important to evaluate the risk of urban cultural heritage landscapes ought from change of environmental setting. Centering around the two points of the environment background and existing status of urban cultural heritage landscape, the paper sets up a system and a model of risk evaluation, and has designed and exploited FSHCGIS(Historical Cultural GIS of Foshan)based on VB.Net and MapObjects, simultaneously achieves evaluation function to the risk of urban cultural heritage landscape. By analyzing the risks of development, environment and heritage status on urban cultural heritage landscape from 1994 to 2005, the authors expound the characters of risk difference of urban culture heritage landscape in different blocks of Foshan. 1) Risk of atmosphere environment contributes more in environmental risk, and it shows downtrend in traditional urban blocks, but boosts up in the surrounding area of traditional urban blocks. If elaborating on the risk difference between various atmosphere pollution indexes, we find the risks from SO2 and NOx evidently increase, and acid rain has become the main risk of urban cultural heritage landscape here in Foshan. 2) Developmental risk increases totally, but in the different buffer area risk change of close distance is very little in the old urban area, that of middle and farther distance tones up, and the risk brought from change of land utilization is the more prominent among all developmental indexes. 3) The risk of urban cultural heritage landscape shows distinct change trend along with different buffer radiuses. The article considers that the radius of cultural buffer area lies commonly between 50m to 200m based on analyzing the trend curves of RC.
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    Agriculture Tourism Development in Under-developed Mountainous Area —A Case of Meizhou City, Guangdong Province
    Chen Yi-Bin
    2008, 28 (3):  439-444.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.439
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (1047KB) ( 14 )   Save
    Agriculture tourism is such a style of tourism which depends on agricultural resources and county landscape including culture, ecology, settlement, farming activities, agriculture display, countryside sight-seeing, folk custom, leisure, entertainment. Meizhou, in the north-east mountainous part of Guangdong Province, is an under-developed area. The Meizhou agriculture tourism, based on agricultural manor and driven by the successful three-highs (namely, high output, high quality, high efficiency) sightseeing agriculture, experienced the following three stages: the embryonic section, the growing-up section and the flourishing section, and now it has been the mainstay and famous brand of Meizhou tourism. The Meizhou agriculture tourism resources are rich and of high level, which mainly reflected on such points as development model towards diversification, various products, scenic spots with high quality, local tourism spreading within province, mature holiday market for leisure and self-driving tourism market. The agricultural tourism with dominant position has been the main force in the tourism industry in Meizhou. However, there are still some problems: aimless development, lack of scientific plan, its product with low level, extensive management with the product-oriented features, traffic condition and tourism infrastructure urgently including. So, the awareness of agricultural tourism planning development should be strengthened, tourism resources be scientifically developed, agricultural tourism environment be improved, the level of agricultural tourism management be enhanced, and agricultural tourism policy be positively conducted. Surveying actual condition of the agriculture tourism in Meizhou, summarizing its characteristics, analyzing its problems in its development and discussing how to promote its healthy and sustainable development will generate positive help to three-highs agriculture and sustainable tourism in the under-developed mountainous area.
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    Level of Tourism Participation of Community and Influencing Factors in Ancient Villages: A Comparative Research on Xidi,Hongcun and Nanping
    YANG Xiao-Zhong, ZHANG Jie, TANG Wen-Yue, LU Song
    2008, 28 (3):  445-451.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.445
    Abstract ( 144 )   PDF (1432KB) ( 49 )   Save
    This study attempts to build measurement index of level of community tourism participation based on the benefit from the perspective of family after setting up probable influencing factors. Taking examples of ancient villages including Xidi, Hongcun and Nanping in South Anhui, levels of tourism participation of community and their formation mechanism are analysed. The results indicate that: 1) The differences of level of tourism participation within each ancient village and between ancient villages are owing to interactive impact between family micro-factors and community middle-factors. 2) According to direct path coefficient and indirect path coefficient, we find that influencing directions of family micro-factors are the same while their influencing extents are different. This is accorded with the result of questionnair so strong interpreting power and potential application value of this method are proved. and 3) the main means of improving level of tourism participation of community and weakening its spatial difference are to give benefit to residents and strengthen the ability for getting benefit, and in this course, government should play a leading role.
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    Attraction and Location Characteristics of Ocean Tour in Wenzhou
    SU Bei-Chun
    2008, 28 (3):  452-456.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.03.452
    Abstract ( 120 )   PDF (836KB) ( 64 )   Save
    The tour resources of Wenzhou are abundant and the variety is great comprehesive. Wenzhou's location characteristic is that its advantage resources are concentrated on its islands. Because the value of the ocean tour resources of Wenzhou is generally lower than that in the inland, especially the influence of ocean environment problem of inshore, the development of the ocean tour industry is limited. Being regionally central place of ocean tour, ocean tour of Wenzhou is obviously marginalizated in both its resources location and its tourist source location. The relationship between the tourist source and the ocean tour location is belonged to the indirect connection between the inland scenery and ocean tour spot. Therefore the cultivation of the ocean tour attraction of Wenzhou has to ask for help from the gathering effect of various tour resources and products, especially from the huge brand effect of Wenzhou economy.
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