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Table of Content

    20 July 2008, Volume 28 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    论文
    Geography of Urban Deprivation in Transitional China -A Case Study of Guanghzou City
    YUAN Yuan, XU Xue-Qiang
    2008, 28 (4):  457-463.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.457
    Abstract ( 147 )   PDF (1127KB) ( 20 )   Save
    On review of studies and indexes of geography of deprivation in Western academics, this paper fisrtly highlights the expansion of indexes of urban poverty from economic angle to mutiple facets including income, housing, education and employment, etc. Taking Guangzhou as a case, the paper firstly establishes indicators of multiple deprivation using the MLSP (Mninimum Living Standard Programme) recipients data and Fifth Census data.The paper summarises five key factors of deprivation by the method of factor analysis. There exits an accumulative distribution of multiple factors in inner-city and parts of outer area. Secondly the paper calculates the scores of mutiple deprivation on the level of sub-districts. The spatial morphology of mutiple deprivation is a combination of concentric layers, culsters. Thildly, the paper argues that mechanism of the spatial characteristics of mutiple deprivation is the outcome of historic reasons, public policies and market oriention in transitional era.
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    New Rural Construction and Rural Development -Case Study of Villages in Tangshan and Qinhuangdao
    ZHEN Feng, ZHAO Yong, ZHENG Jun, ZHAO Guo-Dong
    2008, 28 (4):  464-470.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.464
    Abstract ( 142 )   PDF (1128KB) ( 14 )   Save
    New rural construction and rural area development is becoming more and more a hot topic in China. From this new backgrounding, the paper chooses ten villages in Tangshan City and Qinhuangdao City as the empirical research area. The outhers analyze five aspects which are important for rural area development, i. e. rural economy, rural social structure, rural social service and human inhabitable environment, rural social entrepreneur, and urban and rural interaction. Then, the paper discusses something strategic for rural China in future, including national policy and rural inner development, diversified rural economy forms, "hollow village" and improvement of human inhabitable environment, and village planning and implementation.
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    A Study of Comparisons of urban competitiveness and accessibility in Shanxi Province
    LI Jiu-Quan
    2008, 28 (4):  471-477.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.471
    Abstract ( 152 )   PDF (781KB) ( 21 )   Save
    The article takes ten cities of Shanxi province for the objects of study: Xian, Tongchuan, Baoji, Xianyang, Weinan, Hanzhong, Ankang, Shangluo, Yulin and Yanan. It selects 4 aspects, such as the level of social and economic development, living standard, external economic and connection, infrastructure and transportation, 24 indexes all together and uses SPSS16.0 software with principal component analysis to study the competitiveness of the cities, obtaining the competitiveness scores. It selects distance index, time index and accessibility coefficient by the principle of shortest distance to measure the accessibility, getting the spatial pattern of the accessibility caused by different speeds and the numbers of cities that can be connected within hours. At last, it analysises the competitiveness scores, the level of accessibility and the relation between them. The spatial pattern of urban competitiveness and the level of accessibility takes Guanzhong region as the center showing "core-external" trend, and the cores are Xian and Xianyang, the competitiveness and the level of accessibility reduce progressively from the cores to surroundings. The level of accessibility and competitiveness enhances each other and achieves virtuous circle.
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    Computation and Analysis of Regional Knowledge Spillovers in China
    TENG Li, CAI Di, WANG Zheng
    2008, 28 (4):  478-482.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.478
    Abstract ( 128 )   PDF (739KB) ( 7 )   Save
    Regional spillover is an important new economic phenomenon. As one of the many forms of regional spillover, regional knowledge spillover is special and invisible. The observable facts of regional interaction may become the transferring mechanism of regional knowledge spillover. To confirm this, an expanded CH model is applied in the paper to studying the relationship between regional spillover and regional interaction. The approach of anti-facts estimation is introduced to explore on the Chinese province scale data. Two kind of visible regional interaction facts, population migration of Chinese mainland inter-province and railroad trade, are employed to test the spillover mechanism between Chinese mainland provinces. The industrial familiarity and trade tightness between the provinces are also concerned to study the affection to regional knowledge spillover. The GDP and R&D expenditure are adopted to measure the regional knowledge stock, respectively. It is argued that regional knowledge spillover is not happened randomly, however it is relative to the visible facts which represent regional interactions.
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    Principal Function Area Division and Innovation of Regional Planning in China
    FANG Zhong-Quan, DING Si-Bao
    2008, 28 (4):  483-487.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.483
    Abstract ( 156 )   PDF (742KB) ( 7 )   Save
    China will put more emphasis on regional plan in the national"Eleventh Five Year"Plan period, it is the imperative of solving important region problems and promoting regional coordinated development. Meanwhile, The "Plan" divide Chinese land space into four principal functional zones of optimal development, key development, restricted development and prohibited development. Principal Function Area Division will produce effect of innovation on Chinese regional planning:1)perfecting theory system of regional planning;2)creating new idea of regional planning;3)enriching the contents of regional planning;4)Rebuilding spatial system of regional planning;5)promoting Join and coordination between regional planning and other spatial planning; 6)guarantying implement of regional planning.
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    Technology Innovation Within Small and Middle Enterprises and Regional Environment
    QIAN Qing-Lan, CHEN Ying-Niao, DONG Xiao-Min
    2008, 28 (4):  488-495.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.488
    Abstract ( 145 )   PDF (1212KB) ( 12 )   Save
    Based on the data analysis of materials collected from 785 question-and-answer surveys in Guangdong ,the paper obtains some main characteristic of technology innovation within Small and middle enterprises (SMEs) and regional environment and draws some conclusions as follow: 1) Technology innovative ability of those SMEs in Guangdong has gained a significant improvement, at the same time, innovation output performance such as patent level is pool; 2) Most of the SMEs choose cooperation strategy and simulated strategy as their own technology innovative strategy; 3) Supplied merchant and custom play an important role in innovative network, but high school, research institution and agency service institution have less role; 4) To improve technology and administration level is the main innovative motivation for those SMEs, but the shortage of skilled work force, new technology and law environment is the restricted condition of Guangdong innovative environment ; 5) Most of the SMEs hold optimism attitude for Guangdong Province and think that Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta is their first choice for industrial investment in future.
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    Problems and Measures of Ecological Rehabilitation and Reconstruction in Tarim River Basin
    ZHAO Wan-Yu, CHEN Ya-Ning
    2008, 28 (4):  496-500.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.496
    Abstract ( 158 )   PDF (244KB) ( 29 )   Save
    The long-term lack of water-convey process in the lower reaches of the Tarim River has restrained natural development of main water course and caused serious degradation of the forest ecosystem in the river-bank of desert environment. The engineering reconstruction of the Tarim River carried out conveying of water straightway and maintained the integrality of river water system. It also transferred some ecology effects from the upper reaches to the lower reaches. However, the channel reconstruction brought out some problems. The change of natural flux of the water course has greatly restricted natural process of evolution of plant community in original green corridor of vegetation. To rehabilitate the retrogressive ecosystem in the region, firstly it need to understand the nature process of vegetation evolution, then to choice Tamarix sp. as major species for reclamation in extremely degraded area, and maintained the regeneration of community of desert vegetation and Populus sp. by giving more flooding water from the new building sluice and new channel.
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    Historic Landform in Central Hebei Plain and Causes of Formation of Baiyangdian Lake
    WANG Ruo-Bai, SU Jian-Feng
    2008, 28 (4):  501-506.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.501
    Abstract ( 157 )   PDF (1328KB) ( 24 )   Save
    On the basis of the Shunzhi Relief Map published in 1926, the historic landform in the North China Plain is studied and a large quantity of special geomorphic units-dish-shaped pits are discovered in the Baiyangdian drainage area. In studying the individual appearance and total distribution of these special pits, especially by the digital elevation model (DEM), the authors have realized that the "dish-shaped pits" might be the remains of impact craters on the Quaternary loose deposit and inferred primarily that an impact event of a large-scale meteorite shower might have occurred in this area. After long-time erosion by surface water and artificial transformation gradually, some larger craters finally formed the Baiyangdian Lake.The impact of meteorite shower resulted in a prehistoric huge astrogeological disaster, which produced significant effects on the prehistoric environment and culture development since then.
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    Field Measurements of Structure of Wind-sand flow on Coastal Transverse Ridge in China
    DONG Yuxiang, P A Hesp, S L Namikas, MA Jun
    2008, 28 (4):  507-512.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.507
    Abstract ( 155 )   PDF (718KB) ( 13 )   Save
    On the typical coastal transverse ridge at Changli Gold Coast in Hebei Province, which is one of the most typical coastal Aeolian distribution regions in China and famous for the tall and typical coastal transverse ridges. Here, he structure of wind-sand flow on the top of coastal transverse ridge was measured by use of field vertical anemometer and sand trap. The field measurement results show that basic characteristic of the structure of wind-sand flow on the top of coastal transverse ridge is the sand transport rate in the wind-sand flow decreases quickly with height, which can be expressed by an exponential function at the height of 0-40cm, but which could be expressed by the power function at the height of 20-60cm and polynomial function at the height 40-60cm. The structure of wind-sand flow on the top of coastal transverse ridge has a close relationship with the wind velocity and total sand transport rate. The ratio of sand transport rate at low layer decreases and the ratio of sand transport rate at high layer increases with the increase of wind velocity and total sand transport rate.
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    Spatial Pattern of LUCC in Different Micro-geomorphic Types of Huanghe River Delta
    WANG Xiao-Qin, WANG Qin-Min, LI Hui-Guo, LIU Gao-Huan
    2008, 28 (4):  513-517.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.513
    Abstract ( 135 )   PDF (687KB) ( 9 )   Save
    Geomorphic type is one of the primary factors for the spatial pattern and the change speed of land use and land cover. Based on the land use and land cover data acquired in 1984, 1986, 1991, 1996 and 2001 of the Huanghe (Yellow) River delta, the land use and land cover changes were analyzed according to different micro-geomorphic types. There are six types of micro-geomorphic types in the river delta, which are terrace uplands, present flood plain, abandoned river courses, embanked former back swamps, isolated depressions and tidal flats. In the 17 years from 1984 to 2001, the proportion of unchanged land use and land cover was 30.04%. The largest unchanged land use was arable land, whose proportion to the all unchanged land use area was 57.49%; the second was tidal flat, whose proportion was 12.6%; the third was unused land, whose proportion was 10.57%; the fourth was residential area, whose proportion was 9.38%. The areas of unchanged land use and land cover from 1984 to 2001 were variable in different micro-geomorphic types. The unchanged land use and land cover lay mainly in embanked former back swamps. More than 50% of unchanged arable land, unused land and grass land were in embanked former back swamps. The change range and speed of land use and land cover were different in each micro-geomorphic type. In terrace uplands, the land use and land cover was most stable, the preponderant land use type was arable land, whose areas was about 80%. But its area decreases as a whole. In present flood plain, the land use and land cover types became more various, and land use and land cover changed most rapidly. In abandoned river courses, embanked former back swamps and isolated depressions, the area of changed land use/land covers was about 2/3, the dominating land use and land cover type was arable land, but the area continually decreased, which mainly changed to residential areas and water body. The areas of unused land and vegetable land cover changed only a little. In tidal flats, the tidal area decreased rapidly with the economic development. In 1984, the tidal area was 72.16%, but in 2001, there was only 36%. Most of the tidal area was developed to aquaculture area. The water body was 2 204 ha in 1984, 4 475 ha in 1991 and increased to 30 346 ha in 2001.
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    Climatic Change Characteristics of Kuqa River-Weigan River Delta Oasis During Last 40 Years
    MANSUR Sabit, HU Jiang-Ling, DILXAT Ismail
    2008, 28 (4):  518-524.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.518
    Abstract ( 398 )   PDF (842KB) ( 27 )   Save
    Using the statistics of sunshine time, temperature, precipitation and evaporation from 1961 to 2000 in Kuqa, Shaya and Xinhe meteorological stations, this paper analyze the annual and seasonal changes of these metrological factors in Kuqa River-Weigan River Delta Oasis during the last 40 years by employing the methods of regression analysis, trendline analysis and 5-year moving average analysis. The result shows that, (1) During the last 40 years, the sunshine time on this oasis has a trend of decreasing, and the deceasing rate was 31.64 h/10 yr. Its undulation scale was smaller during the 1960s and 1970s and larger in the 1980s and the 1990s of the 20th century. The sunshine time has a close correlation with the number of cloudy and rainy days. The sunshine time decreasing scale was varying from season to season. Winter has the largest decreasing rate, following by summer, autumn and spring. (2) During the last 40 years, the temperature on this oasis has a trend of increasing, and the increasing rate was 0.17 ℃/10 yr. Its alteration tendency was in keeping with that of the northwestern China. The change of temperature in a year shows seasonal disparities i.e. increasing in winter and autumn, and decreasing in summer and spring. (3) During the last 40 years, the precipitation on this oasis had a trend of increasing, and the increasing rate was 0.16 mm/10 yr. Its alteration tendency was in keeping with the climatic change of the northwestern China. Except for autumn precipitation change had a tendency of increasing in other seasons. The highest increasing rate took place in summer, following by spring and winter. (4) During the last 40 years, the evaporation on this oasis had a trend of decreasing, and the decreasing rate was 149mm/10yr. Its undulation scale has a negative correlation with the change of average temperature. The evaporation decreasing rate was varying from season to season. Summer had the largest decreasing rate, following by spring, autumn and winter.
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    Regional Characteristics of Climatic Change Trend and Break During Last 50 Years in Hexi Corridor
    JIA Wen-Xiong, HE Yuan-Qing, LI Zong-Xing, PANG Hong-Xi, YUAN Ling-Ling, NING Bao-Ying, SONG Bo, ZHANG Ning-Ning
    2008, 28 (4):  525-531.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.525
    Abstract ( 229 )   PDF (763KB) ( 22 )   Save
    During the last 50 years,the temperature of Hexi corridor was lower from the 1960s to the 1980s, and climate has been becaming warmer since the 1990s by the rise of temperature in winter. While the precipitation experienced a process of being lower (the 1960s), higher (the 1970s), lower (the 1980s), higher (after the 1990s), and the rise of precipitation in autumn has became obvious since 2000. What’s more, the abrupt change of temperature was more obvious than precipitation under the background of global warming. The abrupt change of temperature rise in spring, summer and autumn happened in the late 1990s, and the abrupt change of temperature rise in winter happened in the middle of the 1980s in the Hexi corridor. As result, The abrupt change of annual temperature ascending happened in the middle of the 1980s and in the late 1990s. Spatial difference of precipitation break was obvious. The abrupt change of precipitation rise happened in the late 1960s in the eastern and western Hexi corridor.
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    Asymmetric Change of Maximum and Minimum Temperature in the Northeast China from 1959-2002
    SUN Feng-Hua, YUAN Jian, GUANG Ying
    2008, 28 (4):  532-536.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.532
    Abstract ( 171 )   PDF (751KB) ( 11 )   Save
    The date of monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature are obtained in 74 stations in Northeast China, after minimizing the posssible effect of urban heat island from 1959-2002. The time series of maximum and minimum temperature for the area are got by averaging the 74 station values for the period. The temperature time series were further analyzed for the change characteristics on year and season in the area. The climate jumps of annual extreme temperature series, by dealing with slippage, were tested by both Mann-Kendall and Yamamoto method during the past 44 years in Northeast.The coefficients of extreme temperature trends were calculated in all stations and all seasons, and the characteristics of terrain distribution of increasing trend were analysed in each season. The results show that asymmetry is detectable in all seasons.Though both maximum and minimum temperature is increasing for the period. Tmin increase more than Tmax in all parts of Northeast China. The former doubles the latter. Their increases are biggest in winter, second in spring, least in autumn.In the center, there is a strong increasing temperature area, bigger and steadier in range.
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    Climate Suitability of Rice and Its Changes in Huaihe Watershed
    YU Fen, QIAN Huai-Sui, DUAN Hai-Lai
    2008, 28 (4):  537-542.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.537
    Abstract ( 221 )   PDF (953KB) ( 4 )   Save
    The interannual change of the sunshine suitability, the precipitation suitability and the climate suitability of rice in 40 counties of Huaihe Watershed are decreasing every year. The article analyzes the difference of the sunshine suitability, the precipitation suitability and the temperature suitability of rice in Huaihe Watershed, then divides Huaihe Watershed into three sub-regions: the highest suitability region, the suitability region, the low suitability region. Synthesizing the factors of temperature, sunshine and precipitation, the four types of climatic suitability of rice in Huaihe Watershed are divided: the north watershed highest suitability region, the south watershed highest suitability region, the central watershed suitability region, the northwest mountainous area low suitability region. Then the article analyses the interannual climate suitability change of rice at these regions. The result shows that the climate suitabilities of rice at these regions are decreasing gradually.
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    Effect of Land Subsidence on Urban Flood Prevention Engineering in Shanghai
    GONG Shi-Liang, YANG Shi-Lun
    2008, 28 (4):  543-547.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.543
    Abstract ( 139 )   PDF (570KB) ( 15 )   Save
    The land subsidence directly threatens the safety of urban flood defence by decreasing the land altitude loss. According to the monitoring results of the land subsidence and the yearly highest tide height of the Huangpu River and all previous heightening and subsidence conditions of the flood defence wall in the Bund, it is shown that the amount of land subsidence in Shanghai was 1.973 m from 1921 to 2007 and the land altitude of center town is about 3.5m at present, and the land altitude of center town almost lower the highest tide height of Huangpu River and brings about the long-term flood defence pressure. The yearly average value of highest tide height of the Huangpu River is about 4.59 m, and the highest tide height gradually raises. The conditions of flood and inundation are intrinsicly link with the development of land subsidence. The land subsidence plays a important role in the four times of heightening of the flood defence wall in the Bund, and the land subsidence amount occupied 98.0%,62.6%,30.1%,7.8% respectively of the heightening of the flood defence wall. Now the existing flood defence installations have been endangered by the land subsidence, the regional land subsidence amount from 1994 to 2006 was 71.9 % of total subsidence of the flood defence wall in the Bund. The land subsidence is an importment factor of endangering the urban flood prevention safety and a key link of urban calamity system, and to give rise to our highly precautions for its long-term harmful effects. The prevention and control of the land subsidence have to be the crucial contents of mitigating and preventing natural calamities.
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    Characteristics and Environmental Significance of Magnetic Susceptibility and Grain Size of Lake Sediments since Holocene in Chaohu Lake, Anhui Province
    WANG Xin-Yuan, WU Li, ZHANG Guang-Sheng, WANG Guan-Yong, HAN Wei-Guang
    2008, 28 (4):  548-553.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.548
    Abstract ( 154 )   PDF (776KB) ( 19 )   Save
    A typical lake sediment core from Chaohu Lake was chosen for this study. The vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility and grain size in the sediments was determined. Based on the analyses of magnetic susceptibility and grain size of the core samples from Chaohu Lake, the paper has probed into the characteristics and environmental significance of magnetic susceptibility and grain size. The results show that from 490 cm to 117 cm, the curves of magnetic susceptibility are stable on the whole, which dropped slightly; from 117cm to top, the increased human activity makes magnetic susceptibility increasing obviously. The magnetic susceptibility is positive proportional to the contents of fine sand, and reversal proportional to the contents of coarse sand and organic materials. By means of magnetic susceptibility and grain size analyses, combined with pollen and the background of global climate change, regional palaeoclimatic changes were divided into six periods since 9870 cal yr B.P.: (1) mild and moderately dry period of 9870-7000 cal yr B.P.; (2) warm and humid period of 7000-4745 cal yr B.P.; (3) warm and dry period of 4745-2170 cal yr B.P.; (4) mild and humid period of 2170-1040 cal yr B.P., and during which climate fluctuated acutely; (5) cool and moderately humid period of 1040-200 cal yr B.P., climate fluctuate gently; (6) mild and humid period of 200 cal yr B.P. to nowadays.
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    Spatial distribution of Soil Properties in a Small Catchment of the Loess Plateau Based on Environmental Correlation
    LIAN Gang, GUO Xu-Dong, FU Bo-Jie, HU Chen-Xia
    2008, 28 (4):  554-558.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.554
    Abstract ( 124 )   PDF (386KB) ( 22 )   Save
    Analysis and forecast on the spatial distribution and dynamics of soil properties is an important element of sustainable land management. Topography and land use are key factors which affect soil properties variability on catchment scale in the loess hilly area. Correlation analyses were carried out between soil properties (include bulk density(BD), soil organic matter (SOM) and total phosphorus (TP)) and terrain attributes. Finally, terrain attributes and land use types were used to predict spatial distribution of soil properties by multiple-linear regression analysis and regression-Kriging, based on data from 111 points in Zhujiagou catchment; Hengshan County of Shaanxi Province. Results indicated that there is a positive correlation between bulk density and compound topographic index (CTI); and a negative correlation between SOM and compound topographic index (CTI), stream power index(SPI) and sediment transport index (STI); and a significant negative correlation was found between TP and slope(β). The correlations between these terrain attributes and soil properties reflected to some degree that soil develops in response to the way water flows through and over the landscape. The regression model for BD had the highest R2 value, followed by SOM and TP. The regression model was precise for the BD, but the variation is rather large and there was a high smoothing effect on the predicted values. For TP, the predicted result is very poor. Such techniques may be applied as a frist step in unmapped areas to guide soil sampling and model development. In order to explain the variations better, combined step-wise regression and residuals interpolated using Kriging was conducted. The results showed that regression-Kriging improved accuracy of prediction.
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    Material Source of the Holocene Aeolian Loess-Paleosol in the Upper Reaches of the Yinghe River
    LI Sheng-Li, HUANG Chun-Chang, PANG Jiang-Li, GE Ben-Wei
    2008, 28 (4):  559-564.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.559
    Abstract ( 153 )   PDF (780KB) ( 21 )   Save
    A Holocene loess-paleosol profile is studied on the river terraces, hills and plateau of the east piedmont of the Songshan Mountain in the upper reaches of the Yinghe River as a tributary of the Huaihe River. Higher resolution proxy data of magnetic susceptibility, particle-size distribution and >0.1mm grain-size percentage were obtained from the profile. The results indicate that the magnetic susceptibility of loess-soil sequences in the upper reaches of the Yinghe River was obviously lower than that on the Loess Plateau, but the grain-size was much coarser than that on the middle of the Loess Plateau. It revealed that they were from different dust sources, which belong to different dust transporting systems. On the deep analysis, it is revealed that the loess in the upper reaches of the Yinghe River was dust accumulation mainly from near source, while the coarser dust mainly come from the loose alluvial deposits of alluvial and proluvial fans of the Huanghe(Yellow) River to the east of Mengjin. A rich source of sandstorms were provided by the frequent breaching, diverging and flooding sediments of the Huanghe River. The north-east wind was the driving force of the sandstorm activity. During the late Holocene (3100-0 a B.P.) when the climate was tended to arid, the flooding frequency in the lower riches of the Huanghe River was increasing, the area of dust activity was extending and the sandstorm activity intensity was very strong.
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    Soil Erosion of Soil REE Tracer Study
    WANG Ning, YANG Chun-Yu, ZHANG Gang, XU Ping-Zhi, ZOU Ting-Ting
    2008, 28 (4):  565-570.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.565
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (804KB) ( 14 )   Save
    By using fixed field profile experiment and Rare Earth Elements (REE) tracer technique, we studied the course of soil erosion on two parcels of black soil in Jingyue Economic Development District, Changchun City, and Yongji County, Jilin City, Jilin Province. The stable REE were used in tracing soil erosion, sedimentation, distribution and the possibility of erosion process in black soil area, soil erosion and the relative soil erosion of different parts of the slope were worked out, and effect of rainfall on the slope of soil erosion process described successfully. Experimental method is to trace elements evenly mixed with the soil, laid on the slope of the different terrain under test site, so that the entire process of rainfall runoff silt be done together with the relocation of its acquisition of sediment samples. The content of REE was tested in neutron activation method. Then soil erosion and the relative soil erosion of different parts of the slope were calculated according to concentrations of trace elements added into different parts of the slope and sediment collected after rainfall respectively. The experiment results show that the rate of soil erosion on the slope increases with rainfall period. Rain duration and slope are the two factors influencing soil erosion by affecting the movement speed and direction of soil particles. This paper concluded that: 1) artificial rainfall and natural rainfall field experiment showed that the slope erosion often turned around 10 min after rainfall, after that, the slope erosion rate became more stable, larger with the time increase. It could be considered that 10-15 min after rainfall is the best observation period for slope soil erosion study; 2) soil erosion occurred mainly in the middle and lower slope part (marked with Nd, Sm and Eu in the slope) in 7?-12 ? slope, which indicated that soil erosion is closely related to the slope and bands structure; and 3) the adoption of tracer REE for quantitative determination of the relative erosion in different terrain positions can provide an alternative method for vertical soil erosion. This method can not only monitor slope relative erosion in different terrain positions accurately, but also describes their distribution character objectively. Generally, the paper reveals the law of slope soil erosion intensity and provide new methods for the black soil erosion study.
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    Tourist Ecological Footprint and Eco-efficiency on Nanji Archipelago
    ZHOU Nian-Xing, LIN Zhen-Shan, HUANG Zhen-Fang, CHEN Chun-Wang
    2008, 28 (4):  571-577.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.571
    Abstract ( 168 )   PDF (785KB) ( 4 )   Save
    From global point of view, tourist ecological footprint and eco-efficiency are the new yardsticks on assessing sustainability of tourism. The two methods are mutual supplementary. Taking Nanji Archipelago as an example, which is the exclusive oceanic protected area in China, the tourist ecological footprint and eco-efficiency have been analysed and discussed. Five characteristics have been summarized: 1)The tourist ecological footprint of Nanji Archipelago was 0.031hm2 per captia in 2002, which is only one third of world average footprint. 2) The ecological deficit sums up to 939.38 hm2. 3) The average tourism output of ecological footprint is 1402 yuan(RMB)/hm2, which is 1.8 times the average output of world, but still lower than that of the fishery output. 4) The total carbon dioxide from tourism on Nanji Archipelago is 2438.7t, and the tourism eco-efficiency per captia is 0.1279kg/yuan. 5) The tourism eco-efficiency of Nanji Archipelago is favorable, which is 3.1 times as much as the world average. But comparing with the ideal emission based on the carbon dioxide of world, it still lacks behind the benchmark. The suitable tourism development volume, effective management, promotion of ecotourism, and short-distance travel contribute to the less ecological footprint and favorable eco-efficiency. The touristic ecological footprint and eco-efficiency will be helpful not only to enlarging the sustainable tourism implication, but also enriching the environmental technique.
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    Tourism Environmental Carrying Capacity and its Assessment Research -A Case Study of Ecotourism in Coastal Wetland of Jiangsu
    HUANG Zhen-Fang, YUAN Lin-Wang, GE Jun-Lian, GU Qiu-Shi
    2008, 28 (4):  578-584.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.04.578
    Abstract ( 169 )   PDF (862KB) ( 19 )   Save
    The boundary and assessment of tourism environmental carrying capacity can provide evidences for the proper exploitation of ecotourism. This paper appends tourism environmental carrying capacity to the compound system of resources-environment socio-economy, and defines it with its composition system analyzed. The three dimension assessment index systems are constructed and weight analysis is carried out by principal component analysis according to the outcome of the marks given by tourism experts. Taking coastal wetland of Jiangsu as an example, the paper appraises its ecotourism environmental carrying capacity by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, and gets proper results which indicate that this assessment index system is scientific, general and operable.
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