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    20 September 2008, Volume 28 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    论文
    Duality of Chinese Geography
    LIU Yun-Gang, XU Xue-Qiang
    2008, 28 (5):  587-593.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.587
    Abstract ( 113 )   PDF (1441KB) ( 36 )   Save
    This paper focuses on the duality of the Chinese geography.In recent years the geographic studies have increased remarkably and the tendency was in parallel with the increase of the number of geographers, papers, research projects, and international conferences, etc.in China.However, the achievement and the progress of Chinese geographic studies are always shown in quantity, not in quality.Almost of the geographic theories and methodologies are not "made in China".The Chinese geographic studies only have limited impact on the stream of Geography.This phenomenon means that some problems exist in the process of development of Chinese geography.Through analyzing these problems, this paper points out the key problem of Chinese geography is‘duality’.Based on the theoretical and empirical impact, this paper evaluates the expansion of Chinese geography and divided it into two parts as "exogenous geography" and "endogenous geography".The exogenous geography goes under the leadership of the western geographical theories and methodology, on the other hand, the endogenous geography plants only toward native projects, without theories.The exogenous geography is in accord with the frameworks of Western geography and lack of the concepts based on local contexts.However the foundation of the endogenous geography is based on the native projects, always set a high valuation on practical significance to local contexts, but lack of the global vision and theories.Compared with the Western geography, exogenous geography and endogenous geography of Chinese geography have develop to the contrary direction and almost have no close link with each other.This paper points out the dualistic structure which is the key problem, is becoming a crucial cause of the under-developed quality of Chinese geography.By analyzing the characteristics of the endogenous geography and the exogenous concretely, this paper considers that endogenous geography should be built on the scientific methods and academic norms, and focus on the subjects, issues of inquiry studies, but not actual projects.On the other hand, the exogenous geography should put the research into local contexts, to do more native field works, but not to transplant the concepts and theories of Western geography blindly.Finally, this paper explains the point of the way to reconstruct Chinese geography is, to develop regional geography, which bases on substantial fieldwork and keeps scientific research norms.This is not only the demand of the social development, but also the way to develop academic Chinese geography.
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    Activity-based Approach to Human Spatial Behavior Research
    CHAI Yan-Wei, SHEN Jie
    2008, 28 (5):  594-600.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.594
    Abstract ( 106 )   PDF (781KB) ( 30 )   Save
    Since the 1960s, along with the transition of developmental focus from economic issues to social issues, geographers realized that human spatial behavior was not as simple as they thought before.The knowledge of aggregate patterns of human spatial behavior helped little to solve new problems, and research addressing micro-level of individual behavior then became one of the main directions of geography.Action space is the kernel subject of behavior geography.Related research puts individual in the context of urban environment and focuses on how they image and interact with the physical environment.As one important part of action space, activity spaces refer to the subset of all locations within which an individual has direct contact as a result of his or her day-to-day activities.They represent a process through which residents gain information about and attach meaning to our environment.What’s more, researches on activity spaces integrated the four key problems of action space:the colligation of time and space, the behavioral mechanism of choice and constraints, the link between activity and travel, and the impacts of socio-economic structure.As a result, such perspective has developed into an activity approach to individual and household travel-activity behavior as well as urban space analysis.Therein, activity patterns are defined by time budget, its location and related travel, and all residents’ activity spaces constitute urban activity system.Both of the two are the main research objects.As to methodology, three important items are mentioned.Time-space budget and time-geography are the most important analysis tools.Besides, recently developed stated preference method has risen to help go deep into behavior studies.In China, although such research has showed up to expanding the field, it is still far from well-developed both on theory and methodology.This paper thus tries to propose a research framework of action space based on daily activity analysis, which is more comprehensive than those of before.Theories of multi-disciplines are emphasized as the base of research, which are including geography, society, psychology, urban planning and urban transportation, etc.Meanwhile, activity dairy survey, revealed preference and stated preference survey should be combined to acquire empirical data source, census data related with both socio-economic and spatial information will also be used to support the whole studies.In such framework, travel-activity patterns will be derived under specific time-space environment.The interaction mechanism between behavior and space will be then discussed considering both individual choice and constraints.Using new computation technique such as GIS, etc., action space simulation is finally realized to help the establishment of relative policies.
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    Comparison of realistic geo-space and virtual cyberspace in China
    LU Zi, CHI Fang, WANG Ran, HAN Bing, WU Shi-Feng, HAN Rui-Ling
    2008, 28 (5):  601-606.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.601
    Abstract ( 218 )   PDF (1584KB) ( 27 )   Save
    The aim of this study is to compare and analyze Chinese traditional geo-space and cyberspace.Some characteristics of the two spaces are compared taking China as an example, including connection frequency in provinces, connection types basing on the main network and connection speed between nodes of cities.Some basic types and characteristics of the two spaces are obtained using the method of principle component, the characteristics of connection types are concluded using the method of network analysis, and by analyzing the program exam data from five exam spots in China using the method of distance attenuation of servers the comparison analysis and rule cognition of connection speed are made.The results show:1) In connection consequence, strong connection area and weak one are corresponding in the rough and the weak connection area surrounds the strong one.Connection consequence of cyberspace is not degression because of far away from the center, which is different from geo-space.2) In connection type, city centripetalism is obvious but center spots are different.The hierarchy of node is relatively accord but the barycenter of main network is not accord.The distribution types of network line include easy and complex ones.The distribution type of flow include one-direction and multi-direction, stability and instability, and continuity and discontinuity.And 3) In connection speed, relation spots of the two spaces appear scatter distributing, but aggregation is still exist in scatter distributing while out the aggregation area, geo-space distance and cyberspace distance is isochronous.Cyberspace distance has the rule of instantaneous and geo-space has the rule of distance-depending.
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    Space Distribution Structure of A-grade Scenic Spot in China
    ZHU Hong, CHEN Xiao-Liang
    2008, 28 (5):  607-615.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.607
    Abstract ( 243 )   PDF (3306KB) ( 28 )   Save
    Scenic spot is a special scenic style on the surface of the earth.The A-grade scenic spot is a tourist ranking classifiable system with Chinese characteristics and is a national standard of comprehensive evaluation about scenic spot quality and grade in China.The instauration and appraisement of A-grade scenic spot make a great contribution to the development of tourist industry and have a significant impact on marketing, the image of the establishment of tourist destination, tourist perceptive and the economic benefits and so on in the process of tourism development because of the different levels.Given the label of A-grade to the scenic spot has not only been recognized by market but also been widely accepted in China from the beginning since the scenic spot was appraised with all levels governmental regard in everywhere, and it has become a "Jinzizhaopai" (famous grand in English) in the eyes of a vast number of tourists and a highlight of promotional and publicity.Judging from the present effects, that local government pursues the goal of title of A-grade especial higher grade gradually influences the evolving and developing of distribution structure of scenic spot.The quality of scenic spot is divided into five classes with descending order from 5A to 1A according to The Standard of Rating for Quality of Scenic Spot.Sixty-six 5A-grade scenic spots were checked and accepted and came out in the March 7, 2007 that was considered as a result of spread and intense competition among the 4A-grade scenic spots.First, this text analyses the distribution and changing rules of A-grade scenic spot about China based on the 2286 date of A-grade scenic spots, and finds that A-grade scenic spot which seems entirely in-organization has its own internal space rules.The unitary distributing pattern of A-grade scenic spot which is dense in both extremes and sparse in the middle is growing up with the development of scenic spot in our country, and has a nearly relating and matching with population distribution, river systems, transport network and also landform and so on whether in the space organization or time evolvement.Although the distribution status of A-grade scenic spot has some difference in 31 provinces, its configuration has an upper comparability.The primate distribution of scenic spot is obviously in the provincial capital cities and the distributing trend is getting more and more dispersive.Second, the paper gives its explanation from the perspective of the level of socio-economic development, population, traffic condition and rating system.Generally speaking, there are some group configurations in all provinces in China, but it can not hold back Chinese scenic spot to be more disorderly.There is a reasonable side in the distribution structure of scenic spot which hide the irrational elements.This market-oriented structure system triggers two cycles and makes the stronger much better than before and so do the weaker, and go against to the development of scenic spot to a certain extent.So tourism value of the scarcity of resources should be worth more attention under the circumstance that some conditions such as transportation, sightseeing, service facilities and man-made landscape facilities can be copied.Moreover, this paper also studies the dislocation between the distribution of A-grade scenic spot and tourism resources of China, and also discusses the development trend of A-grade scenic spot in the future which is aimed to guide and perfect the rating system to a more reasonable direction.
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    Agricultural location at the village level in Central China—A case study for Huangzhuang village in Nanyang city, Henan Province
    LI Xiao-Jian, GAO Geng-He
    2008, 28 (5):  616-623.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.616
    Abstract ( 185 )   PDF (1312KB) ( 19 )   Save
    Research on micro-agricultural locations from perspective of farmers at village-level may help us to understand characteristics of agriculture location and its regional mechanism in the special circumstances of China.Drawing on data from remote sensing resolution and our surveys and interviews with the farmers on agricultural land use at Huangzhuang Village, Nanyang City, Henan Province, we found the agricultural belts surrounding the center of the village.In comparing to Tunnen’s agricultural model, the radius of belts was distributed in a very small scale.From the village outwards, the vegetable belt, cropping-vegetable mixed belt and food grain belt were classified.Over the belts, labor-intensity in farming production decreased gradually.Along with the increase of farming distance from the village, the ratio of vegetable land reduced, and accordingly the input as well as the income per acreage delined.Distance played an important role for farmers to decide agriculture locations.The results demonstrated the presence of Thunen belt in the small village of Central China, but the fundamental reasons behind were different from Thunen’s study.In stead of the physical distance and transport cost of goods from production place to the market, the key factor that determined the agricultural locations in this study was the production cost decided by labor-intensity in farming individual crops.Since vegetable production required large amount of labor force and village was the center of labor, the cost of communication from village to farmland should be much higher than the cost of vegetable transportation from farmland to market.This explained the concentration of vegetable production in the land close to village site.The case study is particularly important given the household responsible system that has been practiced since the early 1980s in rural China.It is the households, rather than the village, that decide types and area of crop production.If farmers have different farming behavior, or if the responsible arable land for a household is concentrates in certain areas, it would lead to different spatial patterns in agricultural land use.Accordingly, it should be cautious to use this result in other situations.
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    Framework of Eco-industrial Park Development Based on Circular Economy:A Case Study of Ningbo Chemical Industry Zone
    WANG Ming-Feng, NING Yue-Min, HU Ping, LU shan
    2008, 28 (5):  624-630.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.624
    Abstract ( 276 )   PDF (1527KB) ( 29 )   Save
    In the past few years, a growing number of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) which are constituted by symbiotic industrial clusters are planned and developed in the industries agglomerated areas in China.It is one of the most important local actions for exploring the practice of circular economy.Based on the theories of circular economy and industrial ecology, the paper provides a framework of EIP development integrating the existing planning of EIPs.There are five key dimensions summarized in this conceptual model:symbiotic industrial network construction, spatial planning, environmental management, integrated infrastructure design, and cultural identity creation.Furthermore, the development framework was devised and applied in the case study analysis of Ningbo Chemical Industry Zone.Some strategies and suggests for the EIP development are provided.
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    Theory and Demonstration between the Industry Diversion and City Increase—A Case Study of 31 Provincial Cities in China
    REN Jing, YANG Qin-Shan
    2008, 28 (5):  631-635.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.631
    Abstract ( 196 )   PDF (702KB) ( 9 )   Save
    In the 1980s’, the theory of economic increase emphasized the stimulative functions on the technology, knowledge overflowing and exterior character of the human capital to the regional economic increase.The effects on the knowledge overflowing in cities were more remarkable than that in the towns, because in the cities, the information intercommunion was closer than in the towns.In this paper, the authors tried to testify the above-mentioned results at the theory of the regional economic increase through the data of the industry-economic increase in the different cities.So, the authors collected the data of the city-industry increase of 31 provincial cities in China from 1997 to 2006.Finally, the authors arrived the conclusions that it was the diversification of the industry not the specialization of the industry accelerated the innovate ideology and knowledge overflowing of the cities, and accordingly, it accelerated the economic increase of the cities.In other words, it is the ideology communication nearly brought the mostly innovate thoughts, and those innovate thoughts hoisted regional economic increase.According to the conclusion, we should change the research on the effects of the knowledge overflowing and source of the innovate thoughts from the industry’s inner structure to the ideology communication between each other in the departmental.
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    Coupling Relationship between Socio-economy Benefits and Eco-environment Benefits of Land Use in Shenzhen City
    LIANG Hong-Mei, LIU Wei-Dong, LIU Hui-Ping, LIN Yu-Xin, LIU Yong
    2008, 28 (5):  636-641.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.636
    Abstract ( 204 )   PDF (1001KB) ( 25 )   Save
    Shenzhen is a coastal opening city of prosperous economy.Land use benefits are very obvious and pose clear coupling relationship in the city.A dynamic coupling model between land use benefits is set up according to the theory and method of general system science.Land use benefit systems are coordinated when coupling degrees change from 0皌o 90?.The coupling extent is optimum when coupling degrees are 45?.Corresponding indexes and weights are made out in the light of the model requirement and reality of Shenzhen City.The land use benefits are better and better during the period of 1981-2004.The socio-economic benefits rise stably and the eco-environment benefits develop fluctuant.The evolving processes of coupling degrees about land use benefits can be divided into 4 stages.The coupling degrees change from -54.39皌o 34.03癲uring the period of 1981-1986.The land use benefits soar from low-grade symbiosis into relatively coordinated development.The coordinated situation of land use benefits is optimum, continuous and stable from 1987 to 1990 because the coupling degrees are close to 45?.The land use benefits are not very coordinated during the period of 1991-1995 as the coupling degrees arrive gradually at 73.44?.The coordinated extent of land use benefits decreases during the last 9 years because of high coupling degrees which are close to 90?.
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    A Digitized Evaluation System of Regional Tourism Competitive Capability
    XU Shu-Mei, CHEN Cai
    2008, 28 (5):  642-648.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.642
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (1058KB) ( 16 )   Save
    The regional tourism competitive capability is the relative concept concerned with comparison each other for the regions.For knowing the difference among the regions it is effective way to establish quantitative evaluation of the competitive capability by selecting the reasonable specification and statistic method as well as the reliable data.Although there are some research results available in China at present, the shortages are obvious in the research.First is that the contents of the regional tourism competitive capability are not enough.Only present situation is considered and in many cases the costume concept is followed, while the potential ability of the tourism competitive capability is neglected.The second is that some specifications are too soft and the objective evaluation for regional tourism competitive capability cannot be attained.The third is that there are not the core specifications and the grade of the specifications is not clear.The fourth is that the digital characteristics are not obvious and the methods cannot trace the variation of the actual situation.The fifth is that some specifications in the methods are too fuzzy to be understood and employed by other researchers.A digitized evaluation system of the regional tourism competitive capability suitable for China is presented in the paper.Taken the data published by the national and regional authorities as basic and core index on the bottom of the system, the tourism science and the basic principles of the regional competitive capability theory are combined and the potential regional competitive capability is considered in the system.The three key points, including the achievement, the environment competition and the competitive potential in the regional tourism, are employed to construct the system, in which both the general factors as well as the main part influencing the regional tourism competitive capability are considered.The system in the paper is characterized with the digitized characteristics and the real time trace ability.
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    Prehistoric Continuous Culture Settlements about Zhengzhou-Luoyang region Based on Spatial Analysis
    BI Shuo-Ben, LU Guonian, CHEN Jimin
    2008, 28 (5):  649-655.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.649
    Abstract ( 184 )   PDF (2464KB) ( 23 )   Save
    Appling the spatial analysis to the distances of prehistoric settlement sites of Zhengzhou-Luoyang region, we can find that more than 60% settlement sites of the four culture phases are located about 4km to the water system.This means that the selection strategy for habitation is near by the rivers in order to get the plentiful water and convenience transportation in prehistoric society.By analyzing the elevation of the sites of the settlement groups in different culture phases, the most elevation of the settlement sites is among 100 to 400m, and the number of sites whose elevation is lower than 100m is less than 10%.What is more, the average elevation of the settlement sites in 4 different culture phases is about 280m.This illuminates that the selection for elevation of habitation area has some qualification in prehistoric society.It is, the elevation of habitation area is very high, then the living and transportation condition is not convenience; but the elevation of habitation area is quite low, then the danger of floodwater is extraordinary big.The numbers of the settlements went up in a geometrical way from the early ages to the later times using time sequence analysis.In a word, using the case of the prehistoric settlement sites in Zhengzhou-Luoyang region, analyzing the relationship of settlement sites and its entironment features, and by means of spatial analysis method, the research finds the spatial distribution rules of settlement sites, discloses the core problem in geography, the relationship of the people and the earth, and illuminates the laws in the course of historical evolution.The research confirms that the spatial analysis method is a feasible and valid method for the settlement archaeology research.
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    A Quantitative Evaluation Study on Diffusion Environment of Agri-technique Innovation—Taking Guanzhong Area as an Example
    LIU Xiao-Ming, LI Tong-Sheng
    2008, 28 (5):  656-661.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.656
    Abstract ( 183 )   PDF (599KB) ( 10 )   Save
    The external environment greatly influences the diffusion of ari-technique innovation.The study on the diffusion environment is helpful to know the factors which affect the diffusion process, so as to find out the effective countermeasures for the diffusion.Yangling National Agriculture High-tech Industries Demonstration Area is a demonstration area of agri-tecnique innovation in arid and semi-arid areas of China, which serves as a source of innovation with its surrounding areas.Taking Guanzhong as its diffusion region, the diffusion environment of agri-technique innovation are analyzed and evaluated based on the quantitative approach.The results show that the overall diffusion environment of Guanzhong is not good except Yangling area.There is little difference among the diffusion environment of each municipal area.The contribution that every factor asserts to the diffusion environment of every area is varies greatly.There are three different types of diffusion environment existing in Guanzhong area, among them, Yangling is the best one, Baoji, Xianyang and Xi’an come next, Tongchuang and Weinan are the worst.The authors also point out the optimizational direction of diffusion environment for Guanzhong area, and pave the way for the theoretical study on diffusion environment.
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    Changes and Correlation of Soil and Vegetation in Process of Rock Desertification in Northern Guangdong Province
    WEI Xing-Hu, LI Sen, LUO Hong-Bo, NIE Lei, LI Hui-Xia, HE Qiao-Ru
    2008, 28 (5):  662-666.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.662
    Abstract ( 180 )   PDF (833KB) ( 19 )   Save
    Yanbei Town of Yingde City in the northern Guangdong Province was selected as a typical site to investigate the soil and vegetation changes in the process of rock desertification.The results show that in the process of rock desertification from light grade to extreme high grade, the thickness of soil layer, the coverage of soil and the content of organic matter reduced significantly, the content of soil organic carbon reduced more in the primary stage of rock desertification than in the later stage, but the thickness of soil layer and the coverage of soil reduced more in serious stage than in the primary stage.The vegetation succession in the rocky area is towards xerophyte and rock plant in the process of rock desertification, and the structure of vegetation is getting more and more simple.The vegetation coverage and standing biomass reduced significantly.There exist significant negative correlations between the rate of uncovered rock and the thickness of soil layer, the coverage of soil, the content of organic matter, the vegetation coverage, and biomass.And there have significant positive correlations among other factors.
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    Niche Analysis of Dominant Forests in Mountainous Area of Beijing Based on GIS
    DUAN Xiao-Feng, XU Xue-Gong
    2008, 28 (5):  667-671.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.667
    Abstract ( 196 )   PDF (453KB) ( 24 )   Save
    Taking forest resources in the mountainous area of Beijing as the researching object, spatial distribution, resources utilization and adaptive capacity to environment of the eight dominant forests were studied by applying niche analysis.Environmental factors of forest, such as precipitation, sunshine, cumulative temperature and soil quality, were partitioned to five resources gradients.Based on geographic information systems, spatial databases were built for the distribution information of dominant forests and resources gradients of environmental factors.Niche breadths and niche overlaps of eight dominant forests growing on the five gradients of different resources dimensions in the mountainous area of Beijing were measured using Levins and Smith’s indexes and Pianka’s method.The results show that resources availability influences niche matrices greatly.Niche breadths calculated by Smith’s formula which considers resources availability and distribution indicate the capacities of resources utilization and environmental adaptation effectively.Niche overlap between two forests with broad niche breadth is usually great.The average niche overlaps among dominant forests in the study area are widely high, which indicates that the eight dominant forests require similar environmental conditions and resources sharing.
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    Weihe River-Mihe River Delta in South Coast of Bohai Sea, China:Sedimentary Sequence and Architecture
    XUE Chun-Ting, DING Dong
    2008, 28 (5):  672-676.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.672
    Abstract ( 193 )   PDF (585KB) ( 35 )   Save
    Weihe River-Mihe River Delta on the south coast of the Bohai Sea is contributed by the Jiaolai River, Weihe River, the Bailang River, the Mihe River and the Xiaoqing River, and the historical Jishui River existed in 11-1128 A.D.It is a river group delta.The coast line prograteded 20-55 km from 7000 yr B.P.to 1984.The delta thickness along the coast is over 20 m.The distances between two river mouths is approximately 20 km or less.The clayey silt of the prodelta is jointly constructed by all rivers, very fine sand of the delta fronts are made at the individual river mouths.and the inter-mouth bay clayey silt accumulate between two river mouths.The delta has not distinct abandoned delta lobe.The very fine sand and intermouth bay silt alternately occur in sequence in the delta front because of river mouth movement.
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    Sedimentatary Characteristics of Rocky Embayment Coast in Tongguling in East of Hainan Island
    MAO Long-Jiang, ZHANG Yong-Zhan, XU Ye-Hua, WEI Ling, Li Gang, ZHU Da-Kui
    2008, 28 (5):  677-682.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.677
    Abstract ( 164 )   PDF (846KB) ( 18 )   Save
    Through the field investigations such as geological and geomorphology survey, beach and seabed bathymetry, beach profile measurements, grain-size analyses of the sediments of the beaches and seabed, this paper makes some preliminary conclusions as follows:(1) The sands of the Yueliang Bay and the Qishui Bay are coarse-middle sands and medium and mean grain-size diameters are mainly between 1-2 Ф.The grain-size results of beach and seabed sediments indicate that the wave is great in the Yueliang Bay and the Qishui Bay in the eastern Hainan Island.The reason is that the Yueliang Bay and the Qishui Bay face the sea directly and have no barriers, so the wind wave is stronger, which is influenced distinctly by winter and summer monsoon.(2) The coastal geomorphology have great influence on dynamicical condition and sementation environment.The medium grain-size of the seabed sediments is -1--3 Ф near 20-m fathom line, and -1-0 Ф between 10-20 m fathom lines, which shows that the wave function the sea bed at 20 m depth in the Yueliang Bay.However, there are coral reefs in the Qishui Bay, which can remove some energy, so the swash wave is not stronger than that in the Yueliang Bay.(3) Moreover, the different geomorphologies in the same embayment coast result indifferent dynamic conditions.Because of the coral reef damaged in the northern Qishui Bay, the coarse sizes of the sand in the sand beach are distributed in the different parts, which indicates swash wave acts frequently in the different tides, but in the southern Qishui Bay, only at the big tide time, the swash wave can act on the beach.
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    Micromorphological Features of Particlesof Holocence Loess at Zhengzhou Areas, China and Their Environmental Significance
    PANG Jiang-Li, HUANG Chun-Chang, CHA Xiao-Chun, ZHU Yi-Zhi
    2008, 28 (5):  683-687.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.683
    Abstract ( 133 )   PDF (1715KB) ( 24 )   Save
    Using the particle data obtained from the Holocene soil profile at LGT, JYC sites in the Guanzhong area and at PLG, SBLH sites in the Zhengzhou, this article attempts to illustrate the material source of Zhengzhou loess and its environmental significance.The micromorphology was observed under a petrographic microscope, and its image was quantificationally measured by NIKON NIS-ELments BR2.2 software.Particle size distribution was determined by a Malvern Mastersizer-S and with Na4P2O7 as a dispersant.Micromorphological observation of the thin sections shows that the grain-shape of Zhengzhou loess is characterized by sub-round or round, with higher length/width ratio, and that of the Guanzhong loess by sub-angular or angular, with strip, triangular and irregular shapes.Comparison with the Guanzhong loess, the coarse of Zhengzhou loess is characterized by higher Length, Area, EqDiameter, Perimeter, Elongation and Roundness, and K1,K2,K3,K4 value are more than 1.It suggest that the particle in the Zhengzhou loess has higher roundness and sphericity and has gone through stronger hydraulic abrasion.The assemblage of minerals in both loess is mainly composed of Q and Pl.However, Q+Pl content, Q/Pl ratio and C/F10μm ratio are clear higher in Zhengzhou loess than in Guanzhong loess.Research result shows that particle-size of both loess falls in the same range, within particle-size range of aeloian, but peak value of particle-size of Zhengzhou loess ranges in 50-80 μm with steep particle-size curve and that of Guanzhong loess is in 20-40 μm with slow particle-size curve.All the results of this study suggest that Zhengzhou loess is aeolian, which has synchronously both aeolian and alluvium features.However its material source differs from Guanzhong loess, and it came from various loose river sediments at the Huanghe (Yellow) River alluvial fan in the east of Mengjin and transported by northeastern wind.
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    Set Pair Analysis Model Based on Data Mining for Evaluation of Map Quality
    WANG Ming-Wu, JIN Ju-Liang, LI Li
    2008, 28 (5):  688-692.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.688
    Abstract ( 202 )   PDF (232KB) ( 16 )   Save
    The evaluation of map quality is prime importance for the improvement of map design and application.To overcome and avoid the problems of weight determination and large sample size of mining information in the traditional evaluated methods, a novel method using the theory of set pair analysis (SPA) based on data mining are proposed to evaluate the map quality in this paper.The certainty and uncertainty of objective problems are treated as uncertain systems during the process of SPA, and the uncertainties are described by the connecting degree.However, The evaluation of map quality not only need to calculate identical degree, different degree and contrary degree between the evaluated index sets of sample and grade standard sets, but also to mine useful information from the discrepancy coefficient of connecting degree.The approaching degree is introduced to describe the fuzzy connecting degree between the index values, which are located in the neighbor discussed grade, the discussed grade.Then find the maximum membership degree based on the general connecting degree of the sample.To quantify the evaluated result, and the characteristic values are also calculated.Moreover, to confirm the reliability and the versatility of this improved SPA method, the application to a practical example, and the comparisons of evaluated results with the fuzzy mathematic method and expert evaluated method were conducted.The results show that the proposed method used to assess map quality is feasible and effective, and easy to operate.And the method has no limit on specimen modeling.This presented model also has provided the new reference for the evaluation of other uncertainty problems.
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    Assessment and Zonation of Land Subsidence Disaster Risk of Tianjin Binhai Area
    HU Bei-Bei, JIANG Yan-Xiang, ZHOU Jun, WANG Jun, XU Shi-Yuan
    2008, 28 (5):  693-697.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.693
    Abstract ( 197 )   PDF (870KB) ( 28 )   Save
    Risk assessment and zoning are very important for risk management.Accumulative total subsidence volume and land subsidence velocity were analyzed and superimposed to create the land subsidence disaster evaluation map.Population density and unit area GDP were analyzed in terms of vulnerability mapping.Response and recovery capability of land subsidence disaster was also assessed.Land subsidence disaster risk zonation by means of GIS automatically was overlaid on the three data layers of hazard, vulnerability and response and recovery capability.Then each grid unit with a resolution of 200m?200m was divided into five categories of the risk:high, slight high, medium, slight low and low.The research can give reference to regional disaster reduction.
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    Foliage Physiological Response to Increase of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Reflected by δ13C Series of Tree Ring in Tianmu Mountains
    ZHAO Xing-Yun, WANG Jian, SHANG Zhi-Yuan, WANG Zu-Liang, QIAN Jun-Long
    2008, 28 (5):  698-702.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.698
    Abstract ( 118 )   PDF (1285KB) ( 15 )   Save
    The concentration of atmospheric CO2 has been increased due to the CO2 emission with mass fossil-fuel combustion since industrialization.Many studies indicate that the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 is significantly positive correlation with the photosynthesis and water use efficiency and production of vegetable is negative correlation with the connectivity of foliage stoma and rate of transpiration.In this study, the annual series of δ13C of three Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibrenk ex Otto et Dietr (CF) tree disks collected from west Tianmu Mountains, based on cross-dating tree ring ages, were determined.We probe into the physiological response for trees’ growth to the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2 and moisture condition on the basis of the three δ13C series.The result illuminates that the water use efficiency are all increasing reflected by the three trees and the increasing trend is similar approximately.The result elucidates that the tree growth is significant positive with the increasing of atmospheric CO2 concentration before and after the Industrial Revolution.
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    Records of Paleo-climate and Mankind Activities Since 4250 a B.P. in Zhongba Site, Chongqing
    SHI Wei, ZHU Cheng, MA Chun-Mei, ZHU Qing
    2008, 28 (5):  703-708.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.703
    Abstract ( 95 )   PDF (1450KB) ( 27 )   Save
    Stratigraphical research on Rb, Sr, Hg and TOC in Zhongba site, Chongqing indicates that Rb, Sr and Rb/Sr can reflect basically the process of climate change since 4250 a B.P., the major dry-cold periods can contrast to the low values of δ18 O curve in Dunde Glaciar, the high values of magnetic susceptibility and Ti curves from the settings in Huguang Maar Lake, the high values of 14C density in the atmosphere and the low values of relative long term variation on the solar activity, which response the characteristics that Rb and Sr in the stratums are not prone to be disturbed by mankind activities.Combining with archaeological remains and contrast the variation curves of Hg, P, Ca, Mg and TOC, we can still discover that Hg, P, Ca, Mg and TOC record three different stages of evolution that mankind activities go through since 4250 a B.P.Further studying, we think that the decline of salt industry site is probably interrelated with the palaeo-flood events, excessively utilizing the salt wells resources and the increased difficulty of using them.
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    Urban Thermal Field and Heat Island Effect of Lanzhou City in Summer
    LI Guo-Dong, WANG Nai-Ang, ZHANG Jun-Hua, ZHAO Li-Qiang
    2008, 28 (5):  709-714.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.05.709
    Abstract ( 168 )   PDF (1029KB) ( 39 )   Save
    The mobile surveys were conducted by vehicles equipped with meteorological instruments and GPS in Lanzhou.With the corrected data and the method of spatial interpolation, this paper model urban thermal field in three periods of Lanzhou in summer and analyzed the cause of formation.Results show that the thermal field of Lanzhou presents regular distribution.The thermal space distribution characters have directly relations with land use type, urban energy consumption, population density, building volume rate, and thermodynamic properties of underlying surface.Two automatic meteorological stations were used to observe meteorological elements contrastively at urban area and suburb from 2006 to 2007, combining with the routine meteorological data of urban meteorological station in recent 70 years and the routine meteorological data of suburb station in recent 40 years, large time scale temperature variation, heat island effect, and change of heat island intensity.Results show that interannual variation characteristics of temperature are consistent with the large scale oscillation characteristics in last century; urban heat island effect is more remarkable, and urban heat island intensity has become strong gradually from the 1980s, these characteristics have close relations with development of urbanization and industrialization in Lanzhou.
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