Table of Content

    20 March 2009, Volume 29 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Comprehensive Evaluation of Recycle Economy Development of Liaoning Coastal Areas
    HAN Zeng-lin, WANG Ze-yu
    2009, 29 (2):  147-153.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.147
    Abstract ( )   PDF (913KB) ( )   Save
    With a share of the 13.4% of the land area, China's coastal areas create 60% of the GNP and provide 41% of the jobs for whole country. It can be said that the coastal areas’ economic development have made great contribution to the national economy. But with the rapid economic development, the negative effects on the environment and resources are also increasingly apparent: about 70% of the nation's coastal cities in short of water resources, about 60% of the cities experience varying degrees of electricity shortfall, the marine environment pollution is serious and red tide and other disasters occur from time to time. Liaoning coastal areas (Dalian, Dandong, Yingkou, Panjin, Jinzhou, Huludao) have shortage of freshwater resources, electricity and other energy shortages in varying degrees. Inshore fisheries resources decrease progressively. Jinzhou, Yingkou and other places have no fish flood for years, and they had only a small number of Jellyfish production. Within the scope of Liaoning Province, Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea’s environmental quality also have deterioration with varying degrees, and the Bohai Sea’s pollution has drawn the close attention of the whole society. In addition, there are many industries layout in coastal areas of Liaoning, such as petrochemicals, shipbuilding, coal, cement, salt,chemical industries and so on. These industries are consuming large energy resources and making environmental pollution. Therefore, only through the development of recycle economy, the coastal areas can achieve economy, resources and the environment’s sustainable development. Scientific evaluation of the indicator system for recycle economic will, evaluate and monitor the state of economic development and degree which is an important part of recycle economy research and is also the basis for the region sustainable development. Based on Chinese recycle economy evaluation index system, applying AHP to evaluate the recycle economy development of the coastal areas of Liaoning, the evaluation is made in this article. The results showed that Dalian is the better region of recycle economic development; the recycle economies in Dandong and Huludao need to be strengthened; Yingkou, Panjin, Jinzhou are the most urgent areas to accelerate development. The focus and direction of recycle economy is to accelerate the park dimension and social dimension of economic development and build the eco-industrial parks and recycling-oriented society. Dalian should further reduce energy consumption, especially reduce water consumption, further vigorous development of seawater desalination industry and the direct use industry, increase the "reduction" efforts and further strengthen the use of recycled waste. Dandong should reduce energy consumption, enhance waste recycling and strengthen the economic development of the relevant infrastructure construction. Yingkou, Panjin, Jinzhou should comprehensively strengthen energy efficiency, waste recycling and renewable resources industries. Based on the existing industries we should develop high-tech industries, implement cleaner production, optimize the existing industrial structure. Huludao should enhance the overall development of recycle economy then combine the key industries with the "energy saving, emission reduction" efforts to improve energy output rate and reduce energy consumption, and reduce waste emissions.
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    The Impacts of Canton Fair and Asian Games 2010 on the Spatial Pattern of Guangzhou's Hotels
    PENG Qing, ZHANG Xiao-ming, Zeng Guo-jun
    2009, 29 (2):  154-160.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.154
    Abstract ( )   PDF (882KB) ( )   Save
    Guangzhou's bid for the 2010 Asian Games initiates the discussion on the impact of this event on the city's hotels. However, Guangzhou has hosted a periodical event for more than 50 years: the Canton Fair (China Import & Export Fair). This event, as well as other socioeconomic factors, has shown its impact on the spatial aggregation pattern which results in five cluster areas of hotels in the central city of Guangzhou. This research conducts a geographical and descriptively statistical comparison of the demands between the 2010 Asian Games and the Canton Fair. The main findings includes: 1) The spatial distribution of Guangzhou's hotels clearly demonstrates the impact of the Canton Fair. Hotels tend to aggregate around the exhibition centers of the Canton Fair or along the roads that have convenient communication with those centers; 2) However, the dynamics that results in the cluster areas should not only attribute to the Canton Fair, whilst some other factors like the attraction of the central business district (CBD) or the government's policy of land use also plays a important role; 3) The 2010 Asian Games brings with the restructuring of hotels, the diversity of operation modes, and the service quality enhancement, but it will not remarkably change the spatial aggregation pattern of Guangzhou's hotels mainly because it is a one-time event and the estimating tourists can be easily accommodated by existent rooms after some pointed improvement. What should be emphasized here is that the more appropriate strategy for Guangzhou's hotel development is to match the supply with the demand increment of periodic event like the Canton Fair but not with the seemingly attractive opportunity brought by the one-time event.
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    A Comparison and Analysis of Resources and Environment Foundation in Northeast Provinces
    DUAN Hai-yan, CHEN Ying-zi
    2009, 29 (2):  161-166.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.161
    Abstract ( )   PDF (385KB) ( )   Save
    Northeast China has a better natural resources conditions. Five kinds of resourses which include water, forest, cultivated land, energy and minerals in Northeast China have considerable foundation. Make the five resourses as the evaluation index to compare the Resources and Environment Foundation Degree (REFD) of three Northeast Provinces. The results show that the REFD of Jilin province is higher than Liaoning province, and the REFD of Heilongjiang province is the highest. the REFD in Northeast China has a downward trend. The Environmental safety of Liaoning province has reach a Critical Point, it must take measures to guarantee environmental safety.The Resources and Environment Safety Index (PRESI) of five resourses elements in three provinces have different longitudinal sort, which are closely related to the factors such as natural resources, population and economic development of the provinces. Analysis shows that in order to enhance the REFD in Northeast China we should improve resources utilization,develop and use of alternative energy sources, implement the national policies to allocate the compulsory energy-saving emissions targets. All of these will be significance to make Northeast China to be a resource-saving, environment-friendly society.
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    The Residents’ Evaluation of Living Environment Safety in Beijing Based on Their Social Characteristics
    Yu Jian-hui, Zhang Wen-zhong
    2009, 29 (2):  167-173.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.167
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1056KB) ( )   Save
    On the background of continued expansion and population growth of Beijing, the living environment safety is becoming more and more important and get increased emphasis by researchers. Based on the large-scale survey in 2005, this study used the method of qualitative interviews and the survey data analysis to give the evaluation of residents’ living environment safety in eight districts and the suburbs of five representative region including a total of 134 communities. Through analyzing the four indicators which can indicate the residents’ living environment safety, the article made on evaluation of breakdown and overall rating of living environment safety. Then, the article compared the result of the evaluation and residents’ social attribute, and discussed the attribute’s effects on the evaluation. At last, it concluded the spatial distribution of evaluation of the residents’ living environment safety through a GIS analysis. The conclusion shows that the residents evaluate that living environment safety in Beijing is in a general level. Among the four indicators, the evaluation scores of the security situation and traffic safety situation are much higher than that of the government safety management and the situation of Emergency Evacuation Sites(EES). This difference indicates that the government have done well in the traditional field of living safety, but the soft environment of management and the site building for emergency are not as good as the former. Using the ways of principle component analysis and cluster analysis, the thesis tries to integrate all the residents’ characteristics into two main integrated factors, which are the level of education of and the level of richness. Then, according to the result of trying to divide all the residents into five groups with those two different integrated attributes, the paper reveals that the poor old man has the lowest evaluation among the five groups, and the high-educated youth and rich people have the highest one. This result is highly correlated with their social characteristics. On the view from space, the inner city evaluation higher than the other regions because of the long-term traditional development difference. The north part of the city marks a higher score than the south part because of the same reason above. There is no obvious difference between the east part and the west part of the city. The areas around Sijiqing, Xinjiekou and northeast part of suburb of Chaoyang District have the highest scores of the evaluation. The regions which have the lowest scores are the southeast part of Beijing, Tiantongyuan, Huilongguan and Sujiatuo.
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    Spatial Mismatch Between Housing and Employment in Beijing
    XU Tao, SONG Jin-ping, FANG Lin-na, ZHANG Ning
    2009, 29 (2):  174-180.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.174
    Abstract ( )   PDF (771KB) ( )   Save
    researchers of America have been studying the spatial mismatch between housing and employment for more than thirty years. However, it is just begining in China. Along with the urbanization and suburbanization of China, the spatial mismatch has already appeared in some big cities in China, such as Beijing and Shanghai. Although the essential of the spatial mismatch is uniform, the reason, the form and the exhibition of the spatial mismatch are different compared to overseas research. This paper makes both a macroscopical and a microcosmic analysis on the spatial mismatch between housing and employment in Beijing. On the macroscopical level, this paper makes Beijing as a whole and analyses the spatial mismatch in different area in virtue of spatial mismatch index(SMI) in 1982, 1990 and 2000; On the microcosmic level, this paper uses questionnaire to study the time, distance, manner and cost of commute of urban fringe inhabitant. It was found that, on the macroscopical level, the SMIs of different regions in Beijing are different, and so are their changes. The phenomenon is not evident before 1990, the SMIs of 1982 and 1990 are respectively 3.13 and 1.98, from then on it grows faster to 16.81 in 2000 by the rate of 1.48 point every year. The SMIs of the center of the city are low, also grow smoothly and slowly still less than 1 in 2000. The SMIs of the eight regions grow faster in the twenty years, and the rate of the 1990s is about eight times as many as of the 1980s. Meanwhile, a trend was found that the employment keeps away from the resident, while the resident runs for the employment, and the intensity of the spatial mismatch lies on which is much stronger. If the action of the employment is much stronger, then the employment runs away from the residential area, and the spatial mismatch will be strengthened. Otherwise, if the action of population movement is much stronger, people runs for the employment, and the spatial mismatch will be lightened. On the microcosmic level, the research found that the proportion of commuter works locally and handly is very low. While more than half of the commuters travel from 10 to 40 km everyday, it cost more than one hour, and the manners of traffic are mostly bus, subway and private car. The growth of distance and time does not accordingly bring the growth of the cost, the cost of about half of the commuters is less than100 yuan (RMB). The spatial mismatch brings little economic pressure, however, it brings long-time cost and spirit-consume along that. The spatial mismatch between housing and employment in Beijing has brought forth a series of problems, except for what we mentioned. Hereinbefore, there still exists a lot questions, such as seeing a doctor and children’s education, they are also segregated from information and employment chances away from the center of the city. Community polarization already exists, community space polarization appears, so it is very important to study the mismatch problem in this background.
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    Delimitation and Fractal Research on Structure of Central Liaoning Urban Agglomeration
    HUANG Jian-yi, ZHANG Ping-yu
    2009, 29 (2):  181-187.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.181
    Abstract ( )   PDF (865KB) ( )   Save
    Central Liaoning urban agglomeration as the core region of Northeast Old Industrial Base, is on the critical stage of economic transformation process presently. The size structure of the population and economy in the Central Liaoning urban agglomeration is analyzed by fractal method in this paper on the background of revitalizing the Northeast Old Industrial Base, new type industrialization and new type urbanization. There are many arguments on the delimitation of Central Liaoning urban agglomeration area, so this paper tries to make a definition of the confines of the central Liaoning urban agglomeration in two aspects, namely the city gravitational value, and the traffic flow analysis. Compared to the other cities, the gravitational values between Shengyang and Yingkou are smallest, and the socio-economic links of the two cities are weakest. Central Liaoning agglomeration should include Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi, Liaoyang, Fushun and Tieling. Then this paper calculates the fractal dimensions of the population size and economy size. The fractal dimensions of the population and the economy size show that the distribution of population in Central Liaoning agglomeration is uniform, conversely, the distribution of the economy is convergent. The spatial distribution of the economy and population is inconsistent, so the regional economic gap is distinctive. It has a close relationship with the industrial structure and development history of this region. The regional economy is almost capital-intensive industry, it is unable to absorb large number of labor force as labor-intensive industry, so the more developed cities have high economic density but low population density. In order to probe into the fractal mechanism of the population and economy size, this paper uses the grey relational analysis method to analyze the main factors of the fractal dimension. The results indicate that the science expenditure and completion of the total investment in fixed assets are the main effective factors.
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    Spatial Evenness Characteristic based on Meta Fractal Dimension Model in Jiangsu Province
    CUI Shi-lin, LONG Yi, ZHOU Tong, WANG Li-qin
    2009, 29 (2):  188-194.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.188
    Abstract ( )   PDF (473KB) ( )   Save
    The spatial pattern of urban system in the result of the location selection is formed mainly through the economic activities and the population migration in history. It is an important part of the study of the urban system taking towns in Jiangsu Province as a point in a geographical space in order to discover the spatial distribution of the towns and to analyze the formation of the internal mechanism of this type. There are four methods of the urban system’s spatial structure research widely used currently. They are nearest neighbor point index, neighboring point’s average, variation coefficient of the Voronoi area and counting numbers of the individual goals in a grid using Keermagefu-Shimiernuofu formula and Lorenz curve. The methods above cannot describe the local spatial distribution of the point group. This paper uses a Meta Fractal Dimension Model (MFDM) that can be applied to describe the variation of local shape of map objects to measure the spatial structure of 1850 towns and blocks quantitatively using Jiangsu foundational data in 2005. The result shows that: ①Difference of the spatial distribution characteristic is significant and the evenness degree decreases from south to north. Towns in the South of Jiangsu Province distribute intensively and evenly, relatively slight in the middle region and not even in the north except downtown of Xuzhou; ②East region in Jiangsu Province is more even than the west; ③It is obvious that the distribution characteristic of towns, like Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou, Zhenjiang, Yangzhou, Taizhou, Nantong and Nanjing developing along the axis of the Yangtze River, is intensive; ④Evenness degree of the urban system is basically consistent with the urbanization level in Jiangsu Province. It is proved that the MFDM is effective to discover the variation of the local spatial distribution characteristic on a certain scale.
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    Tourist Consumption Level of China's Rural Residents and Its Regional Classification
    DIAO Zong-guang
    2009, 29 (2):  195-199.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.195
    Abstract ( )   PDF (664KB) ( )   Save
    Based on China's per capita net income of rural residents in 2004 and relevant data in "China's domestic tourism sampling survey information" this article establishes a statistical model for statistical analysis. The results show that is the tourist consumption of China’s rural residents is complicated i.e. the level of economic income has a certain impact on the per capita tourist spending and tourism purchasing power, but little impact on the excursion rate. According to the per capita net income of rural residents, tourism consumption level of rural residents, 28 Chinese provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities, were divided into three grades, and the author obtained average excursion rate, per capita tourist spending, and the tourism purchasing power of every region through the weighed average method. The distribution features of every region show that excursion rate of rural residents in the high, medium and low tourist consumption regions have no significant difference; The medium and low tourist consumption region were no significant difference in average excursion rate, per capita tourist spending, the tourist purchasing powerand; The high tourist consumption region and the other two regions were significant differences in per capita tourist spending and tourism purchasing power.
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    Current Situation and Future of China-Africa Tour Cooperation
    LUO Gao-yuan, LU lin
    2009, 29 (2):  200-205.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.200
    Abstract ( )   PDF (884KB) ( )   Save
    The harmonious developments of Africa and China-Africa relation are essential to the world’s development. Beijing Summit of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation makes it known that China would like to make great efforts to help African people shake off poverty, share the achievements and walk toward the common prosperity. Proceeding from the general situation and major tourism resources of Africa, and combining with the actuality and the future relationship of China and Africa, this paper points out that expanding tourism is one of the best choice to the social and economic development of Africa. The article emphasizes the comprehensive study of African tourism is to prepare for the China-Africa tour cooperation, to offer numerous proposals and suggestions for helping African people shake off poverty, share the achievements and walk toward to the common prosperity.
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    Process of Historical Desertification of Mu Us Desert and Relationship Between Nature and Human Beings
    HUANG Yin-zhou, WANG Nai-ang, HE Tong-hui, CHENG Hong-yi, ZHAO Li-qiang
    2009, 29 (2):  206-211.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.206
    Abstract ( )   PDF (975KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the grain size analysis of the Baoningbu (BNB) section situated in the south-east of the Mu Us Desert, the authors investigated the processes and the causes of historical desertification of the desert. The results indicate that two phases of desertification, namely at the mid-to-end Tang Dynasty and at the end of the Ming Dynasty, are documented by the section. The two phases of desertification greatly made the environment of the Mu Us Desert deteriorate, especially for the second one, which formed the present landscape of the Mu Us Desert. The two phases of desertification are corroborated by historical records and archaeological data. Therefore the results are highly reliable. With a comparison of climate change, we suggest that the desertification occurring at the end of the Ming Dynasty was highly related to the human activities.
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    Influence Factor Analysis of Urban Residential Heating Energy Consumption in Severe Cold and Cold Regions in China—A Case of Jilin Province
    CHEN Li, LI Shuai, FANG Xiu-qi, CHEN Kun
    2009, 29 (2):  212-216.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.212
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1241KB) ( )   Save
    Based on average daily temperature data and socio-economic statistical data, such as urban population and per captia housing area in Jinlin Province, influence factor analysis of urban residential heating energy consumption in severe cold and cold regions in China, a case of Jilin Province, is conducted. Two hypotheses are made first. The first one is that indoor temperature is always 18℃ in urban residential buildings. The second is that architecture thermal performance is same. Based on hypotheses above, some conclusions are drawed: Under given architecture design standard, three factors, including heating intensity, urban population, per capita urban housing area, affect directly urban residential heating energy consumption in severe cold and cold regions. Heating intensity is calculated by using degree-day method. While calculating heating intensity, two parameters are very important. One is the temperature which is 5℃ to determine the start and end dates for heating and the other is the base tmeprature which is 18℃ to calculate the heating intensity. These two temperature parameters are determined by"Code for Design of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (GB50019-2003)" and "Energy Conservation Design Standard for New Heating Residential Buildings (JCJ26-95)", respectively. In order to analyze changes of energy consumption for heating, the base energy consumption for heating is defined first. Urban population and per capita urban housing area in 1978 are considered as base socio-economics values. The average value of heating intensity during 1971-2000 is considered as base climatic value. The base energy consumption for heating is determined by the base urban population, base per capita urban housing area and base heating intensity. Based on the base energy consumption for heating, annual variation of energy consumption and contribution rates of three factors affecting energy consumption for urban residential heating are analyzed. In general, amount of heating energy consumption tends to increase inevitably because population and per capita housing area increase continuously. Among three factors, climate is the only one, which can act to save energy. In severe cold and cold region (such as Jilin Province), contribution of per capita urban housing area is the biggest to the increase of urban residential heating energy consumption.
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    Historical Changes of Coastlines on West and South Coasts of Bohai Sea since 7000 a B.P.
    XUE Chun-ting
    2009, 29 (2):  217-222.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.217
    Abstract ( )   PDF (643KB) ( )   Save
    The coastal lowland between the Holocene transgression extreme and present coastline is prograded by several river deltas: the Luanhe River Delta, old Yongding River-old Chaobai River Delta, old Ziya River-old Daqing River Delta, Haihe River Delta, Huanghe(Yellow) River Delta and Weihe River-Mihe River Delta. The change of the coastline is controlled by evolution of these deltas: progradation in the active stage of the delta lobe or delta superlobe, retreat in the early time of the abandoned stage and then stabilization. The tremendous sediment discharge of the Huanghe River results in shifting of the delta superlobe and projection of the local coastline.
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    Features of Permafrost Degradation in Hinggan Mountains, Northeastern China
    JIN Hui-jun, WANG Shao-ling, LU Lan-zhi, YU Shao-peng
    2009, 29 (2):  223-228.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.223
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1132KB) ( )   Save
    Due to the combined influences of climate warming and anthropogenic activities, permafrost degradation has accelerated during the last decades. Permafrost has been degrading more rapidly in the southern parts and urbanized areas, and in the cultivated and felled or cleared woodlands than in the northern parts, countryside, forested areas, and primeval forests. Permafrost degrades sooner at higher elevation, on the mountains, and on sunny slopes than at lower elevation, in the valleys and on the shadowy slopes. Permafrost degrades more readily and more rapidly in the following order of the cultivated or barren land, grasslands, shrubs, woodlands, and wetlands. The latitudinal and elevational zoning controls permafrost degradation, but local factors also have important influences, resulting in abrupt changes in permafrost conditions. In particular, anthropogenic activities have played, are playing, and will be playing very important roles in permafrost degradation and changes in cold regions eco-environments in the Hinggan Mountains, the northeastern China. Here human impacts on permafrost degradation might be the most prominent and could result in grave socio-economical and environmental impacts if they are not managed properly and timely.
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    Age Genesis and Characteristics of Danxia Landform of Fangyan in Zhejiang Province, China
    ZHU Cheng, PENG Hua, OUYANG Jie, ZHANG Guang-sheng, LI Lan, YU Jin-biao, ZHU Guang-yao, LI Zhong-xuan, ZHONG Yi-shun, ZHU Qin, LU Wen, HU Yong-qi, ZHOU Ri-liang, ZHENG Chao-gui, LU Zhen-rong, HU Chang, WU Hong-lin
    2009, 29 (2):  229-237.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.229
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    Danxia Landform of Fangyan which located in Yongkang Basin belongs to South China fold system in geotectonic framework, which made fringes of continent become activities again while the Pacific Plate dived under the Eurasian Plate in the period of Yanshan Tectonic-Movement. The ruptured Yongkang Basin was formed as tectonic stress field changing extrusion of NW-SE to extension of NW-SE from later Jurassic to earlier Cretaceous, so strata of Guantou Formation(K1g), Chaochuan Formation (K1c), and Fangyan Formation (K1f) of Yongkang Group in lower Cretaceous were accumulated in the Basin. In late of Mesozoic, the Yongkang Basin uplift gradually, the red-layer sediments ended accumulating and suffer from erosion.The characteristics of the earlier developed stage in Fangyan such as dense encircled valleys, mesas and aisle-liked caves prove that the large-scale uplift tectonic movement in this area should occur in recent geological epoch.
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    Response of Soil Microbial Population Number and Distribution to Vegetation Restoration in Degraded Ecological System
    BI Jiang-tao, HE Da-han, HUANG Ze-yong
    2009, 29 (2):  238-243.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.238
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    The impacts of the restored vegetation on soil microbial population number and distribution were studied from 2005 to 2007, for understanding and identifying the changes of soil microbial population and for revealing the microbial mechanism of ecological restoration. The results showed that the five kinds of vegetation restoration had a significant impact on soil microbial population number and distribution. Among the five kinds of restored vegetation, Agriphyllum squarrosum,Artemisia sphaerocephala krasch, Caragana korshinskii,Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, artificial arbor( Robinia pseudoacacia and Pinaceae sylvestris var. mongolicus), the differences of soil bacterial, actinomycetic and fungal population number are statistically significant ( P<0.05).Soil bacterial population number was the highest, and soil actinomycetic population number went next, and fungal one was the least. At 0-15 cm layer in soil profiles, both soil bacterial population number and total soil microbial population number in terms of bacteria, actinomyces and fungi was the highest under the restored Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, and fungal and actinomycetic population number was the highest respectively under restored Artemisia sphaerocephala; at 15-30 cm soil bacterial population number was the highest under Caragana korshinskii, while fungal actinomycetic and the total microbial population number was the highest under Artemisia sphaerocephala krasch; at 30-45 cm soil bacterial, fungal and actinomycetic population number and the total microbial population number were the highest under the restored Ammopiptanthus mongolicus. From principal component analysis, the main impacting factors on the total soil microbial population number in the degraded system are vegetation restoration type, soil organic matter content,pH,soil available K, soil water content, both soil total P and available P, soil actinomycetic population number, soil layer depth, soil fungal population number and soil total N content, which covered 74.036% of the information of the potential influencing elements on it.
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    Seed Plants Flora Characteristics of Picea crassifolia Community in Qilian Mountains Forestry Area
    LIU Jian-quan, DAI Jun-hu, LIU Xing-ming, YANG Quan-sheng, HAO Hu, ZHANG Yuan-shan, DING Guo-min, WANG Xue-fu
    2009, 29 (2):  244-249.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.244
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    According to field investigation of 16 sampling plots and 256 sampling squares of Picea crassifolia community in the Qilian Mountains, Gansun Province, this paper analyzed the biodiversity of families and genera flora of Picea crassifolia community. The results show that 96 species of advanced plants belong to 25 families and 52 genera. Among them, 31 genera, 62.6% of the total, belong to temperate zone, which show that Picea crassifolia community has the temperate zone characteristic. However, the number of species, families genera of different forest types changes with altitude. The maximum families and genera richness appear in mixed forest of Populus davidiana and Picea crassifolia; while maximum species richness appears in mixed forest of Sabina przewalskii and Picea crassifolia.
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    Meteorological Disaster Risk Assessment Method Based on Information Diffusion Theory
    ZHANG Li-juan, LI Wen-liang, ZHANG Dong-you
    2009, 29 (2):  250-254.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.250
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    This research raised the method in risk assessment of low temperature and cold damage, drought and flood disaster based on information diffusion theory. Taking low temperature and cold damage for example, through a comparison between the calculated results of risk index method and subjective frequency method, direct risk assessment, has obvious advantages: (1) it needs simple calculation process and less information; (2) it helps for risk assessment and zoning through different levels of risk assessment; (3) it can also used into other natural disaster risk assessment; (4) it can do the research of risk assessment in small county and town through information diffusion theory for less information.
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    Change Characteristic of Summer Air Temperature in East Monsoon Area in China over Recent 46 Years
    GAO Rong, GUO Zhong-xiang, CHEN Shao-yong, HAN Tong
    2009, 29 (2):  255-261.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.255
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    Using the mean summer (June to August)air temperature data of 375 stations in the east monsoon area in China, we analyzed the change characteristic of the summer air temperature of the monsoon area. The result shows that (1) The annual mean summer air temperature of the east monsoon area has presented a slowly upward trend over the 46 years, but it presented a downward trend in the Huaihe River Basin. (2)The stability of summer air temperature decreases with the increased latitude. (3) The mean annual incalescence rate of summer air temperature is 0.104℃/10yr. According to the average condition in the whole region, the summer air temperature has presented an remarkably upward trend since the mid 1970s. (4) The variation of the summer air temperature in the monsoon area presented an all area unanimous model at first, then a north to south opposite phase model. (5) Using the REOF method we detailedly divide the abnormity of the summer air temperature in the east monsoon area into 6 climatic spatial model. According to the linear regression, the summer air temperature presented an upward trend in northeast China, northern China, the south of the Changjiang River and south China and a slowly upward trend in Southwest China. In the Huaihe River Basin it presented a downward trend different from the global warming.
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    Relationships of LST to NDBI and NDVI in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Area Based on MODIS Data
    LI Hua, LIU Qin-huo, ZOU Jie
    2009, 29 (2):  262-267.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.262
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    This paper compares the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as indicators of surface urban heat island (SUHI) effects in MODIS imagery by investigating the relationships between the land surface temperature (LST), NDBI and the NDVI. MODIS data were used to estimate the LST, NDBI and NDVI from four different dates for Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metropolitan area. Our analysis indicates that there is a strong linear relationship between LST and NDBI, whereas the relationship between LST and NDVI is much less strong and varies by season. This result suggests NDBI is an accurate indicator of SUHI effects and can be used as a complementary metric to the traditionally applied NDVI for analyzing LST quantitatively over the seasons for SUHI studies.
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    Evaluation on Natural Conditions of Water-Level-Fluctuating Zone (WLFZ) in Three-Gorges Reservoir—Taking Chongqing section of Three Gorges Reservoir as a case
    SU Wei-ci, ZHAO Chun-yong, YANG Hua
    2009, 29 (2):  268-272.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.268
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    Three Gorges Reservoir is the biggest one of water conservancy and control projects in the world. After the accomplishment of Three Gorges Reservoir, a 30-m high water-level-fluctuating zone(WLFZ) with an area of 348.93 km2 will appear along the both banks. On the one hand, the zone will be of special value for developing diversified economy because there are varied types of landforms and soils; even more there will be not only a land of about 348.93 km2 for a considerable period (more than 120 day) of time in a year, but also a better matching relation between precipitation and heat in Summer. On the other hand, the eco-environment of the zone is very fragile, where utilization may induce some environmental problems which affect eco-environment safety of the Three Gorges Reservoir. So the authors, from the development and protection plan of WLFZ, land rights and interests management, the optimum ways of land utilization, forecast and controlling measurements of ecological-risk, etc., suggested some matters and proposals for exploring and protecting of WLFZ. It will provide scientific basis for the planning and development of WLFZ of Three Gorges Reservoir.
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    Evaluation of Soil Erosion Rate in Danjiangkou City Using 137Cs Tracing Method
    ZHANG Li-hua, LI Hui, ZHANG Yan-yan
    2009, 29 (2):  273-277.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.273
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    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the catchment area for the South-to-North Water Transfer (middle line) Project in China. Danjiangkou City is the main part of Danjiangkou Reservoir area, water surface area in this city accounts for 45% of the total Danjiangkou Reservoir water area. Cesium-137(137Cs) with a half-life of 30.17 years is a man-made product resulting from thermonuclear weapon testing from the 1950s to 1970s.After reaching the soil surface, 137Cs fallout can be adsorbed strongly and rapidly by soil organic matter and clay materials, and it is extremely difficult to substitute for this adsorption and most likely move with soil materials which has made 137Cs a valuable erosion tracer. Based on 137Cs tracer method and some soil erosion estimating models, the distribution of 137Cs and the soil erosion rate on the agricultural lands of Danjiangkou City, Hubei Province were studied. Reference site with stable vegetation coverage and receiving little or no runoff since the onset of 137Cs fallout was chosen according to the topographic map of the 1950s in this study, and the 137Cs reference value was estimated to be 2153.46Bq/m2. Most of 137Cs in the uncultivated sites is distributed within the top 20 cm from surface, with retention of 80% of the 137Cs in the upper 10 cm and sharp drop in 137Cs activity below the depth, and exhibits exponential vertical distribution pattern. The vertical distribution of 137Cs for the cultivated sites show a uniform distribution pattern due to cultivation practices, and the plough layer is the distribution depth of 137Cs. Predicted soil erosion rates for different land uses and soil types varied from 599.07 t/(km2 ·a) to 6055.5 t/(km2 ·a), the highest erosion rate was observed in dry land on hilly areas, followed in sequence by cultivated slope soils, kale yard soils, paddy soils and grassland soils. The erosion rate for agricutural land is higher than that of uncultivated land. Erosion intensity belonged to moderate water erosion (quite obvious soil loss) and strong water erosion (relatively high soil loss) in cultivated soil, and slight water erosion (no soil loss or inconspicuous loss feature) and light water erosion (relatively obvious soil loss) in uncultivated soil. Different soil erosion rates occurred in different soil types and different parts of cultivated slope, the soil erosion rate for the foot hill location was higher than the crest location, which indicated a combination of effects due to a steep slope and long slope length compared with those of the top location. The result of 137Cs tracer analysis correlate well with the result from the remote sensing method and these results have an important significance on soil erosion control and eco-environment improvement in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area.
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    Discovery and Paleomagnetic Dating of 800kaB.P. Terrace of the Yellow River in Lanzhou Basin
    HU Chun-sheng, PAN Bao-tian, SU Huai, LI Ji-jun
    2009, 29 (2):  278-282.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.278
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    The research on Yellow River terrace is the fourth terrace of Zaoshugou section in Eastern Lanzhou Basin,and the altitude of gravel stratum is 84m higher than the river level. The top of the gravel stratum is covered by at least 64m eolian loess,and the paleosol S8 is at the bottom of the eolian loess. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating result indicates that the age of the upper part of paleosol S1 is 70.4?7.6ka. Paleosol-loess matching and research on magnetostratigraphy show that the bottom age of eolian loess on the fourth terrace is 865ka, therefore this article holds that the fourth terrace of Zaoshugou section develops no later than 865kaB.P.
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    Evaluation of Groundwater Resources Based on RAGA-BP Neural Networks in the Sanjiang Plain
    Su An-yu, Li Heng, Pu Li-jie, Peng bu-zhuo, Fu Qiang
    2009, 29 (2):  283-287.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.283
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    Replacing Least Square Method by Real coding based Accelerating Genetic Algorithm, the parameters of time response function in the GM(1,1) Model are optimized. Combined with BP Artificial Neural Networks Model, the Equal-dimension Gray Filling BP Neural Networks Model Based on RAGA is established. By this model, predicted the groundwater depth of Chuangye Farm in the Sanjiang Plain. The structural of BP Neural Networks is 3:12:3. The relative error is only 2.33%. Comparing with the traditional GM(1,1) Model or BP Neural Networks Model, the precision is highly increased. The result shows that the groundwater deep will descend 0.3m in average annually in the area.
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    Water Chemistry of Eastern Nam Lake Area and Inflowing Rivers in Tibet
    WANG Jun-bo, ZHU Li-ping, JU Jian-ting, WANG Yong
    2009, 29 (2):  288-293.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.288
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    Water samples were taken in different sites of eastern Nam Lake, Tibet, as well as in the inflowing rivers located in different positions around the lake. The results of water chemistry analysis indicating that among the major cation and anion composition, Na+ and Ca2+ were the main cations of lake water and river water, occupying 72.4% and 71.9% of the total cations respectively. While for both lake water and river water, HCO3- was the main anion with the proportion of 71.9% and 91.2% of the total anions respectively. Mechanisms controlling water chemistry of lake and river water from Nam Lake are illustrated, it is indicated that lake water is mainly controlled by evaporation-crystallization effect, while river water is mainly influenced by rock weathering function. Among them, carbonate and silicate weathering is the most important followed by dissolution of partial evaporation rock, regional lake water evaporation and sea salt transportation by atmospheric circulation also have some contribution.
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    Tourisim Land Use Change and Its Eco-environmental Impacts
    ZHAO Ying-xue, DONG Yu-xiang
    2009, 29 (2):  294-299.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.294
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    Land use/land cover changes(LUCC) and its environmental effects are being paid more and more attention. Any LUCC is related to a certain environmental consequence. The tourism land use change and its eco-environmental impacts appeared in more and more studies since the 1930s.In this paper, the domestic and international research progress and problem in theories, perspectives, method and practices of tourism land use change and its eco-environmental impacts were summarized based on a lot of readings on litteratures. Foreign scholars fristly studied on the seaside resort patterns and made some major theoretical achievements,which includes morphology model of British coastal resort in 18th century, coastal urbarnization model, and integrated coastal resort model.In processes and mechanism of tourism land use, Clawson and others raised the three layer model surrounding the metropolitan in trveling and entertaining land use. Landscape scholar of the former Soviet Union riased "polarization biosphere"model, while Greer T and Wall G proposed the general pattern of entertaining land use with the departure of the distance change. Some success has been achieved in processes and mechanism of the spaical form change in RBD and ReBAM at home. As the complexity of the change process and mechanisms and its impact on the environment of the tourism land use, the results of research are not many at present.As a place for tourist activiting, the tourism land impact on the environment, on the one hand, on the the tourist land through the tourist activities. The activities of the length of time, scope, intensity of space-time change will cause different environmental effect; On the other hand, due to the factor change of regional tourist land formation and evolution, the regional tourist land area, shape, type, features will be changed in time and space, which have an impact on the regional environment.The current study focused on the former, namely: after the natural land becomed the tourist land, the natural environment was impacted by tourist activities(which are mainly trampling and trail-building camp), a comprehensive and systematic study on the tourism land use change and its eco-environmental impacts are not involved. More researches are a case study, which based evidence. The specific methods include: field investigation, simulation and long-term monitoring.Field investigation has been used commonly, particularly in the form changes of the tourist land use, the environmental impact of the building of the camp, travel and track. The simulation method is used in dynamic evolution of tourist land, and the environmental impact from stampeding on tourist land.As a result of long-terms difficulty to obtain long-term monitoring data, monitoring is rarely applied.Abroad, 3S technology has been widely used in the tourism environmental impact.In China, study is usually made on the basis of socio-economic statistics, environmental monitoring data, and the field investigation, which lack the widespread application in new technology. There are also inadequate in dynamic change model construction, not comprehensive in time and space scales, weakeness in Process and mechanism and lacking of dynamic monitoring of envirionmental date. The future the main directions are pointed as follows: the dynamic simulation of the space-time mechanism on the tourist land use change; the quantitative evaluation of the eco-environment of the tourist land use change; monitoring and forecast of the eco-environmental impacts of the tourism land use change.
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    Reviews on Electron Acceptors of Controlling Methane Production from Wetlands
    WANG Wei-qi, ZENG Cong-sheng, TONG Chuan
    2009, 29 (2):  300-306.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.02.300
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    This paper reviews on the electron acceptors of controlling the methane production in wetlands, including controlling effect, reducing capacities, electron balance, etc. The influence of electron acceptors on methane production was represented in substrates competition between reducing bacteria and methanogens or improving redox potentials. The capacities of nitrate, ferric and sulfate of competition on electron donors were nitrate>ferric>sulfate, however, under the effect of electron acceptors, the hydrogen threshold values were opposite, for electron acceptors, not only competition but also relation. Temperature, electron donors, redox potentials and pH values were the most important factors controlling electron acceptors reducing process.
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