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Table of Content

    20 February 2015, Volume 35 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Comparison and Cause Analysis of Residential Section Line Type Land Price of Hefei Main City Zone
    Shan-ju BAO, Lin LU
    2015, 35 (2):  196-202.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.196
    Abstract ( 616 )   HTML ( 2 )   Save

    Residential modified land price isoline map of Hefei city in year 2007 and year 2011 is obtained by GIS spatial analysis technology in this paper. Five core radiant slitting lines are selected by radial circle spatial structure of Hefei and comparative analysis of the section line type land price characteristics has been made between year 2007 and year 2011 based on them. The analysis showed that the land price present attenuation trend from center to periphery in different year, city land price of each direction profile appeared a series significant convex land price terrace from center to periphery in year 2011, in which the obvious area includes city one loop and two loop nearby, the Dashushan area, Swan Lake area and Binhu new district area. System analysis is made on medium location appeared in convex land price terrace and fined that city leading development direction and key developing areas, city emerging functional groups, the new traffic node under the new layout of the whole city and fresh recreation area are main causes of formation of the convex land price terrace.

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    Landscape Pattern Changes and the Characteristic of Spatio-temporal Differentiation of Rural Residential Area in Changsha in Recent 20 Years
    Xue-lan TAN, Guo-hua ZHOU, Su-hui ZHU, Cong OU
    2015, 35 (2):  203-209.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.203
    Abstract ( 779 )   HTML ( 4 )   Save

    In recent years, land supply and demand contradiction is increasingly outstanding in China. The landbase of rural residential area is experiencing a reverse development trend of "population decrease but land increase". The main reason is that rural residential area has been in a disordered development state with a chaotic layout for a long time in last years. So it is important to grasp the spatial pattern changes rule of rural residential area during rural residential land development planning. Based on the thematic maps of Land-use map in 2005 and TM images of 1989,1999 and 2009,and by integrating field survey and the method of GIS statistical software,offset of center gravity model and landscape ecology, the landscape pattern of rural residential area in Changsha from 1989 to 2009 is analyzed. In the recent 20 years,the class area(CA) of residential area in Changsha increase constantly, and the net increase is 2.52×104hm2. The number of patches(NP)increases from 197 867 to 206 289,the largest patch index(LPI) increase from 0.001 in 1989 to 0.004 in 2009.Furthermore,the mean patch size (MPS) increase from 0.425 to 0.531, the patch density (PD) take on an increase trend , which was 0.167/km2 in 1989 while 0.174/ km2 in 2009.The face margin ratio(AP) increase from 1.546 to 1.676, while fractal dimension(D) reduce from 1.679 to 1.672. The study finds that the landscape pattern of rural residential area has changed a lot from 1989 to 2009, the scale, number and acreage of the rural residential area increased , the landscape distribution of rural residential area is centralized and densified , and the landscape shape of rural residential area has obvious change with an anomalistic developing state existed. The characteristics of spatio-temporal differentiation of rural residential area are obvious, the scale, number, density and acreage of rural residential area in plain area are better than that of hilly and mountainous area. The center of Gravity of rural residential area offset 6.62 km from west to east in Changsha from 1989 to 2009. The quantitative analysis of landscape ecology can explain well the landscape pattern of rural residential area and provide useful information for studies of the small town construction , and for land trim and land intensive use.

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    Evolution Law of the Runoff and Sediment Discharge of the Weihe River Based on Wavelet Multi-Scale Transform
    Xiao-qiong LIU, Yan-sui LIU, Tong-sheng LI, Huan-huan MENG, Zheng-song YU, Yang RUI
    2015, 35 (2):  210-216.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.210
    Abstract ( 687 )   HTML ( 1 )   Save

    Guanzhong Plain is the economic engine of Shaanxi Province, which contributed 70% GDP to Shaanxi Province, and however problems such as lower water resources per capita, uneven distribution, higher river sediment concentration restrict its economic and social development. In order to reveal the evolution law of multi-scale the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River,to offer provide theoretical basis for comprehensive utilization of water resources, water and soil erosion for guanzhong area, the Weihe River Basin,and the Yellow River Basin. In this article, Morlet complex wavelet function was used to transform the sequence of runoff and sediment discharge of Huaxian country station during 1935-2011, and combined with the analysis of measured values of the runoffand sediment discharge, to know well periodic variation and catastrophe point of the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River, the methods of moving t test, accumulative anomaly and Yamamoto was applied to detect catastrophe point. The findings of research indicate that the change of runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River have the fluctuating descending tendency from 1935 to 2011, there are multi-time scales periodic variation of the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River, the main cycles of runoff are 38 a,14 a and 4 a, apart from the 49 a cycle of sediment discharge, other main cycles are similar apporximately, while the main cycles of sediment discharge are 15 a,49 a,43 a and 4 a; catastrophe points of the runoff and sediment discharge in small-scale are much more than big-scale′s, the amount and situation of catastrophe points of the runoff and sediment discharge in different scale are different; Because of climate and mankind activity the change of sediment discharge more complex than runoff, in addition to the sources of sediment and water are different, so the periodic variation and catastrophe points of sediment more complex than runoff , and the first main cycles of sediment discharge has unique change trend .

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    Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition During Growing Season in Coastal Zone of the Yellow River Delta
    Kai NING, Jun-bao YU, Fan-zhu QU, Guang-mei WANG, Bo GUAN
    2015, 35 (2):  217-222.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.217
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 3 )   Save

    Wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in coastal wetland of Yellow River Delta using SCJ-302 model automatic sampling equipment. The water-soluble ions, wet and dry atmospheric N depositions, monthly variation and the proportion of NH4+-N and NO3--N in total nitrogen deposition were analyzed. The results showed that SO42-and NO3- accounted for more than 92% of the anion numbers, Na+ and Ca2+ accounted for more than 80% of the cation numbers, respectively, in wet and dry atmospheric depositions in growing season in the Yellow River Delta. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 2 264.24 mg/m2, and 69% of it occurred from June to August in which the precipitation was abundant. In the total atmospheric nitrogen deposition, dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition accounted for about 32.02%, and it was high in spring. The significant positive relationship between wet nitrogen deposition and precipitation was observed in the study (R2=0.82). The wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition reached peak value in August (675.64 mg/m2). In the studied area, the predominant nitrogen in dry atmospheric deposition was NO3--N with about 57.21% of total dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+-N with about 56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In plant growing season, the average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3--N and NH4+-N were about 31.38% and 20.50% for the contents of NO3--N and NH4+-N in 10 cm soil layer , respectively. Therefore, the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

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    The Decadal Variation and the Early Sign of the Summer Okhotsk Blocking Highs' Activity Days
    Xu YANG, Gang LIU, Yi LIAN, Bo SHANG
    2015, 35 (2):  223-229.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.223
    Abstract ( 906 )   HTML ( 1 )   Save

    The averaged monthly reanalysis data, including height data(HGT) and global sea surface temperature (SST) from 1951 to 2009 from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NECP-NCAR), the averaged monthly temperature data of 24 stations in Northeast China provided by the National Climate Center, and the data of activity days of Okhotsk blocking highs are used to investigate the decadal variation and the early sign of the Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days, by using the method of correlation analysis and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods. The results show that the summer′s Okhotsk blocking highs′ activity days have a interannual variability of distinct stage. Since twenty-first century Okhotsk blocking highs′ activity days were significantly decreased during the late strong stage with an increasing interannual variability. There is a significant negative correlation between the Okhotsk blocking highs′ activity days and the temperature in middle and east of Northeast China in summer. From spring to summer,the SSTA (especially in 1977-2009) in El Niño phase is the most important source of Summer Okhotsk blocking high′ activity forced in the eastern equatorial Pacific (NINO3). When the eastern equatorial Pacific is in the El Niño state, and the SSTA is warmer in the area of Arabia sea and the west wind drift in North Pacific, there will be more Summer Okhotsk blocking highs′ activities. The first mode of SVD indicates that, when the Atlantic SSTA on the whole is in the cold (warm) phase ,the Okhotsk blocking highs′ activity days are shorter (longer). The correlation between the Okhotsk High activity days and spring NPO and polar vortex area index has an interdecadal variation feature. During 1951-1976, the Summer Okhotsk High activity days only reveals a significant positive correlation with the spring the northern hemisphere polar vortex and the Asia polar vortex area index. The signal of positive correlation with spring polar vortex area index disappears from 1977 to 2009, moreover, the signal of the positive correlation with the spring NPO index declines rapidly in 1951-2009.

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    Influence of Vegetation Type on Hydrological Process at Landscape Scale in the Upper Reaches of Jinghe Basin
    Shu-lan ZHANG, Hai-jun ZHANG, Yan-hui WANG, Peng-tao YU, Li-hong XU, Wei XIONG
    2015, 35 (2):  230-236.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.230
    Abstract ( 545 )   HTML ( 6 )   Save

    Profoundly understanding the influence of vegetation types and their distribution pattern on the hydrological processes is of great significance for water resources management and vegetation reasonable recovery in a large basin scale. In this study, the upper reaches of Jinghe Basin with stony mountain area was selected as the research area, and the dynamic process-based eco-hydrological model (SWIM) was used to simulate hydrological effect of different vegetation types at landscape scale, the impact of the vegetation distribution on hydrological pattern was further analyzed by distinguishing elevation in view of stony mountain area and loess area. Results showed that hydrological effects including evapotranspiration and its components, water yield and deep soil percolation among forest, farmland and grassland had significant difference, and the same vegetation type in different regions (stony mountain area and loess area) had obviously different effects on hydrological process. Because of the area and elevation difference of vegetation landscape pattern, the hydrological process in different areas and elevation sections had difference. For example, in stony mountain area, the precipitation and evapotranspiration in elevation section of 2 250-2 922 m dominated by forest was largest to 641 mm and 484 mm respectively, while the precipitation in elevation section of 1 750-2 250 m with farmland, grassland and forest scattered around was larger to 590 mm, but the evapotranspiration was lowest to 434 mm; in arid loess area with precipitation of 514 mm, the evapotranspiration in two elevation sections of 1 026-1 350 m and 1 350-1 750 m with farmland and grassland were 458 mm and 440 mm respectively. In addition, the difference of the ratios between hydrological process elements and precipitation in both areas was more significant, but is not obvious for different elevation sections in the same area.

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    The Optimal Water Utilization of Damaoqi in Pastoral Area Based on Water Resources Carrying Capacity
    Yin-hui LONG, Zhong-Xiao GUO, Zi-long LIAO, Xiao-min XU, Rui JIAO, Hua-lin LIU
    2015, 35 (2):  237-243.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.237
    Abstract ( 793 )   HTML ( 1 )   Save

    According to the feature of diversity and dynamic of water resources system in arid grassland area, the water resources carrying capacity model is established with Geographic Information System technology, the carrying capacity and its influence factors are evaluated in different spatial and temporal scales. The research results show that the water carrying capacity of Damaoqi is at general level from 2008 to 2012, and the area ratio of the stronger carrying capacity level of water resources is 37.23%. From the calculation results, it can be found that the lower rainfall makes the decrease of industry producing water consuming and ecological water consuming. The sensitivity analyzing results reveal that the available water resources ratio is the main factor to change water resources carrying capacity in water resources system itself, population density index and urbanization index are the two key factors to restrict the social carrying capacity system, and GDP of agriculture is the vital factor to control the economic carrying capacity system. Based on the present evaluation results of water resources carrying capacity, three different development patterns are designed for optimizing the water utillization of Damaqo in pastoral area. The calculation results indicate that the development pattern of the most strict water resource management is so stricter that the water resources carrying capacity would not been improved effectively, and the development pattern of steady construction of water saving society is the best way to promote the sustainable development of economic, society and ecology in Damaoqi in the planning year.

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    The Variety Characters of Potential Evapotranspiration and Soil Surface Humidity Index in the Zoige Wetland in 1971-2010
    Jian-bing WANG, Su-ping WANG, Zhi-gui WANG
    2015, 35 (2):  244-249.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.244
    Abstract ( 670 )   HTML ( 4 )   Save

    The meteorological data of the Zoige, Hongyuan and Maqu weather observation stations were used, the potential evapotranspiration was computed by using Penman-Monteith model. The results indicated that the potential evapotranspiration variation in the Zoige wetland shows an obvious increasing tendency with the tendency ratio of 9.1 mm/10a,An abrupt change of the potential evapotranspiration was detected in the 2001,the mean potential evapotranspiration during 2001-2010 has increased by 28.6 mm compared with that of 1971-2000. The autumn potential evapotranspiration increased with the tendency ratio of 4.3mm/10a,its more higher than the other seasons. The annual potential evapotranspiration’s minimum period is 1980s, it obviously increased from 1990s, the variety of seasonal potential evapotranspiration in spring, summer and autumn is very similar to that of annual. The winter potential evapotranspiration minimum period is 1990s, it obviously increased in the 21st.The cycle change is 7-8 a during 1970s and 1980s, from the end of 1980s to the end of 1990s, it is an obviously adjusted period, the cycle change is 5a from the beginning of 21st. The temperature rising, relative humidity and precipitation decreasing are the major contributors to the potential evapotranspiration increased. Although the decreasing of the sunshine duration and mean wind velocity is help to the potential evapotranspiration decreased, but the temperature rising plays a more important role to the potential evapotranspiration increased. The decreasing tendency of soil surface humidity index is -0.03/10a,the soil surface humidity index has decreased 0.11 during 2001-2010 compared with that of 1981-1990. meanwhile, the increasing tendency of the mean temperature is 0.41℃/10a , the decreasing tendency of the precipitation is -13.5 mm/10a, the climate change of the Zoige wetland shows an obviously warm-drying tendency .

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    The Climatic Characteristics and Causes of Fog Days in Jilin Province
    Yu-ying LIU, Yu-fan LI, Ting ZHANG, Jie XU
    2015, 35 (2):  250-256.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.250
    Abstract ( 935 )   HTML ( 2 )   Save

    By using the data of fog days in the period of 1961-2010 in Jilin Province, the characteristics and changes of spatial and temporal distribution of fog days as well as reasons are analyzed. Results show that the spatial pattern of annual and seasonal fog days presents more in southeastern areas and less in western areas of Jilin Province. The seasonal characteristics appear more during Aug. to Sep., but less during Oct. to May. The inter-monthly variation of fog days in western and middle areas appears bimodal pattern, and that in southeastern and eastern areas appears unimodality. Fog usually begins at 21:00-09:00 LST and ends at 22:00-13:00 LST, with duration 0-6 h. In recent 50 years, the annual and four seasonal fog days of the province's average and all areas exhibited decreasing trends. The fog days appear obvious sudden change in 2000.The spatial distribution of fog days have relations with altitude. The causes of fog days decreasing are that the "heat island effect","dry island effect" and the increase of aerosol, and that the climate becaming warm and dry.

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    Updated Progress of Marine Geopolitics and Research of the Marine Geo-setting in China
    Zeng-lin HAN, Fei PENG, Yao-guang ZHANG, Tian-bao LIU, Jing-qiu ZHONG
    2015, 35 (2):  129-136.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.129
    Abstract ( 669 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (458KB) ( 183 )   Save

    The 21st Century is the century of the ocean, which has become an important guarantee for the sustainable social and economic development of coastal States and the national hot space of interests. Based on the macro mode of thinking and sensitive to the reality of international problems, marine geopolitics theory has influenced the whole process of world history greatly. After summarized the research progress during 100 years of western marine geopolitics, found that it has 4 development stages and each stage has its distinctive development characteristics: natural evolution of marine geopolitics pattern formation stage (-1890s), the state space of power relations theory development stage (around World War I and World War II), the stage of modern marine geopolitics (1960s-1990s), and a new marine geopolitics theory (1990s-). Compared with foreign countries, China marine geopolitics research started late and did not got enough attention. Through the analysis of modern exploration process in China of marine Geopolitics, it can be found that China marine geopolitics is lack of theory support and integration, which is difficult to form a complete theoretical system. Moreover, the research methods are empirical study single and lack of construction, which is seriously unfit the pattern —‘the marine geo-setting ’in the world. Therefore, combine critical geopolitics "multi scale to" background and specific national conditions of China development, the paper puts forward the research direction of "marine geo-setting" in China as a response to the spatial scale, then explore the connotation of the marine–geo environment. Finally, prospect the content of the research of marine–geo environment: ①develop the theory and method of marine–geo; ② strengthen the variation pattern and its formation mechanism of different scales of marine–geo environment; ③ vulnerability research on multi-scale marine geo environment system under the background of steering the security; ④strengthen border research combined with the actual situation in China.

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    Geographical Imagination: the Mirroring Construction Between the Objective and Subjective Bodies
    Geng LIN, Kai-feng PAN
    2015, 35 (2):  137-143.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.01.137
    Abstract ( 171 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (420KB) ( 46 )   Save

    Geographical imagination is not only a philosophical proposition, but also a cultural geographical proposition. It concerns ideas of different epistemology and different academic schools. The article summarized the views about perception and imagination on the man-land relationship, production of imagination community and other, construction of discourse and power, and representation and significance of geographic world. Then, it proposed that as a way of seeing, geographical imagination is constructed by the interaction between the objective and subjective bodies, although the approach and the landscape are different. Mapping geographical imagination between subject and object also means the production of self and other. Finally it hopes that the research in the future will break through the paradigm of dualistic narration, reconstruct a new perspective to learn the world, and make a new discourse for geographical imagination.

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    Spatial Combination of Finance and Center Level Identify Based on K-means Clustering: A Case Study of the Changjiang River Delta
    Zhi-min YANG, Xiang-yu HUA, Ya-fen YE, Yuan-hai SHAO
    2015, 35 (2):  144-150.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.01.144
    Abstract ( 857 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (711KB) ( 134 )   Save

    The article constructs the financial spatial combination model and analyzes quantitatively the spatial differentiation characteristics of spatial combination by applying the number of financial institutions RMB deposit and loan in 2001, 2006 and 2011, taking cities in the Changjiang River Delta as examples. Based on the analysis, the financial center level identifying model with K-means is built to identify the financial center level of the cities in the Changjiang River Delta. The conclusions can be drawn as follows: 1) The spatial trend of the cities’ finance “quality” in the Changjiang River Delta is relatively stable, showing overall that the finance “quality” of the cities in the east is bigger than that of the cities in the west, and the finance “quality” of the cities in the center is bigger than those of the cities in the south and north, presenting the down “U” shaped distribution in the past ten years. 2) On the whole, the largest attracting linkages pattern of finance spatial combination is relatively stable. The largest attracting linkages pattern of finance spatial combination of Shanghai changes significantly, decreasing mainly the connection with the Zhejiang Province. The largest attracting linkages pattern of finance spatial combination of Jiangsu Province is relatively stable, meanwhile, that of Zhejiang Province has been strengthened. 3) The network structure of finance spatial combination has changed significantly. It was mainly a simple “polyline-based” spatial network structure with integrated financial cities among “Shanghai-Suzhou-Wuxi” in 2001. Then it was mainly developed into a simple “network-based” spatial network structure with networked finance cities, covering the partial cities around the core city Shanghai in 2006. In 2011, it has been developed into a complex “network-based” spatial network structure with regionalized financial cities, covering most of the cities in Changjiang River Delta. 4) The spatial distribution pattern of the financial center level is stable, Shanghai is the most prominent financial center, and Suzhou, Wuxi and Hangzhou were followed.

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    The Dynamic Changes of Urban Space-time Activity and Activity Zoning Based on Check-in Data in Sina Web
    Bo WANG, Feng ZHEN, Hao ZHANG
    2015, 35 (2):  151-160.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.151
    Abstract ( 1172 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (812KB) ( 346 )   Save

    Since 1990s, information and communication technologies (ICTs) have experiecned a rapid development over the world. Information and communication devices have almost penetrated into each aspect of people’s daily life, and thus become the necessities in the modern world. Under this advancement, the inner relationship among activities, time and location has been theoretically changed because of a serious of the responding tele-activities. However, we still have little knowledge from the empirical studies due to the lack of data. Besides, as a part of urban social space analysis, a dynamic analysis of urban activity space is even scarce, albeit with its importance in understanding the undergoing and future changes in the E-society. Especially in China where is under the socio-economic transition, understanding residents’ own need and their real-time activity as well as the influence of ICTs on activity space are quite necessary for the future urban management and planning. With the aid of Location-based service (LBS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and other applications, ICTs helps to record people’s real space-time activity, which is one of the main sources of big data in recent research. Among them, given by the soaring popularity of online social network such as Sina micro-blog (the most influential social networking platform in China) and the LBS check-in application, the check-in data undoubtedly provide a real-time big data for the study of urban activity space. Based on this understanding, this article tries to analyze the dynamic changes of urban space-time activity focused on activity, time, and location, using the LBS checking-in data from Sina micro-blog. The results show that: 1) although some research argued that residents’ activity schedule would be more flexible by the help of ICTs, in this study we find that the traditional routine still dominate in residents’ check-in activities, and thus the rhythm of check-in activities could be used to reflect the corresponding relationship between time and activity; 2) there are differences of residents’ check-in activity between on working days, weekends, and holidays, as well as between in downtown and in outskirts, which reveals the difference of daily activities in reality; 3) in a day urban activity space experience dynamic changes, specifically, varied from relative disperse to agglomeration in the morning (6-12 O’clock) and keeps further agglomeration till the afternoon (12-18 O’clock); while encounters dispersion in the evening (18-24 O’clock), though with a relative agglomeration in the night (0-6 O’clock); 4) according to the dynamic changes, activity zones are subdivided into office area, bedroom area, leisure area, nightlife area, and multifunctional area; 5) these activity zones could be generally characterized as hybrid, within a blurred boundary.

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    Exploration on the Distribution of Economic Activity: Technology Spillover, Environmental Pollution and Trade Liberalization
    Xiong-lang HE, Ze-yi ZHANG
    2015, 35 (2):  161-167.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.161
    Abstract ( 1270 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (455KB) ( 139 )   Save

    New Economic Geography has gained great fame, despite of its short history of more than 20 years. Its core concept is to emphasize the spatial non-continuity and non-monotonic of economic growth, subsequently to explain the regional economic development differences. It is the first approach that New Economic Geography has illustrated the endogenous location choice mechanism of economic activities in a general equilibrium setting. The spatial distribution of economic activities is not only related to technology spillover and environmental pollution, but also related to trade liberalization. Technology spillover effects are associated with space distance. As the increase of technology spillover effects between regions, the industrial dispersion force is enhanced and the economic spatial structure is changed from the asymmetric structure to symmetric structure. Environmental pollution inevitably affects the production cost of capital production department. The increment of environmental pollution spreading effect between regions will strengthen the industrial agglomeration and promote the change of structure from symmetric to asymmetric structure. The change of trade freeness can result in all kinds of stable state of industrial spatial structure that includes full agglomeration and symmetric spreading as well as partial agglomeration. Although the unbalanced development of the spatial concentration of economic activities is an insurmountable stage of the national economic development in the early, but the resulting regional economic differences will eventually disappear with the deepening of economic integration.

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    Comprehensive Measurement and Evolution of Regional Integrated Transport Efficiency in China
    Tao LI, Xiao-shu CAO, Wen-yue YANG, Xiao-yan HUANG
    2015, 35 (2):  168-175.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.168
    Abstract ( 712 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (802KB) ( 146 )   Save

    This article selects 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China as the study units, and uses the DEA model to analyze the comprehensive transportation efficiency and its temporal evolution characteristics in China over the period of 1988-2011. The results indicate that the integrated transport efficiency is relatively low, and diminishing from the east and west to the central. From the point of view of decomposition efficiency, the integrated transport technical efficiency is relatively low, but the scale efficiency is very high. The spatio-temporal evolution of integrated transport efficiency was determined by scale efficiency. Most provinces have transferred from the stage of increasing return to scale to the stage of decreased return to scale, which means further improvement of integrated transport efficiency will be hampered by too much input of resources. Our findings imply that the development of transport efficiency in the future should be improved by restructuring and optimizing the existing transport resources, especially to the necessity of improving technical efficiency for the improvement of integrated transport efficiency.

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    Industry Differences of Spatio-temporal Situation About Listed Tourism Companies
    Bai-ping LIU, Qing-guang LIU, Chuan-hui WEI
    2015, 35 (2):  176-182.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.176
    Abstract ( 434 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (452KB) ( 147 )   Save

    The article collected samples of listed tourism companies with a site in China, to study the industrial differences in spatial distribution and development changes of listed tourism companies. The sample companies belong to three industries respectively, such as accommodation-catering industry, business-services industry and public-facilities management industry. Spatial distribution features include: 1) Aggregated distribution, and the characteristics of “roots”. Distribution of the accommodation-catering industry and the business -services industry points to the high-level center city. Beijing and Shenzhen are the best. Distribution of the public-facilities management industry points to the high-level tourist attractions. Its distribution is very fragmented inter-province. 2) Comparing the ranking of tourism enterprise and institutions inter-province in China. There are dislocation distribution between concentrated areas of listed tourism companies and tourism enterprises clusters. 3) Investment distribution of main business is affected by industry characteristics. Investment of the accommodation-catering industry and the business-services industry is in other places and scattered. On the contrary, investment of the public-facilities management industry is localization and concentration. Analyzing changes of sample companies number and industry attributes, the artide draws some conclusions: 1) Industry attribution change easily in the accommodation-catering industry and the business-services industry. Industry development is slow and discontinuity on the time series. 2) Industry attribution is stable in the public-facilities management industry, and their industry development turns to be slow after “the sudden increase”.

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    Waterfront Industrial Heritage Protection and Prolonging the Spirit of the City: A Case Study of the Industrial Heritage Area in the West Side of Gongchen Bridge, Hangzhou
    Huan-zhou ZHANG, Xu-wei SHEN, Mao-ying WU
    2015, 35 (2):  183-189.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.183
    Abstract ( 912 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (464KB) ( 239 )   Save

    Industrial heritage is critical representation of the industrial civilization. It carries the memory of the modernization process of the city, and provides precious foundations for city renewal and brand building. The transform of industrial structure and the rising awareness of heritage protection make the waterfront docks, garages, and old factories become important industrial heritages. Based on a review of industrial heritage and the spirit of the city, this study uses the industrial heritage area on the west side of Gongchen Bridge, Hangzhou, which adopts the museum approach and builtds Hangzhou Arts and Crafts Museums, as a case study. It firstly examines the development model and initiatives undertaken by the management team, including the holistic protection model, positioning on the mass audience, live presentation approach, initiative management, and adopting of digital techniques. This study suggests a dual-layer model, including a basic element layer and a supporting element layer, referring to industrial heritage protection and prolonging the spirit of the city in this case. Through in-depth interviews from a view of a city wanderer, this study further assesses different stakeholders’ attitudes towards the museums’ practice in protecting and transferring the industrial heritages. In this case, the adaptive reuse of industrial heritage takes a comprehensive form which integrates partial functions of traditional museum, creativity industry park and leisure tourism place together instead of a single so-called reuse model. Hangzhou Arts and Crafts Museums own its unique lead, innovation and brand, which is bound up with external factors including Hangzhou’s urban renewal concept, leisure tourism environment, cultural industries cultivation, internationalization, etc., and internal factors brought by the Grand Canal (Hangzhou Section) Comprehensive Protection Project. Therefore, empirical model related to this case could be only provided as a reference and comparison, and more effective ways would be found if combined with the trend of urban organic renewal, heritage authenticity protection, industrial chain extension, and human emotional appeal.

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    Measurement and Spatial Analysis of Quality of Life of Urban Residents in Northeast China
    Zhe-ye WANG, Ye-qing CHENG, Jing MA, Xin-yue YE, Ye-hua WEI
    2015, 35 (2):  190-195.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.190
    Abstract ( 1047 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (470KB) ( 111 )   Save

    The problem of people's quality of life (QOL) is the focus of today′s society and Chinese government, which needs to be tackled during the process of completing the establishment of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. In this article, we first review the existing QOL-related literature appeared in many areas such as sociology, philosophy and geography, and then we make 34 municipal districts of the prefecture-level cities in northeast China as our study object and build a comprehensive index system to measure the QOL index based on the structure of contemporary Chinese values. Finally, we adopt exploratory spatial data analysis and multivariable linear regression model to analyze the spatial variation and its driving factors of urban QOL in northeast China. The results are shown as follows. First, the urban QOL presents a hierarchical spatial structure; residents in cities located in the medium-south part of Liaoning province tend to have higher quality of life compared with other cities in Northeast China, and the residents′ QOL in cities of north Heilongjiang province are more likely to be low. Second, the “Polarization” of the urban QOL is obvious, the “hotspot” areas distribute to the middle part of the Songnen Plain as an intersectional shape of the direction of “North-south” and “West-east”, while the “coldspot” areas concentrate in the eastern and northern cities of Heilongjiang Province. Third, the results of multivariable linear regression indicate that economic capacity, industrial structure, urbanization and geographical proximity are key influencing factors of the spatial variation features, of which, economic capacity has deciding impact on the urban QOL in northeast China, the spatial pattern of the QOL is high anastomose to that of GDP per capita, that is, the more developed economy, the higher QOL. Since the “reform and opening up”, the fast transition of society and economy improves greatly the residents` income in China, however, the development model of emphasizing excessively economic growth has brought about series issues such as unfair allocation, differential rich and poor, degraded environment and bereaved happiness. As one of the most typical old industrial bases, the issues of the QOL is much more serious and urgent than that of other region in China, therefore, the local government should impel vigorously the reform of social security, education, reside and medical treatment so as to improve the rural QOL and reduce the regional gap .

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    Comparison and Cause Analysis of Residential Section Line Type Land Price of Hefei Main City Zone
    BAO Shan-ju, LU Lin
    2015, 35 (2):  197-203.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.197
    Abstract ( 583 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (681KB) ( 11 )   Save

    Residential modified land price isoline map of Hefei city in year 2007 and year 2011 is obtained by GIS spatial analysis technology in this paper. Five core radiant slitting lines are selected by radial circle spatial structure of Hefei and comparative analysis of the section line type land price characteristics has been made between year 2007 and year 2011 based on them. The analysis showed that the land price present attenuation trend from center to periphery in different year, city land price of each direction profile appeared a series significant convex land price terrace from center to periphery in year 2011, in which the obvious area includes city one loop and two loop nearby, the Dashushan area, Swan Lake area and Binhu new district area. System analysis is made on medium location appeared in convex land price terrace and fined that city leading development direction and key developing areas, city emerging functional groups, the new traffic node under the new layout of the whole city and fresh recreation area are main causes of formation of the convex land price terrace.

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    Landscape Pattern Changes and the Characteristic of Spatio-temporal Differentiation of Rural Residential Area in Changsha in Recent 20 Years
    TAN Xue-lan, ZHOU Guo-hua, ZHU Su-hui, OU Cong
    2015, 35 (2):  204-210.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.204
    Abstract ( 874 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (506KB) ( 9 )   Save

    In recent years, land supply and demand contradiction is increasingly outstanding in China. The landbase of rural residential area is experiencing a reverse development trend of "population decrease but land increase". The main reason is that rural residential area has been in a disordered development state with a chaotic layout for a long time in last years. So it is important to grasp the spatial pattern changes rule of rural residential area during rural residential land development planning. Based on the thematic maps of Land-use map in 2005 and TM images of 1989,1999 and 2009,and by integrating field survey and the method of GIS statistical software,offset of center gravity model and landscape ecology, the landscape pattern of rural residential area in Changsha from 1989 to 2009 is analyzed. In the recent 20 years,the class area(CA) of residential area in Changsha increase constantly, and the net increase is 2.52×104hm2. The number of patches(NP)increases from 197 867 to 206 289,the largest patch index(LPI) increase from 0.001 in 1989 to 0.004 in 2009.Furthermore,the mean patch size (MPS) increase from 0.425 to 0.531, the patch density (PD) take on an increase trend, which was 0.167/km2 in 1989 while 0.174/km2 in 2009.The face margin ratio(AP) increase from 1.546 to 1.676, while fractal dimension(D) reduce from 1.679 to 1.672. The study finds that the landscape pattern of rural residential area has changed a lot from 1989 to 2009, the scale, number and acreage of the rural residential area increased, the landscape distribution of rural residential area is centralized and densified, and the landscape shape of rural residential area has obvious change with an anomalistic developing state existed. The characteristics of spatio-temporal differentiation of rural residential area are obvious, the scale, number, density and acreage of rural residential area in plain area are better than that of hilly and mountainous area. The center of Gravity of rural residential area offset 6.62 km from west to east in Changsha from 1989 to 2009. The quantitative analysis of landscape ecology can explain well the landscape pattern of rural residential area and provide useful information for studies of the small town construction, and for land trim and land intensive use.

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    Evolution Law of the Runoff and Sediment Discharge of the Weihe River Based onWavelet Multi-Scale Transform
    LIU Xiao-qiong, LIU Yan-sui, LI Tong-sheng, MENG Huan-huan, YU Zheng-song, RUI Yang
    2015, 35 (2):  211-217.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.211
    Abstract ( 970 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (925KB) ( 6 )   Save

    Guanzhong Plain is the economic engine of Shaanxi Province, which contributed 70% GDP to Shaanxi Province, and however problems such as lower water resources per capita, uneven distribution, higher river sediment concentration restrict its economic and social development. In order to reveal the evolution law of multi-scale the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River,to offer provide theoretical basis for comprehensive utilization of water resources, water and soil erosion for guanzhong area, the Weihe River Basin, and the Yellow River Basin. In this article, Morlet complex wavelet function was used to transform the sequence of runoff and sediment discharge of Huaxian country station during 1935-2011, and combined with the analysis of measured values of the runoffand sediment discharge, to know well periodic variation and catastrophe point of the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River, the methods of moving t test, accumulative anomaly and Yamamoto was applied to detect catastrophe point. The findings of research indicate that the change of runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River have the fluctuating descending tendency from 1935 to 2011, there are multi-time scales periodic variation of the runoff and sediment discharge of the Weihe River, the main cycles of runoff are 38 a,14 a and 4 a, apart from the 49 a cycle of sediment discharge, other main cycles are similar apporximately, while the main cycles of sediment discharge are 15 a,49 a,43 a and 4 a; catastrophe points of the runoff and sediment discharge in small-scale are much more than big-scale's, the amount and situation of catastrophe points of the runoff and sediment discharge in different scale are different; Because of climate and mankind activity the change of sediment discharge more complex than runoff, in addition to the sources of sediment and water are different, so the periodic variation and catastrophe points of sediment more complex than runoff, and the first main cycles of sediment discharge has unique change trend .

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    Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition During Growing Season in Coastal Zone of the Yellow River Delta
    NING Kai, YU Jun-bao, QU Fan-zhu, WANG Guang-mei, GUAN Bo
    2015, 35 (2):  218-223.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.218
    Abstract ( 736 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (461KB) ( 9 )   Save

    Wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in coastal wetland of Yellow River Delta using SCJ-302 model automatic sampling equipment. The water-soluble ions, wet and dry atmospheric N depositions, monthly variation and the proportion of NH4+-N and NO3--N in total nitrogen deposition were analyzed. The results showed that SO42-and NO3- accounted for more than 92% of the anion numbers, Na+ and Ca2+ accounted for more than 80% of the cation numbers, respectively, in wet and dry atmospheric depositions in growing season in the Yellow River Delta. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 2 264.24 mg/m2, and 69% of it occurred from June to August in which the precipitation was abundant. In the total atmospheric nitrogen deposition, dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition accounted for about 32.02%, and it was high in spring. The significant positive relationship between wet nitrogen deposition and precipitation was observed in the study (R2=0.82). The wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition reached peak value in August (675.64 mg/m2). In the studied area, the predominant nitrogen in dry atmospheric deposition was NO3--N with about 57.21% of total dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+-N with about 56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In plant growing season, the average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3--N and NH4+-N were about 31.38% and 20.50% for the contents of NO3--N and NH4+-N in 10 cm soil layer, respectively. Therefore, the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

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    The Decadal Variation and the Early Sign of the Summer Okhotsk Blocking Highs' Activity Days
    YANG Xu, LIU Gang, LIAN Yi, SHANG Bo
    2015, 35 (2):  224-230.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.224
    Abstract ( 857 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (1097KB) ( 7 )   Save

    The averaged monthly reanalysis data, including height data(HGT) and global sea surface temperature (SST) from 1951 to 2009 from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NECP-NCAR), the averaged monthly temperature data of 24 stations in Northeast China provided by the National Climate Center, and the data of activity days of Okhotsk blocking highs are used to investigate the decadal variation and the early sign of the Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days, by using the method of correlation analysis and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods. The results show that the summer's Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days have a interannual variability of distinct stage. Since twenty-first century Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days were significantly decreased during the late strong stage with an increasing interannual variability. There is a significant negative correlation between the Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days and the temperature in middle and east of Northeast China in summer. From spring to summer,the SSTA (especially in 1977-2009) in El Niño phase is the most important source of Summer Okhotsk blocking highs' activity forced in the eastern equatorial Pacific (NINO3). When the eastern equatorial Pacific is in the El Niño state, and the SSTA is warmer in the area of Arabia sea and the west wind drift in North Pacific, there will be more Summer Okhotsk blocking highs' activities. The first mode of SVD indicates that,when the Atlantic SSTA on the whole is in the cold (warm) phase,the Okhotsk blocking highs' activity days are shorter (longer). The correlation between the Okhotsk High activity days and spring NPO and polar vortex area index has an interdecadal variation feature. During 1951-1976, the Summer Okhotsk High activity days only reveals a significant positive correlation with the spring the northern hemisphere polar vortex and the Asia polar vortex area index. The signal of positive correlation with spring polar vortex area index disappears from 1977 to 2009, moreover, the signal of the positive correlation with the spring NPO index declines rapidly in 1951-2009.

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    Influence of Vegetation Type on Hydrological Process at Landscape Scale in the Upper Reaches of Jinghe Basin
    ZHANG Shu-lan, ZHANG Hai-jun, WANG Yan-hui, YU Peng-tao, XU Li-hong, XIONG Wei
    2015, 35 (2):  231-237.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.231
    Abstract ( 875 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (658KB) ( 17 )   Save

    Profoundly understanding the influence of vegetation types and their distribution pattern on the hydrological processes is of great significance for water resources management and vegetation reasonable recovery in a large basin scale. In this study, the upper reaches of Jinghe Basin with stony mountain area was selected as the research area, and the dynamic process-based eco-hydrological model (SWIM) was used to simulate hydrological effect of different vegetation types at landscape scale, the impact of the vegetation distribution on hydrological pattern was further analyzed by distinguishing elevation in view of stony mountain area and loess area. Results showed that hydrological effects including evapotranspiration and its components, water yield and deep soil percolation among forest, farmland and grassland had significant difference, and the same vegetation type in different regions (stony mountain area and loess area) had obviously different effects on hydrological process. Because of the area and elevation difference of vegetation landscape pattern, the hydrological process in different areas and elevation sections had difference. For example, in stony mountain area, the precipitation and evapotranspiration in elevation section of 2 250-2 922 m dominated by forest was largest to 641 mm and 484 mm respectively, while the precipitation in elevation section of 1 750-2 250 m with farmland, grassland and forest scattered around was larger to 590 mm, but the evapotranspiration was lowest to 434 mm; in arid loess area with precipitation of 514 mm, the evapotranspiration in two elevation sections of 1 026-1 350 m and 1 350-1 750 m with farmland and grassland were 458 mm and 440 mm respectively. In addition, the difference of the ratios between hydrological process elements and precipitation in both areas was more significant, but is not obvious for different elevation sections in the same area.

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    The OptimalWater Utilization of Damaoqi in Pastoral Area Based onWater Resources Carrying Capacity
    LONG Yin-hui, GUO Zhong-Xiao, LIAO Zi-long, XU Xiao-min, JIAO Rui, LIU Hua-lin
    2015, 35 (2):  238-244.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.238
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (503KB) ( 22 )   Save

    According to the feature of diversity and dynamic of water resources system in arid grassland area, the water resources carrying capacity model is established with Geographic Information System technology, the carrying capacity and its influence factors are evaluated in different spatial and temporal scales. The research results show that the water carrying capacity of Damaoqi is at general level from 2008 to 2012, and the area ratio of the stronger carrying capacity level of water resources is 37.23%. From the calculation results, it can be found that the lower rainfall makes the decrease of industry producing water consuming and ecological water consuming. The sensitivity analyzing results reveal that the available water resources ratio is the main factor to change water resources carrying capacity in water resources system itself, population density index and urbanization index are the two key factors to restrict the social carrying capacity system, and GDP of agriculture is the vital factor to control the economic carrying capacity system. Based on the present evaluation results of water resources carrying capacity, three different development patterns are designed for optimizing the water utillization of Damaqo in pastoral area. The calculation results indicate that the development pattern of the most strict water resource management is so stricter that the water resources carrying capacity would not been improved effectively, and the development pattern of steady construction of water saving society is the best way to promote the sustainable development of economic, society and ecology in Damaoqi in the planning year.

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    The Variety Characters of Potential Evapotranspiration and Soil Surface Humidity Index in the ZoigeWetland in 1971-2010
    WANG Jian-bing, WANG Su-ping, WANG Zhi-gui
    2015, 35 (2):  245-250.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.245
    Abstract ( 855 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (462KB) ( 5 )   Save

    The meteorological data of the Zoige, Hongyuan and Maqu weather observation stations were used, the potential evapotranspiration was computed by using Penman-Monteith model. The results indicated that the potential evapotranspiration variation in the Zoige wetland shows an obvious increasing tendency with the tendency ratio of 9.1 mm/10a,An abrupt change of the potential evapotranspiration was detected in the 2001, the mean potential evapotranspiration during 2001-2010 has increased by 28.6 mm compared with that of 1971-2000. The autumn potential evapotranspiration increased with the tendency ratio of 4.3mm/10a,its more higher than the other seasons. The annual potential evapotranspiration's minimum period is 1980s, it obviously increased from 1990s, the variety of seasonal potential evapotranspiration in spring, summer and autumn is very similar to that of annual. The winter potential evapotranspiration minimum period is 1990s, it obviously increased in the 21st.The cycle change is 7-8 a during 1970s and 1980s, from the end of 1980s to the end of 1990s, it is an obviously adjusted period, the cycle change is 5a from the beginning of 21st. The temperature rising, relative humidity and precipitation decreasing are the major contributors to the potential evapotranspiration increased. Although the decreasing of the sunshine duration and mean wind velocity is help to the potential evapotranspiration decreased, but the temperature rising plays a more important role to the potential evapotranspiration increased. The decreasing tendency of soil surface humidity index is -0.03/10a,the soil surface humidity index has decreased 0.11 during 2001-2010 compared with that of 1981-1990. meanwhile, the increasing tendency of the mean temperature is 0.41℃/10a, the decreasing tendency of the precipitation is -13.5 mm/10a, the climate change of the Zoige wetland shows an obviously warm-drying tendency .

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    Distribution of Summer Cool Events over Northeast China and the Asian Blocking Regime and Cold Air Path
    SU Li-xin, LIAN Yi, LI Shang-feng, SHEN Bai-zhu, CHEN Chang-sheng
    2015, 35 (2):  251-258.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.02.251
    Abstract ( 733 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (2128KB) ( 9 )   Save

    Using National Climate Center monthly observations data at 160 stations in the national and 88 stations in Northeast China from 1960 to 2010 and the NCEP/NCAR monthly reanalysis data, the spatial distribution of summer cool events over Northeast China and Asian blocking regime and cold air path have been analyzed. The results show that more than 20% probability of the serious cold summer ("A" events) in Northeast China stations are mainly distributed in most area of Heilongjiang province and the Middle East northeast area of Jilin Province. The probability value axis is in a northeast southwest direction. More than 20% probability of cold summer ("B" events) in Northeast China stations are mainly distributed in the northeast area of the Midwest and Eastern Changbai Mountain region. The probability value axis is in Northwest - southeast distribution. At 500 hpa, the five of "A" events typical years show Ural mountain and the Okhotsk blocking High, and northeast regions are all negative anomaly zone consisting of double block dipole pattern, with negative anomaly center of maximal temperature field over eastern and northern area. The five of "B" events typical years show that Lake Baikal and Lake Balkhash are positive anomaly area, while the negative anomaly zone extends from the Northeast Asia to the Aleutian islands. It constitutes East-West dipole blocking flow pattern, with negative anomaly of temperature field distribution is in Northwest-Southeast direction. The 850 hPa,316 K pentad mean contours are selected to scope the activities of the cold air from the polar route reflection or super polar. The cold air path of "A" and "B" events typical years is consistent with the probability of the axial distribution of "A" and "B" event in Northeast China respectively.

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