Central China, which consists of Shanxi, Henan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Hubei and Hunan provinces, is an important base for main food supply in China. After analyzing scale advantage, efficiency advantage, comprehensive comparative advantage and concentration ratio of grain production in Central China, this article further discusses countermeasures for the construction of grain production base in this region. First, it is found that, since 1978, rice and wheat in Central China have a stable comprative advantage while the corn and soybean do not. The comparative advantage index of rice production is above 1.10 per year and wheat production shows a steady rise, going from 1.00 in 1978 to 1.16 in 2012. The comparative advantage index of corn production is below 0.80 and soybean production presents a downward trend, going from 0.90 in 1978 to 0.80 in 2012. Second, seen from the horizontal perspective, the structure of comparative advantage of the four grain crops changes slightly. In 1978, the sequence of scale advantage is rice, soybean, wheat and corn, the sequence of efficiency advantage wheat, rice, corn and soybean, and the sequence of comparative advantage rice, wheat, soybean and corn. In 2012, the sequence of scale advantage is rice, wheat, soybean and corn, the sequence of efficiency advantage wheat, rice, soybean and corn, and the sequence of comparative advantage wheat, rice, soybean and corn. Third, the concentration ratios of grain production in eastern, western and northeast regions of China fluctuate whereas the concentration ratios of grain production in the central region keeps rising steadily. The concentration ratio of grain, rice, wheat and corn rose from 28.65%, 38.13%, 28.83% and 16.16% in 1978 to 30.08%, 39.87%, 42.40% and 17.16% in 2012 respectively. The statistics in 2012 shows that the concentration ratio of grain, rice, wheat ranked first among the four regions. Fourth, the analysis shows that grain production in the central region plays an increasing role in China. Therefore, from the perspective of grain safety in China, importance should be attached to grain production in Central China so as to remain firm in the status of the central region as a base for main food supply. And various measures should be taken to promote the stability and growth of grain production in Central China.