Table of Content

    20 December 2015, Volume 35 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    The Geographic Scale of Human Settlements in China
    Xue-ming LI, Shen-zhen TIAN
    2015, 35 (12):  1495-1501.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1495
    Abstract ( 915 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (538KB) ( 316 )   Save

    In the past several decades, China experienced reform and the opening up of the economy and society, acceleration of urbanization, at the same time, the emergency of complex issues in urban and regional is always existing, there is a pressing need to revisit the traditional concept and academic practices concerning human settlements. Human settlements are the earth's surface space which is closely related to human activities, human culture. Based on a review of domestic scholars’ research on human settlements, we attempt to adopt geographic scale division in the research of human settlements, and we systematically summarize the connotation, research contents, research subjects and research methods in different geographic scale of human settlements, as well as the correlation studies of human settlements and other disciplines. It is made as an overall view that: 1)The research direction of human settlements increasingly integrated, systematic, microstructure; 2)The data collection, data acquisition, model method of human settlements increasingly modern, information technology, virtualization; 3)At the same time, there are also some shortcomings, such as the concept of different geographic scale of human settlements are not uniform, the study of process mechanism of human settlements is inadequate. Accordingly we proposed some research trends and future perspective for the study on geographic scale of human settlements.

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    Spatiotemporal Pattern of Gold Content of GDP at Prefecture Level or Cities Above in China
    Jing-hu PAN
    2015, 35 (12):  1502-1510.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1502
    Abstract ( 1078 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (12248KB) ( 141 )   Save

    Gold content of GDP is an international general index to reflect the improvement of people's livelihood. For decades China’s GDP and per capita GDP have been growing rapidly. However, the cost of high growth in GDP including the waste of resources, environmental pollution, urban-rural income gap, slowly rise of living standard and so on.The fundamental goal of economic growth is human all-round development. There will be real meaning that economic growth must be translated into upgrading the level of benefits of the overwhelming majority of residents. Only a reasonable income vs. GDP ratio can have reference value for the economy at large. Taking the gold content of GDP as the measuring indicator, this article analyses the global trends, spatial heterogeneities and correlations of gold content of GDP for 343 cities at the prefecture level or above with panel data in 2001 and 2011 with exploratory spatial data analysis methods, of Moran’s I and Getis-Ord Gi*, whereby the significance of spatial interactions and geographical location was investigated. Semi-variant function, gravity center migration and trend surface analysis was used to explore the spatiotemporal spatial patterns of the gold content of GDP over the 10 years with the application of ArcGIS10.0 and GeoDa095i. Influencing factors of gold content of GDP were tried to summarize. The results show as following:The spatial difference of gold content of GDP is significantly, showing a trend of the western China>the eastern China > the middle China, and the North>the South>the Central. The calculate result of Moran’s I shows that the density of gold content of GDP at prefecture level or above cities in China has a growing global spatial autocorrelation characteristic, regional disparities trend of gold content of GDP is more and more obvious. The gravity center of gold content of GDP had moved southeast on the whole from 2001 to 2011. The north of the Yellow River and the south of the Changjiang River are the significantly reduced area in gold content of GDP, while the eastern coastal areas and the western border regions are the most concentrated areas where the gold content of GDP significantly expanded. Cold spot areas of urban-rural income gap have spread markedly, and the spot areas shrink dramatically. Industrial structure, resident’s income source, urbanization level, human capital stock and initial distribution structure are the main factor affecting the gold content of GDP. Finally, some suggestions were put forward about how to improve the gold content of GDP, which including accelerating the transformation of economic development mode, further optimizing the structure of the initial distribution, and continuously improving the management and property income, stabilizing and expanding employment, and implementing the redistribution policy properly.

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    China's Rural Population Inter-provincial Flow:Based on the Sixth Nationwide Population Census Data
    Geng-he GAO, Qing LUO, Xin-sheng FAN, Er-ling LI, Xiao-jian LI
    2015, 35 (12):  1511-1517.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1511
    Abstract ( 1671 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (708KB) ( 577 )   Save

    Rural population flow is a main component of China's population flow and has an important impact on the spatial pattern of China's population and regional economic and social development. Based on the sixth nationwide population census data in 2010, this study analyses China's rural population inter-provincial flow by the method of rural population effective flow rate and rural population flow index. The conclusion can be drawn as follows. 1)Rural population flow index on the basis of effective flow rate can show both the direction and the strength of the rural population flow. Furthermore, it can be easily used to compare different regions’ rural population flow. The rural population index is a scientific method and indicator to study the rural population flow. 2)On the whole, rural population effective flow shows the trend of flowing from central China and southwest China to the coast and the border. Effective flow rate has a weak spatial correlation to the whole, and the regional low-low value clusters are mainly located in Hubei, Hunan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan and so on. 3)The positive value regions of rural population flow index are mainly located in the southern coastal region, east coastal area, Beijing, Tianjin and Xinjiang, etc. The negative value regions are mainly concentrated in the central China and the southwest China. The rural population flow from the negative value regions into the positive value regions constitutes the main flow direction and the flow path of the rural population. 4)Rural population flow index is significantly negatively correlated with the total population and outflow stock and is significantly positively correlated with the total economy and the inflow stock of rural population. The essence of rural population flow is the response to the rural population pressure. In the selection of flow destinations, flow networks and the flow inertia have universal significance in the specific social context of China.

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    A Novel Method for Identifying and Separating Landscape Genes from Traditional Settlements
    Zui HU, Pei-lin LIU, Yun-yuan DENG, Wen-wu ZHENG
    2015, 35 (12):  1518-1524.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1518
    Abstract ( 917 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (578KB) ( 206 )   Save

    In China, tens of hundreds of traditional settlements carry huge scientific and social value. It is very significanct that we perform a lot researches on these traditional settlements by employing the Theory of Landscapes’ Genes of Traditional Settlements (TLGTS). However, TLGTS still lacks efficiency identifying methods for separating the landscape genes from the traditional settlements according to the current reports. This maybe impedes TLGTS’ application in the future. In order to solve this issue, this article constructs a novel identifying method for separating the landscape genes from traditional settlements by the former pertinent work. Firstly, the author defines a new classifying framework for landscape gene by comparing the existing classifying methods. Then,we further define a novel classifying mode by linkage the object-oriented analysis methods and landscape gene elements. Actually, this framework sets up a concrete theoretical foundation for identifying/separating landscape genes. This classifying method for landscape gene is named as Object-Oriented Classifying Pattern for Landscape Gene (OOCPLG). Secondly, with the aforementioned theoretical research results, we put forward a useful extracting method for landscape gene by comparing the typical existing methods, such as elements identifying, pattern separating, structure analysis, definition interpreting, et al. According to these, we name the method as Features Decomposing Extraction for Landscape Gene Separating (FDELGS). In order to clarify the method well, we further develop some identifying operation rules and basic modes for landscape gene by introducing the Wholeness Conception. These rules and modes can make people sure catching a real traditional settlement landscape. According to the former research experiences and classification skills, an available technical identifying workflow is also draw for running FDELGS is also draw if someone want to launch some identifying tasks. Lastly, according to the aforementioned theoretical results, this article introduces an integrity instance case by using FDELGS.

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    Integrated Assessment and Obstacle Factors of Environmental Carrying Capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones Based on Entropy and Catastrophe Progression Methods:A Case Study in Changchun-Jilin-Tumenjiang Development and Opening-up Pilot Area
    Hong-bo ZHAO, Yan-ji MA, Chang-hong MIAO
    2015, 35 (12):  1525-1532.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1525
    Abstract ( 822 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (719KB) ( 239 )   Save

    The environmental carrying capacity is a parameter to measure the capacity degree between human being social activities and the environment. To study the theories and quantification, methods of environmental carrying capacity is of significance in reality for directing human beings economic behaviors and harmonizing the relationships between social development and environment. With the rapid development of social economy and population growth sharply in National Strategic Economic Zones, the resource consumption and pollutant emission are increasing accordingly, which made resources and environment system under tremendous pressure, this situation would impact the level of environmental carrying capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones. According to the catastrophic characteristics of environmental carrying capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones, we selected Changchun-Jilin-Tumenjiang development and opening-up Pilot Area as the research object. Based on the entropy and catastrophe progression methods, we built an index system to evaluate the environmental carrying capacity, in which Nature-Economy-Society (N-E-S) indexes are included. Using obstacle degree models, we analyzed the temporal pattern of environmental carrying capacity and the obstacle factors from 2000 to 2011.Results are shown as follows:1) Temporally, the level of environmental carrying capacity rose from weak to moderate level from 2000 to 2011. 2) The proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, industrial waste water emissions, cultivated land fertilizer usage, the per Capita GDP, the energy consumptions per GDP and economic density are the main obstacle factors affecting the environmental carrying capacity. The approach established in the article has a lot advantages when dealing with municipal projects under complex evaluation problems and it does not use any weight, only need to arrange indicators in an order of important degree according to the inherent logic relationship among indicators, the shortcoming of making the subjectivity of the artificial weight evaluation in very large limit has also been avoided, as the same time optimizing the standard evaluation procedure,and could identify the temporal variation characteristics of environmental carrying capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones ,and better reflect the key factor, providing a basic approach for improving environmental carrying capacity level of National Strategic Economic Zones.

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    The Evolution of Urban Expansion Morphology in Hangzhou Based on Principle of Convex Hull
    Zhang-wei LU, Li-hua XU, Ci-fang WU, Wen-ze YUE, Ya-qi WU
    2015, 35 (12):  1533-1541.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1533
    Abstract ( 840 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3185KB) ( 276 )   Save

    In the background of rapid development of urbanization, this article explored the application value of principle of convex hull used in the recognization of urban expansion morphology, and analysed the evolution and mechanism of urban expansion morphology of main city zone in Hangzhou between 1985 and 2010, with the aim of providing reference for controlling the urban expansion morphology, and guiding the activity of urban development in future. The result shows that, the urban expansion morphology is recognized simply and clearly, using principle of convex hull. It is helpful to provide evidence for making different spatial management policy in different area by dividing the land which can be developed into the land inside and outside the convex hull of urban construction land. The method of recognizing the urban expansion morphology with computer based on principle of convex hull is constructed, which is helpful to quantizing the factors which influence urban expansion morphology in simulation of urban expansion. Before 1996, the construction land and its convex hull in Hangzhou increased slowly, and the urban morphology was compact relatively. After 1996, the construction land increased quickly, and the urban imbalance expansion became remarkable, so the convex hull area increased steeply, and the urban morphology became less compact. In general, the urban expansion morphology of Hangzhou was extension type, and the potential of infilling the urban area increases with the increase of convex hull area. In order to make the urban more compact, the urban development outside the convex hull should be controlled strictly. Urban development along the main road are the main influence factors of urban extension development. Urban development along built-up area and minor road in city, agglomeration of urban center, and restriction of urban development under urban planning is the main influence factors of urban infilling development. Suburbanization and some urban spatial development policy lead to urban extension development in some period.

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    Socio-spatial Structure of Hefei and Its Evolution During the Transitional Period:1982-2000
    Chuan-wu LI, Xiao-lin ZHANG
    2015, 35 (12):  1542-1550.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1542
    Abstract ( 1393 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (4743KB) ( 248 )   Save

    The urban socio-spatial structure study was originated in the Chicago School in the 1920s,which has been an important research topic since the rise of school of Human Ecology. Western developed countries have formed a relatively complete theoretical system based on a large number of empirical cases of urban socio-spatial structure,which promote the development of the western geography,urban sociology and urban planning studies. But the theoretical system are mostly based on the premise of the capitalist system,it can not be copied in China .In China, cities are undergoing a socio-spatial reconstruction process with the Reform and Opening-up policy implemented,which has been an important issue. The study of evolution of the urban socio-spatial reconstruction process has become an urgent task to provide a scientific basis for decision-making of urban planning and government departments. In comparison with western countries,the study on urban social geography in China is still far behind. Theoretical framework of urban social geography has been in the initial research stage because the small number of empirical case studies in China. In this article, the research results on urban social areas are rather limited in China during the transitional period:1982-2000.Based on data of the third census of Hefei in1982, the fifth census of Hefei City in 2000, methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis are used to analyze the social spatial structure of Hefei City .In 1982,the main components of social space in Hefei include:population of workers,political and economic status, population of intellectuals, agricultural population, population of transportations and telecommunications. In 2000,the main factors are revealed:the education and career, immigrant population, urban unemployment population, agricultural population, logistical population. The social areas in Hefei can be divided into several types respectively by cluster analysis in 1982 and 2000.The types of social areas located within the inner-ring road in 1982,and exhibit approximately concentric zonal distribution in 2000.The types of the social spatial structure of Hefei is very simple and in 1982,and tends gradually to be complex in 2000.The model of the social spatial structure of Hefei in 1982 is very simple, which shows single-core and small sector as a whole in the old city area, while the social spatial structure in 2000,which mainly exhibits generally a zonal pattern with the synthesis of sector and enclave,and single-nuclei pattern based on old city area.Finally,the authors hold that the history of urban development, urban planning, urban renewal and industrialization constituted the main formation mechanism.

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    Spatial Pattern Evolution of Cultural Industries and Its Mechanism of the Old Urban District of Suzhou City
    Jin YANG, Wen CHEN, Feng YUAN
    2015, 35 (12):  1551-1559.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1551
    Abstract ( 1190 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2041KB) ( 287 )   Save

    The significance of cultural industries in promoting industrial upgrading and spatial restructuring is highlighted. Current studies have focused on spatial pattern of cultural industries. However, little attention has been paid to the role of government in shaping the spatial distribution of cultural industries from the perspective of micro-location. Taking the old urban district of Suzhou as an example, this study explores the spatial distribution of cultural industries and its mechanism, especially the role of government. On the basis of the spatial information of 1 661 cultural enterprises in the year of 2012,this research uses kernel density analysis and Moran’s Index analysis based on the software of ArcGIS10.0 as research methods. Results show that, after a series of incentive policies, the number of cultural enterprises has increased rapidly, and the structure of cultural industries has turned into equalization development. It also finds that after aggregating inside the ancient city of Suzhou,cultural enterprises subsequently began to diffuse to the outside of the ancient city of Suzhou, especially after the year of 2008. Nonetheless, cultural enterprises are still mainly concentrated in the old urban district, reflecting the essential distribution pattern of agglomeration of cultural industries.Specially, cultural enterprises tend to agglomerate along main streets and in Cultural Industry Park. The agglomeration degree of cultural industries varies from sector to sector. Market mechanism is the basic force that shapes the spatial pattern and its evolution of cultural industries. The location decisions of cultural enterprises are primarily determined by the cost-benefits, but state action can change these cost-benefits trade-offs of enterprises through providing subsidies to improve the benefits and reducing the rent of specific sites. Government behaviors intervene in the location decisions of cultural industries and change the spatial pattern shaped by market mechanism.

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    Spatial Pattern and Accessibility of Rural Settlements A Case Study on Sheyang County in Jiangsu Province
    Bin ZHU, Xu YIN, Xiao-lin ZHANG
    2015, 35 (12):  1560-1567.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1560
    Abstract ( 1018 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (6033KB) ( 295 )   Save

    Based on the national second land use survey data, this article analyses spatial pattern and accessibility of rural settlements in Sheyang County of Jiangsu Province using models such as Kernel Density Estimation, Nearest Neighbor Distance Index, exploratory spatial data analysis and raster cost weighted distance and GIS as platform. Results show that: 1) In accessibility cost, the radius of half an hour economic circle of accessibility to town center is 5 km. The cost is rising along the highway from the town center to the peripheral regions. Radius of half an hour economic circle of accessibility to rural center is 1 km. It presents ‘stars all over the sky’ distribution pattern. The cost of farming accessibility is generally within 5 minutes and has concentrated distribution. 2) In point pattern, rural settlements are characterized by aggregation distribution. The number of rural settlements distributed in the west is larger than that in the east. The distribution of rural settlements in the south and the center of Sheyang county is relatively dense, and the density of rural settlements is getting sparser and sparser from the south and the center to the north and the east. 3) In size spatial pattern, the scale of rural settlements is generally small. The distribution of rural settlements has the pattern of high density and small scale and low density and large scale. The scale of the rural settlements exists significant positive spatial autocorrelation. The structure of rural settlements looks like ‘tai chi’. ‘Hot spots’ areas are concentrated in Panwan and southern area of Huangshagang. Cold areas have contiguous distribution in the north of Hede, the south of Haihe, Xingqiao and Yangma. 4) In accessibility spatial pattern, the shape of mean accessibility to town center shows ‘double flute’ structure. The area with high value shows zonal distribution and locates in the middle and the west. The spatial distribution of mean accessibility to village center forms ‘branches’ structure. Villages which have better accessibility mainly aggregates in the Midwest, however, villages which have lower accessibility mainly locates in the east. Farming mean accessibility with high value has the agglomeration pattern in the middle and south, but farming mean accessibility in the west is higher than that in the east. Using weighted average method in SPSS software and geometrical interval in GIS platform, spatial accessibility can be divided into 3 parts: high value region, intermediate value region and low value region. Accessibility in Sheyang has mainly intermediate values and a distribution structure of circle layer, layout along the road, obvious gradient feature.

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    Efficiency Eevaluation of Water Resource-economic-environment System Based on Spatial Perspective
    Lei CHEN, Ji-gui WU, Ying-ming WANG
    2015, 35 (12):  1568-1574.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1568
    Abstract ( 495 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (607KB) ( 152 )   Save

    In recent years, the environmental efficiency of economic development and the utilization efficiency of water resource have become important research issues worldwide. However, the study about Water Resource-Economy-Environment (WEE) system is very rare. In additional, the spatial correlation between regions is usually ignored in traditional study. In this article, we thus introduce the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method and spatial econometrics method to analyze the efficiency evaluation problem of WEE system in China. Based on provincial panel data from 2008 to 2012, the technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, scale efficiency and return to scale of WEE system are gained by slack based measure (SBM) model, which is one of traditional DEA models. And some conclusions are summarized as follows. First, all kinds of efficiencies are increasing year by year, but the growth rate are small. Second, the key to prove technical efficiency of WEE system lies in pure technical efficiency. Third, the technology efficiency of WEE system is gradually reduced from eastern China to western China, and it is caused by that the population quality, economic strength, technical level, and investment power are different between these areas. For analyzing the spatial differentiation of efficiency distribution, the Moran index of technology efficiency is calculated, and the result shows that there has significant spatial correlation in the efficiency distribution. In order to further analysis this spatial differentiation, LISA space aggregation graph is drawn. We then use the Lagrange multiplier (LM) test and robust LM test to analyze the provincial panel data of Chinese WEE system based on the spatial weight matrix determined by the law of universal gravitation. The results of text show that three kinds of efficiency values are verified by the spatial error model (SEM) at 5% significant level. We thus use SEM to analyze the space effect of technology efficiency of Chinese WEE system. The results show that the technical creativity, the industrial structure and the property right structure have positive correlations with WEE system technical efficiency by different acting forms on pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency, while the water resource endowment have negative correlation. There are some phenomena that inconsistent with our assumptions. First, the government attention has negative correlation with WEE system technical efficiency, and some reasons are summarized. Second, the utilization of foreign investment has positive correlation with the technical efficiency of WEE system, but this correlation is not obvious.

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    Comparative Study on the Global Distribution and Geomorphic Development of Red Beds
    Zhi-xin PAN, Hua PENG
    2015, 35 (12):  1575-1584.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1575
    Abstract ( 1529 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (7776KB) ( 167 )   Save

    In order to advance our understanding on the temporal and spatial distribution law of red beds in the world and their differences in geomorphic development, a comparative study was conducted on the distribution, age, geological setting, paleogeographic environment, lithology, and geomorphic features of red beds in and outside China. It reveals that red beds in China are mainly distributed in southeast, southwest, and northwest China. They were mainly deposited in the Mesozoic Era, especially in Cretaceous. The major tectonic settings for the deposition of red beds in China are fault basins and depression basins in reactivated areas of paleo-landmass. Almost all red beds in China are continental deposits, which were formed in arid and semi-arid paleoclimate conditions, with a wide range of grain size, from coarse-grained conglomerates,through fine-grained sandstones and siltstones to mudstones. Various types of landform were developed on red beds in China, including Danxia landforms, red bed plateaus, red bed mountains, and red bed hills. By contrast, red beds outside China have a much wider range of age, from Precambrian to Neogene, indicating a trend of deposition from old landmass to young landmass. As for tectonic setting, it can be classified into four types: piedmont/intermountain depression deposition, platform depression deposition, rift basin deposition and back-arc basins. Most of them were continental deposits, with few littoral and transitional facies. The paleoclimate for the formation of these red beds was also arid and semi-arid climate. However, in lithology, most red beds outside China were composed of red sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones, with few coarse-grained deposits like conglomerates. Except in some piedmont/intermountain basins with complex tectonic setting, the types of red bed landforms developed in stable landmassesoutside China are relatively simple.

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    Power and Space: A New Cultural Geographical Interpretation on Cancer Ward
    Chao YE, Yu-ying XIE
    2015, 35 (12):  1585-1590.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1585
    Abstract ( 723 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (487KB) ( 234 )   Save

    In recent years, the new cultural geography has been widely debated by human geographers in China, which pays a lot of attention on the relations between space and power. Some French thinkers’ theories, such as Foucault and Lefebvre were introduced to Chinese academia to interpret the meaning of space. However, unlike space in the reality, little work of space in the test has been done from the view of new cultural geography in China. In addition to ‘real’ space, space in the text and its meanings are also a concern of new cultural geography. Based on the theories of new cultural geography, this article selects Russian writer Solzhenitsyn's novel ‘Cancer Ward’ as a case, and tries to explore the relations between space, text and power. Solzhenitsyn as a political criminal was sent to internal exile, and was treated in a hospital as a result of undiagnosed cancer. His experiences of staying in such a hospital became the source of Cancer Ward. This article uses the method of re-deconstruction to analyze Solzhenitsyn’s novel and to finds out the link between the text, space and powers. We conclude that the cancer ward is symbol of totalitarian system, which controls people and society by some measures, such as establishing censorship, installing propaganda tools. It is a kind of social space that shapes and is shaped by space of the different scales and disciplinary institutions. This verifies and reflects the dialectic between space and society. From the macroscopic scale, a spatial structure including the center and edge is formed along with time, which is an expression of discipline and resistance. From the micro scale, the different spatial units have different symbolic meanings in cancer ward, so it is interesting to inquire the deep meanings behind the text. The sickroom and clinic in the building have a series of rules to supervise the patients. Also, from some details in text, we can discover how the power acts on the person in the cancer ward through spatial layout. Meanwhile, the outside space of the building is very different from the inside. The walking path and exiled place are hopeful and revolting power. This includes some interactions between real and abstract space, between power and space which probably are explicit or implicit. The setting and interior layout of every spatial unit reflect explicit interactions, and the inherent relationship and power in space reflects the invisible interactions. The text plays an important role on building such a vivid, generalized and detailed ‘spatial system’, and makes us understand social space profoundly through such a small physical space—cancer ward.

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    Paradigms in Geomorphology and Its Value in Education and Research
    Hong-shan GAO, Bao-tian PAN, Bing-yuan LI, Qiong LI
    2015, 35 (12):  1591-1598.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1591
    Abstract ( 890 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (430KB) ( 531 )   Save

    At least since the time of Gilbert and Davis, geomorphologists have pursued and employed theory-laden observational techniques. From the Davisian geographical cycle which is basically descriptive, the quantitative-dynamic approach to landform studies and hydraulic geometry, to the systematic geomorphology today, there are full of paradigms, principles and basic concepts. Full recognition and understanding of these paradigms are essential for developing a unified approach to the science of geomorphology. Summarizing paradigms from teaching geomorphological history in the curriculum is also important. It helps to maintain and stimulate student’s interest in professional education. Reading original literatures could help students to learn more qualitative description and critical methodological detail. As a result, students would realize how to accept the ideas and theories of geomorphology critically. To the discipline development and scientific research in geomorphology, paradigm means a common scientific “language”, by which introducing it into our domestic study is a prerequisite for access to the international geomorphological community. Summary of fundamental research questions and continuous study to those basic theoretical researches is the best way to make a renaissance of modern geomorphology in China.

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    Spatiotemporal Patterns of Pan Evaporation in 1960-2005 in China: Changing Properties and Possible Causes
    Tian-yao QI, Qiang ZHANG, Yue WANG, Ming-zhong XIAO, Jian-yu LIU, Peng SUN
    2015, 35 (12):  1599-1606.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1599
    Abstract ( 924 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3972KB) ( 216 )   Save

    Taking pan evaporation paradox as a key scientific assumption, this study collected and analyzed daily meteorological data from 588 rain stations over China using FCM regionalization method and Modified Mann-Kendall trend test. The results indicate that: 1) China is divided into 3 homogeneous climate regions with the help of FCM algorithm of fuzzy clustering: East-middle-south region (the south, middle, southwest and east China); West-north region(the northwest China); A long and narrow strip between the cluster a and b extending from northeast to southwest China; 2) significant decreasing pan evaporation can be found in southern, central, southwestern, eastern and northwestern China. Stations with significant increasing pan evaporation seem to be distributed sporadically across China. Besides, the strip zone extending in the NE-SW direction is dominated by significant/non-significant increasing trends of pan evaporation; 3) Sensitivity analysis indicates that relative humidity is the principal influencing factor for pan evaporation. Generally, in northwestern, northern and northeastern China, relative humidity has an adverse relation with pan evaporation, implying pan evaporation paradox in China and also intensifying hydrological cycle in these regions. In southeastern China, particularly the middle and lower Yangtze River basin and the Pearl River basin, relations between pan evaporation and relative humidity are relatively complex, showing that more factors than relative humidity can have impacts on pan evaporation changes, such as cloud coverage, temperature and aerosol concentration. Local features of aerodynamic and radiative drivers of the hydrological cycle and their regional responses to climate changes, and also different features of underlying ground may play considerable roles in pan evaporation changes.

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    Remote Sensing Monitoring and Spatial-temporal Characteristics Analysis of Soil Salinization in Agricultural Area of Northern Xinjiang
    Shi CHEN, Bin XU, Yun-xiang JIN, Yin-lan HUANG, Wen-bo ZHANG, Jian GUO, Ge SHEN, Xiu-chun YANG
    2015, 35 (12):  1607-1615.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1607
    Abstract ( 861 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1674KB) ( 217 )   Save

    The soil secondary salinization caused by brackish water irrigation and so on in agricultural area of northern Xinjiang aggravated the degree of soil salinization, severely reduced agricultural productivity level.To explore the impact of soil salinization in agricultural area of northern Xinjiang on sustainable development of agriculture, the article used the two-dimensional spatial relationship of normalized difference vegetation index and salinity index to build remote sensing monitoring model of soil salinization based on MODIS Data, and analyzed soil salinization status and the spatial dynamic changes of this area since 2000, then discussed the main driving factors of soil salinization in the typical area. The results showed: 1) Remote sensing monitoring indicators of soil salinization can quantitatively characterize soil salinity in agricultural area of northern Xinjiang from the macro. 2) The spatial characteristics of soil salinization in agricultural area of northern Xinjiang showed a reversal of the overall and local serious development situation. 3) The development or reverse direction of soil salinization levels in different periods was mainly mutual transformation of moderate to severe and severe to the saline soil, and the conversion amplitude of severe salinization agricultural land was maximum. 4)There was a good correlation between formation of saline soil with precipitation and degree of dryness and it turned on high positive and negative correlations between not salinization (normal) and moderate salinization with rural effective irrigation area and crop planting area. The research results can provide scientific basis for the prevention of soil salinization.Research conclusion provided scientific guidance basis for the prevention and treatment of soil salinization in the agricultural area of northern Xinjiang and agricultural sustainable development, and offered certain research foundation in quantitative analysis and monitoring work of large scale salinization in arid areas.

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    The Vegetation Remote Sensing Phenology of Qinling Mountains Based on NDVI and It‘s Response to Temperature: Taking Within the Territory of Shaanxi as An Example
    Xin-ping MA, Hong-ying BAI, Ying-na HE, Jin QIN
    2015, 35 (12):  1616-1621.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1616
    Abstract ( 1207 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1387KB) ( 584 )   Save

    The vegetation phenology change was effected evidently by global temperature rising. The phenological parameters extracted from NDVI data can accurately showed a continuous phenology changes in macro scope. The vegetation phenology parameters was extracted by the method of dynamic threshold based on the MODIS NDVI time series of images data in 2000-2010 at the Qinling Mountains. The measured phenological data was used to verified the accuracy of remote sensing phenology results. The relationship between temperature changes and the phenology of Qinling region was quantitied at the macro scale. The resulte showed that the trend of vegetation phenology variation based on the NDVI are consistent with the results of measured phenological data. In 2000-2010, the advanced rate of phenology beginning period was 0.165 6 d/a, the delayed rate of phenology finaling period was 0.109 1 d/a. On space, the vegetation phenology beginning period in the northern region of the Qinling Mountains mainly occurred in the first 120 days to 130 days, it was later than the period of southern slope. The phenological ending period mainly occurred in 300-325 days , the arrival of phenology finaling period in the northern region was later than the southern region. The correlation of NDVI in phenological beginning period and the effective temperature, the spring and growing season temperature is significantly positive, NDVI in phenological ending period has a significantly positive correlation with the temperature in summer and autumn. The temperature lag 2-3 phase behind NDVI at the phenology beginning period.

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    Farmers’ Perception of Water Resource Shortage and Adaption in Continental River Basin of Arid Zone:A Case of the Middle-lower Reaches of the Shiyang River
    Xue-yan ZHAO, Bing XUE
    2015, 35 (12):  1622-1630.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1622
    Abstract ( 518 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (467KB) ( 397 )   Save

    In recent years, the farmer’s perception of environment change and their adaption strategies has been the research focus of the adaptation domain. Water resource shortage is the most serious environmental problem in the continental river basin of arid zone, it is badly in need of looking for the effective adaptation strategies in order to reduce the adverse impact of water resource shortage. Understanding the farmers’ perception of water resource shortage and adaption strategy selection is very important to determine the proper adaptation strategy and make scientific water resource management policy. Selecting the middle-lower reaches of the Shiyang River as the study case and through stratified random sampling survey, participatory rural appraisal and investigation of plots, 367 household are investigated and sampled. Based on the investigation data and the MPPACC (a socio - cognitive model of private proactive adaptation to climate change ) analysis framework which Grothmann and Patt provided, we analyze the farmers’ perception of water resource shortage and their adaption strategies, and analyze the impact of the farmers’ water resource shortage perception on theirs adaption strategies by multiple linear regression model and binary logistic model. The results show: 1)These perception index are relatively high which include the farmer’s water resource shortage possibility perception, severity perception ,adaption effect and adaption cost perception, the index of these perception is 4.65, 4.69, 4.19 and 4.38,respectively. However, the perception of self-efficacy is middle level and its index is 3.02; 2) The relationship between the farmers’ water resource shortage risk perception and the adaption effect perception , the adaption cost perception are significant positive correlation, but the relationship between the risk perception and the adaption cost perception is insignificant negative correlation; 3)The diversification index of the farmers’ adaption strategy is 2.80, and the relationship between the diversification index of adaption strategy and the farmers’ severity perception ,adaption effect perception, adaption cost perception and self-efficacy perception are significant positive correlation;4) These perceptions which include risk perception, adaption effect perception and self- self-efficacy perception significantly influence the type of first adaption strategy. With the index of risk perception and adaption effect perception strengthening, the probability of prefer choice of contract adaption strategy will increase. However, with the index of self-efficacy perception strengthening, the probability of prefer choice of contract adaption strategy will decrease. Finally, we present the measures and proposals about promoting the farmers’ adaption ability and some potential improvements in some further researches.

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    Sediment Source Information of Different Catchments in the Sedimentary Records of the Abandoned Yellow River: Heavy Mineral and Geochemical Analyses
    Wen-hua GAO, Shu GAO, Dan-dan WANG, Yang-yang ZHAO, Dong ZHU, Zhen XU
    2015, 35 (12):  1631-1639.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1631
    Abstract ( 630 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (3308KB) ( 152 )   Save

    On the Holocene temporal scale, the formation of sedimentary records are controlled mainly by sediment supply, transport and accumulation processes. Analysis of the sedimentary record of the abandoned Yellow River can reflect the sediment source to sink characteristics during the historical periods when the Yellow River shifted its course to the south. In the present contribution, the sediment source information contained in the deposits from the channel of the abandoned Yellow River representing different river catchments were discussed, on the basis of heavy mineral and geochemical analyses. The results show that there are more than 15 types of heavy minerals in the sediments of the abandoned Yellow River channel, with an average content of 0.19%. They are dominated by stable minerals. The heavy minerals show different spatial and temporal variations in the sediment cores. In terms of geochemical characteristics, there are apparent spatial and temporal variations in the muddy and sandy sediments of the abandoned Yellow River. Three different downcore variation patterns are present, i.e. decrease, stable and increase trends. Compared with the contents of heavy minerals and geochemical elements in the modern Yellow River sediments, the contents of stable and extremely stable heavy minerals in the abandoned Yellow River channel are relatively high. Furthermore, a number of geochemical elements, such as Zn, Ni, Al, Ba, Cu, Li and K, are enriched in the mud sediments of the abandoned Yellow River. Such differences indicate the effects of material supply from different river catchments over the region, including the Huai River, which has its own distinct heavy mineral and geochemical features.

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    Changes of Extreme Temperature Events in Beijing During 1960-2014
    Shuang-shuang LI, Sai-ni YANG
    2015, 35 (12):  1640-1647.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.012.1640
    Abstract ( 2333 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1017KB) ( 406 )   Save

    Based on daily average, maximum and minimum temperature observed by the China Meteorological Administration at meteorological station in Beijing from 1960 to 2014. Sixteen indices of extreme temperature are studied. Applying the method of Rhtest, the series that have breakpoints are adjusted and the trends of the series are analyzed, the annual temperature trend has changed obviously and the homogeneity is improved well. The results showed that: 1) In general, the temperature increment is obvious in Beijing during 1960-2014, with generally stronger increases in minimum temperature than in maximum temperature, as for climate inclination rate after adjustment: the maximum temperature (0.17℃/10a)-1.43, -6.56, -3.95, -1.18 and -4.83 d/10a days/decade respectively. 3) While the occurrence of warm days, warm nights, summer days, tropical nights, warm spell duration days and growing season length shows statistically significant increasing trends at rates of -2.12, 5.27, 1.22, 5.43, 0.84 and 1.96 d/10a days/decade respectively. 4) The tendency rate of annual minimum value of daily maximum (minimum) temperature, annual maximum value of daily maximum (minimum) and diurnal temperature range is 0.18, 0.23, 0.46, 0.73 and -0.36℃/decade respectively. 5) The magnitudes of changes in cold indices (cold nights, ice days, frost days, cold spell duration days) are obviously greater than those of warm indices (warm nights, warm spell duration days, summer days). The change ranges of night indices (warm nights and cold nights) are larger than those of day indices (warm days and cold days). The change ranges of minimum-temperature-related indices (annual minimum value of daily maximum, annual minimum value of daily minimum) are larger than those of maximum-temperature-related indices (annual maximum value of daily maximum and annual maximum value of daily minimum). This explains the stronger warming in the past 55 years in Beijing due to the change of night indices, cool indices and minimum-temperature- related indices.

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