Table of Content

    20 April 2017, Volume 37 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Evolution Process and Mechanism of Tourism Complex based on Synergy Theory: A Case Study of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park
    Lin Lu, Zhen Chen, Jianfeng Huang, Shanjin Ling, Qijing Zhu, Chenglin Mu, Yan Xu
    2017, 37 (4):  481-491.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.001
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    Taking Xixi National Wetland Park as a case, and referencing the synergy theory as a guide to explore the mechanisms of tourism complex formation and evolution. Result shows that Xixi National Wetland Park is composed of cooperative system with multiple elements, and it has experienced the "clustering-symbiotic-merging" evolution process, which can be divided into embryonic stage, growth stage and perfect stage. These three stages of gathering are traditional tourism business pattern elements, emerging tourism business pattern elements and innovative tourism business pattern elements. The nature of the evolution is the cooperative system order parameter changes, and different evolutionary stages have different order parameters. Embryonic stage embodied elements gathering, driven by external economic. Growth stage embodied elements symbiosis, driven by internal elements restructuring. Perfect stage embodied elements integration, driven by innovation. The power of evolution is the nonlinear interaction between the elements, achieved by the feedback mechanism which formed by the systems’ internal and external energy exchange and interaction between subsystems. Selecting the house price as an indicator, we use the homogeneous and heterogeneous spatial comparison, to measure the spatial spillover effects of the Xixi National Wetland Park. The spatial spillover effects mainly come from the space radiation generated by the tourism elements of agglomeration, which is spatial heterogeneity essentially. The collaborative innovation of tourism and related industries are the main features of Xixi National Wetland Park development model, which is based on the excellent natural resources and broad market, with tourism as the core to attract related industries elements gathering, then forms the symbiotic and integration effect. Also the external energy exchange and internal self-regulatory organization are focused during the development process.

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    The Intra-metropolitan Location of R&D-Intensive Manufacturing in Beijing and Shanghai
    Fan Yang, Debin Du, Dezhong Duan, Xiao Lin
    2017, 37 (4):  492-501.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.002
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    Beijing and Shanghai are major sci-tech innovation hub cities in China. Based on urban ZIP code spatial database and R&D-intensive manufacturing firm data, this article explores the spatial distribution and influence factors of R&D-intensive manufacturing industry by using ArcGIS and Stata, and then reveals the difference of the location distribution model of R&D-intensive manufacturing industry between Beijing and Shanghai. The results show that Beijing R&D-intensive manufacturing industry tended to distribute mainly in the northwest inside the Sixth Ring and displayed the centralized pattern of Zhongguancun-Changping, Fengtai, Yizhuang and Wangjing-Jiuxianqiao as spatial aggregated hot zones, while Shanghai R&D-intensive manufacturing industry was characterized by the coexistence of concentration and diffusion, distributing in each direction inside the suburban loop line and taking Caohejing, Zhangjiang, Jinqiao, Meilong and Wujiaochang as spatial aggregated hot zones. Meanwhile, both Beijing and Shanghai R&D-intensive manufacturing industry had significant agglomeration effects, the difference is that Beijing took Zhongguancun-Shangdi as the single agglomerate center, while Shanghai took Caohejing and Zhangjiang as the twin symbiotic agglomeration pattern. The spatial distribution of different industrial types was unanimous with the general characteristics, but showing a certain specific. The high-technology firms were mostly located in the main urban areas, and their hotspots distribution shrunk back to the main urban areas and suburbs. Conversely, the other traditional manufacturing firms which also belong to R&D-intensive manufacturing industry were scattered in the outskirts, with the hotspots stretched out to the remote suburbs. Development zone, transportation accessibility and path dependence all had an important impact on the choice of location of firms in Beijing and Shanghai, and in addition the location of Shanghai firms was also affected by the positive impact of suburbanization and the location of research institutions and the old industrial areas, while suburbanization have negative impacts on the location of Beijing firms. As a result, the R&D-intensive manufacturing industry distribution in Beijing was a compact-central model with the development zone as the single industrial spatial carrier, while in Shanghai was a discrete-suburbanize model with development zones, research institutes and old industrial areas as multiple industrial space carriers. This study just used cross-sectional data without a time-series, so it could not analyze the evolution trend of the R&D-intensive manufacturing industry distribution and its formation mechanism. Also, the data possibly had survivorship bias. More importantly, the difference of economic and social benefits between different R&D-intensive manufacturing industry spatial distribution patterns needs to be discussed further.

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    Temporal-Spatial Evolution Characteristics and Its Causes of Innovation Output in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
    Weixiang Xu, Lei Yang, Chengjun Liu, Lingyan Zhang, Lu Li
    2017, 37 (4):  502-511.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.003
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    With the methods of local Gini coefficient, spatial autoregression, NICH coefficient and panel data model, this study takes the 38 center cities along the Yangtze River Economic Belt as spatial observing units to discuss the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and its causes of innovation output, measured by the number of patents authorization and other related data. The result indicates that from 2000 to 2013, the overall innovation output in the center cities along the Yangtze River Economic Belt is increasing year by year, while the geographic concentration of it presents a fluctuated downward trend. The relative development rate of the Yangtze River Delta area is faster than others. The agglomeration degree of innovation output shows a shape of mirrored “Z” with a fluctuated upward trend. The hot spots regions of innovation output develop into a “monopolar-prominent” spatial pattern in the Yangtze River Delta area from a “dual-central” spatial structure in the Yangtze River Delta area and Chengdu-Chongqing area, and the scope of hot spots regions is extending. Besides, the cold spots regions are concentrated in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River; Technology spillover, government actions, spatial proximity and financial supports can make significantly positive effects on the innovation output in the center cities along the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and the economic foundation can promote the development of innovation output in downstream cities. According to the conclusions, this article also propounds some corresponding suggestions.

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    The Interaction Between Urban Spatial Structure and Economic Development
    Tinglin Zhang, Bindong Sun
    2017, 37 (4):  512-518.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.004
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    Urban spatial structure is believed to be born out of socio-economic development, so it is subject to the stage of economic development, and also influences the economic activities. The interactive relationship between spatial structure and economic development has always been the core issue of economic geography. Exploring this relationship helps to optimize the urban spatial structure and benefit economic performance. Previous related studies are abundant with theoretical descriptions, but lack of empirical supports, and some mechanisms are not elaborated clearly enough. This article examines the interaction between spatial structure and economic development with econometric models. Traditional linear regression models with single equation can only test one-way relationship, this study uses structural equation models to estimate the relationship between several dependent variables such as urban labor productivity, population and polycentricity from an overall perspective. The results show that: 1) Most Chinese cities have entered the stage of morphologically polycentric spatial structure; 2)There exists an interactive causal relationship between spatial structure and economic development; 3) The polycentricity is driven by urban population size, rather than economic growth. The concrete circular causality between spatial structure and economic development is as follows, the population expands with the economic development, then promotes the formation of polycentric spatial structure probably driven by the rise of agglomeration diseconomy; the increasing polycentricity improves the urban labor productivity likely due to the weakened agglomeration diseconomy. In addition, the polycentric spatial structure is also closely related to high second industry ratio and proportion of small firms; and urban population is depended on the historical population and industrial structure, higher ratio of second industry and more population in 1953 lead to bigger size of urban population. These findings have important policy implications for optimizing urban spatial strategies in China. Overall, polycentricity should be encouraged by urban spatial policies in China. Moreover, considering that the population size rather than economic growth boosts the polycentricity, for megacities like Beijing and Shanghai or cities in developed coastal areas, the polycentric strategy can be used to reduce agglomeration diseconomy and improve economic performance; for small and medium-sized cities or cities in less developed middle and west China, policy should also be conducted to decrease the external diseconomies of agglomeration, the mono-centric spatial structure can still benefit the economic performance there.

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    Coupling Characteristics of Urban Functional Space in Changchun City from the Perspective of Landscape Ecology
    Bo Sun, Shujia Cheng, Guozheng Yu, Zhaojun Wang
    2017, 37 (4):  519-527.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.005
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    Based on the land utilization data and related statistical yearbooks of Changchun City in 1995, 2003, and 2011, combination of ArcGIS 10.2 and Fragstats 3.3 technology platform, by using the method of landscape ecology, this article studies the coupling characteristics of urban function space in the urban poor space, the new urban expansion area and the urban unit community from the micro-perspective. The results show that: 1) The land spatial distribution of the urban space in the urban poor space has a disorder blended characteristic, and the character mosaic distribution of industrial space, residential space and service space has resulted the interaction between the production and life of urban functional space; 2) The external expansion mode leads to the city function space fragmentation and discrete degree increasing in the new urban expansion area, and the industrial space in the city new district presents the complex characteristics of near field propulsion and wide area diffusion; 3) The land use type and the land mixed degree in the city unit community is rationalizing, reflecting that the city function space has been optimized and restructured, and the boundary of urban function space has begun to blur. The research above shows that the urban unit community is changing to the social community. Finally, the paper puts forward some countermeasures to optimize the function space of Changchun City, that is to say, to improve the classification standard of urban industrial land, to promote the organic integration and moderate the dispersion of urban functions, and to guide the diffusion of traditional industries.

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    Spatial Scenario Simulation and Landscape Ecological Effect Based on Construction Land Expansion of Nantong City
    Qingke Yang, Xuejun Duan, Zhifeng Jin, lei Wang
    2017, 37 (4):  528-536.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.006
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    Modeling and scenario analysis are the core content of the research on the spatial expansion of construction land. On account of the rapid urbanization process and the special geographical position, Nantong is chosen as the study case in this paper. We employ the hybrid model of CLUE-S and Auto-logistic regression to project the likelihood map of land use distribution, and then simulate the dynamic distribution of the expansion of construction land. We acquire a series of knowledge rules by analyzing the temporal and spatial characteristics of construction land expansion from four time periods of remote sensing images since 1987. The future expansion of construction land under different cenarios is then simulated based on the baseline model, economic development model, ecological conservation model. Through the landscape ecology knowledge we analyze the ecological environment effect of construction land expansion under different scenarios. Key results emerge: since 1987, the expansion of construction land in Nantong has been rapid, which is spreading intensely around the city and the town center on the space. It’s presented that the alternate rule of cyclical fluctuations in the form of ‘axis growth—interior filled’. At the meanwhile, the Kappa and PCM coefficients also show that the hybrid model has high reliability and can be applied to the simulation of the spatial distribution of construction land in the future. The simulation results declare that the expansion of construction land is concentrated in the urban area and towns around, and there is an obvious expansion trend towards the east coast under the economic development scenario. Due to the intense expansion, it’s very obvious that the spatial pattern tends to merge into the larger districts in the concentration area of construction land. The patch density and landscape shape index of the construction land expansion are both high, the landscape pattern tends to be unstable, and the fragmentation is also relatively severe. Therefore, not only control the amount of construction land expansion in the future land use, but also optimize the spatial landscape pattern, which can provide scientific basis for land intensive use, urban growth boundary control and ecosystem management of Nantong City.

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    Urban Land Use Development Research Based on Multi-agent Simulation System
    Liu Runjiao, Jiang Difei, Shi Lei
    2017, 37 (4):  537-545.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.007
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    Since the human society has entered the 21st century, its rapid developing status not only provides the necessary impetus for both technology advancement and economic growth, but also poses a challenge on the sustainable development of ecological environment and social culture in the city. As we can see, the current quantity of construction land demanded by the city has already exceeded the rational carrying capacity of natural environment, and the incongruity between them will cause many kinds of problems related to the distribution of land resources and environment protection. Therefore, how to ensure the city can get the long-range and healthy development while fulfilling the increasing demand of construction land is becoming a major concern among both government administrators and urban designers. Although setting up a simulation model for the research area is one of the valid ways to evaluate the possible outcomes of future development, but as different components of urban system would interact with each other intricately and uncontrollably, and it will bring non-linear and dynamic impacts on the spatial development of urban land use, the assumption of traditional modelling methods about the static and equilibrium status of simulation structure will not fully match with the reality and may cause some significant deviations during its simulation process. So it is necessary for us to find a new way to better describe the dynamic characteristics of real world in the simulation model. Under this situation, the emergence of complex system theory can provide researchers an useful alternative to model the complex and mutual interactions among different individual components, and its “bottom-up” simulation structure is highly consistent with the mechanisms that urban system is developed from development activities in micro-level. Therefore, with the help of complex system theory, people can change their traditional static analysis thinking into a more active pattern and predict the future development trend for urban land use more accurately. As a result, in order to effectively solve the problems between arranging urban land use development and protecting the ecosystem, this research decided to use the multi-agent system as a simulation tool to build the land use development model based on the knowledge of complex system theory, urban economics and geography information system. Unlike traditional modelling methods, the main research mechanism of MAS (multi-agent simulation) model is to make use of the interaction behaviors of different kinds of developer agents to predict the future development trend for the construction areas in San Diego, following the simulation structure of bottom-up. Also, this research has proved its simulation accuracy through both point-by-point comparison and geometrical evaluation. After posting a general summary about the key points of the entire research, this paper analyzed the existing problems of the current land use simulation model, and proposed several possible ways to improve its effectiveness in the future.

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    Evolution of the Yangtze River Delta’s City Network Based on the Strategic Emerging Industries
    Delin Zhuang, Yang Yang, Shengwu Jin, Rong Han
    2017, 37 (4):  546-553.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.008
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    The spatial network structure of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is investigated using the social network analysis model based on the strategic emerging industries’ listed companies data in 2004-2013. Major findings are as follows:Firstly, the traditional “Z”-shaped backbone of the Yangtze River Delta’s city network turned into pyramid-shape which is anchored by Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Hefei and Ningbo. Recent years have witnessed the accelerated growth in network linkage density of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The city network structure is obviously polycentric and the centralization level has been constantly increasing. Various network linkage patterns coexist in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. Secondly, core node cities have played increasingly important roles in resources allocation. Provincial capitals and sub-provincial cities show overwhelming advantage of resources agglomeration and radiation in the urban network, but a U-shaped pattern can be found in their betweenness centrality. Thirdly, Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Suzhou, Hefei constitute the core layer of the Yangtze River Delta’s city network and the linkage between core cities and peripheral ones has become the dominating pattern. The member structure of cohesive subgroups presents obviously regional trend. Shanghai-Nanjing cohesive subgroup and Hangzhou cohesive subgroup are the leading one in the field of intra-subgroup linkage and inter-subgroup linkage respectively.

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    Urban Poverty Groups’ Subjective Life Quality: A Case Study on Xi’an Typical Community
    Dongqian Xue, Yuqian Lyu, Jing Huang, Beibei Ma
    2017, 37 (4):  554-562.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.009
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    Improving life quality of poverty-stricken people will not only relaxing the classes tension but also promoting social harmony. Urban poverty is a worldwide outstanding issue, since the 1990s, the transformation of China’s social and economic had begun, along with the adjustment of economic structure, the reform of state-owned enterprises, the change of employment system, the loosening of household management, a large number of new urban poor has emerged in China. Xi’an is the most economically developed city in Northwest China. After entering the social and economic transition, a large number of laid-off workers, rural and urban population, serving low-income and unemployed person have been formed to expand the scale of the urban poor, urban poverty is getting worse. This article select four typical areas of new urban poverty and new urban poor groups for the study. They are the degradation of the state-owned industrial area (Street Office Fangzhicheng), marginalized inner-city areas (Street Office Jiefangmen ), migrants inhabited villages (Street Office Yuhuazhai), and ruins of protected areas (Street Office Liucunpu). The four different typical poor districts represent the four different poverty genetics. After in-depth interviews with the research community, we make analysis for the urban poor based on the quality of life. Methods of semantic differential, association network and TOPSIS are separately used to analyze self-awareness of living conditions, life experience and life satisfaction. At last the author analyzes the main cause of the difference of the subjective quality of life. The main conclusions are as follow: The author have done a lot of research in the new situation of poverty in Xi’an City with questionnaire and interview and analyzed subjective life quality of the typical poverty-stricken area of Xi’an City by using Semantic Differential, TOPSIS and Association Network in this article. The result has shown that: 1) The poverty-stricken people tend to have limitations and a bad perceived ability. Study found that many of the poverty-stricken people have low cognitive ability for their own poor living conditions, and it shows that objective facts do not conform to subjective perception. There exists deviation between subjective perception and objective facts. 2) The poverty-stricken people are sensitive to life quality. The overall life contentment of the poverty-stricken people is not high and still far from the optimal state. The subjective satisfaction of poverty-stricken people in the typical community is at the medium to low level. And the perception of the poverty-stricken people is weak and tend to be negative. The poor are mainly dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary levels. And satisfaction is mainly closed to relationship with neighbors, traffic conditions and other factors. 3) The people in different typical community have different perception. Poverty-stricken people’s subjective satisfaction is mostly related to the background of community planning and implementation, geographical location and function orientation.

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    Evaluation Method and Its Application of Urban-rural Integration Progress Based on 3S Technology: A Case Study of Jiashan County, Zhejiang
    Hongzhi Wang, Huanhuan Huang, Xinliang Xu, Liang Wang
    2017, 37 (4):  563-572.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.010
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    At present, most studies in urban-rural integration conduct quantitative researches using statistical indexes, which are fairly subjective. Through 3S technology, this study advanced an evaluation index system and comprehensive evaluation model of urban-rural integration, based on which a series of systematic monitoring work was carried out in Jiashan, Zhejiang Province. The results showed that the maximum composite index of urban-rural integration degree was only 1.95 times larger than the minimum one, which showed a great balance; During 2003-2015, the rate of urbanization population has increased by 20.4%; The difference between the maximum and minimum value of road network density decreased from 18 times to 4.3 times, and the road network system changed from single-core to multi-core; The income gap between urban and rural was well controlled within 2 times with a narrowing trend; The spatial distribution of urban and rural habitation was relatively uniform, and the rapid expansion of urban areas would boost the development of surrounding rural residential areas. The index system has helped develop the quantitative methods of urban-rural integration studies in terms of objectivity and spatial expression.

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    Development Characteristics and Factors Analysis of Residential Land Price in China
    Juan Han, Xiaobin Jin, Zhihong Zhang, Wei Sun, Xinru Xu, Yinkang Zhou
    2017, 37 (4):  573-584.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.011
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    In order to identify the spatial characteristics of residential land price in China, this article establishes such a method so as to calculate residential land prices in China at the county level by integrating land transaction data from 2009 to 2013, and chooses three indicators to evaluate the development of the residential land market. Then, Ward’s hierarchical clustering is used to classify the regions into different types of development status in the residential land market and logistic regression model is used to explore potential factors and their impacts on each development type. Several results were acquired: 1) Residential land prices in China decrease along gradients from east to west and from the coast to inland. Urban agglomeration promotes surrounding regions, and a central city promotes surrounding cities. The main areas with high price growth rate are concentrated in the west-north zones, middle-south in the north-east zones, Sichuan Basin, Hexi Corridor, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The activity level of residential market transactions appears stepped change. The counties with high-active market transactions are mainly concentrated in Shandong peninsula, the Yangtze River Delta, the middle of the Yangtze River, Central Liaoning, Harbin, Chengdu and Chongqing, Yunnan, and Hohhot-Baotou-Rrdos urban agglomeration, and so on. 2) The development of the land market can be classified as ‘mature,’ ‘improving,’ ‘growing,’ ‘germinating’ or ‘blocked’. The neighboring types also appear neighborhood relation in spatial. 3) The main factors of each type differ significantly. The location condition, resident income and revenue are the main factors affecting the development maturity of price. The increase of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and the level of development of the land promotes the development of land price, while a lack of population, and a lack of infrastructure results in the development of land price being blocked.

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    Research on Rurality Evaluation and the Driving Mechanism in Arid Regions of Northwest China: A Case Study of Wuwei City in Gansu Province
    Xiaoying Nie, Peiji Shi, Xuebin Zhang, Rui Lyu, Yanfen Zhu, Wei Wei
    2017, 37 (4):  585-594.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.012
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    Rural development occupies an important position in arid regions of northwest China. Along with the implementation of Western Development Strategy and the Construction of New Socialist Countryside, rural development in arid regions of northwest China embraces a new round of change. Study on dynamic change features and influencing factors of rurality and its driving mechanism, taking Wuwei City of Gansu Province as an example, is of great theoretical and practical significance to the formation of rural development plans and strategies in northwest arid areas based on local conditions. With the support of the socio-economic statistic data of Wuwei City in 65 years, this paper constructed rurality index system with county as the basic unit, calculated the rurality indexes of various counties and districts by factor analysis method and analyzed the time evolution and space differentiation of rurality levels by virtue of simple linear regression model and rurality differentiation index model. Moreover, the influencing factors of rurality evolution and its driving mechanism were also discussed from aspects of social economy and technical economy. As the results showed, 1) The rurality indexes of various counties and districts in Wuwei City in 1949-2013 decreased on the whole, but the reducing degrees and speed differed. The annual decline of rurality indexes remained large in general, while the variation coefficient kept increasing. Three stages were divided according to rurality indexes: high rurality (1949-1978), moderate rurality (1979-2003) and low rurality (2004-2013). 2) The rurality differentiation indexes in various counties and districts showed a trend of fluctuations in growth, which indicated that the rurality differentiation was growing large, especially after the year of 2000, when the differentiation indexes fluctuated significantly and increased rapidly, and the rurality indexes changed greatly along with prominent unbalanced economic development. 3) Social economy and technical economy are two major factors affecting the change of rurality. During the process of industrial structure adjustment, traffic improvement, intensified government policy support, rural labor force transfer, advancement of agricultural mechanization level and adjustment of planting structure, the urban-rural gap is narrowing down, rurality is constantly weakening and the development of urban and rural integration becomes a major trend.

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    The Symbolism and the Identity Construction of French-decorated Folk Houses Landscape on the Sino-Vietnamese Borderland in Longzhou, Guangxi Province
    Hui Wan, Xueqiong Tang
    2017, 37 (4):  595-602.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.013
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    According to the new cultural geography, culture is not an intrinsic, unified whole, but composes of different. Although Longzhou’s French-decorated folk houses landscape is famous as ‘historic’, it is not a mere relic of the past but a landscape under continual reproduction. French-decorated folk houses adorned with sculptures and vibrant colors feature a variety of modern architectural styles with foreign and exotic imaginaries. The residential landscape plays an important role not just in a formal sense but also in terms of secular judgment of personal fortune where thrifty peasants become lavish spenders with the ability to discriminate, selecting high-quality decoration that reflect their economy strength. In addition, French-decorated folk houses also strengthen the personal identity and local identity of local peasants. The study is not only exemplified on the change of landscape research to the social and cultural significance in the field of new cultural geography, but also a response to the core research issue of the relationship between the locality, landscape and identity in the discipline of new cultural geography.

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    The Three-dimensional Joint Distributions of Rainstorm Factors Based on Copula Function: A Case in Kuandian County, Liaoning Province
    Ye Zhang, Kang Wang, Xinming Liu, Suchen Zhang, Jia Zhou, Cailin Wang
    2017, 37 (4):  603-610.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.014
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    Taking Kuandian County in Liaoning Province as an example, the author extract four rainstorm factors: the annual rainstorm days, annual of rainstorm depth, annual average rainstorm intensity and rainstorm contribution, through the daily precipitation data from 1955 to 2012 and use the Kolmogorov-Smimov method to determine optimal probability distribution for each single factor. For the multifaceted rainstorm factor, we use AIC and RMSE test to confirm the best fitted copulas connect function suitable for rainstorm factor by introducing the copula function and building three-dimensional joint distribution, and analyze the probability of rainstorm and characteristics of return period with many combined factors. Research shows that: 1) The joint of annual rainstorm days, annual of rainstorm depth and annual average rainstorm intensity is suitable for reaction joint return period of rainstorm factor in Kuandian County; In Kuandian County, joint return period is short and distribute on 0-2 years, co-occurrence return period is longer, concentrated in around 200 years; the change trend of two kinds of return period is consistent, it has synchronization effect, this reflect inseparable of rainstorm factor. 2) The univariate reflect just one factor of information in rainstorm and doesn’t involved in the relationship between factors; Three-dimensional copulas joint can present the internal information between heavy elements from three aspects and closer to the actual; Multiple factors of rainstorm, as copulas function on the rainstorm analysis provides a broad prospects.

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    Multi-time Scales Change Characteristics and Relationship of Meteorological Variables in the Upper and Middle Regions of the Huaihe River Basin in Recent 55 Years
    Jingcai Wang, Jiaxiang Guo, Jiao Xu, Fan Li
    2017, 37 (4):  611-619.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.015
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    In order to understand the multi-timescales change characteristics and relations of regional meteorological variables (namely the monthly precipitation, temperature and sunshine hours) in the upper and middle regions of the Huaihe River Basin, data of 19 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2014, were analyzed by using the methods of climate tendency rate, Mann-Kendall test, morlet wavelet analysis and correlation coefficient. The results showed that: 1) The linear trends of precipitation in annual and four seasons were not significant. For temperature, its linear trend was not significant in summer, but in annual and other three seasons, a significant trend of getting warm was shown. For sunshine hours, its linear trend was not significant in spring, but in annual and other three seasons, a significant trend of getting short was shown; 2) Precipitation, temperature and sunshine hours in annual and four seasons were characterized by alternatively wet and dry, cold and warm, short and long variations for multiple time scales. Differences between the main period scales and their mean change cycles for the three meteorological variables in annual and four seasons were different, some were close while the others had large gap. The main period scales ranged from 2 to 10 years. 3) Multiple correlation coefficient of temperature was smaller than that of precipitation and sunshine hours in annual and four seasons. Multiple correlation coefficient of winter temperature was the smallest, while for temperature in the annual and other seasons, precipitation and sunshine hours, the multiple correlation coefficient were bigger. The absolute value of partial correlation coefficient between precipitation and sunshine hours were the biggest in annual and all seasons. Precipitation and sunshine hours, temperature and precipitation both had inverse relationship in most cases, while, winter temperature and sunshine hours showed the phase change on the main period scales of 28 a. The regional hydrothermal resources distribution can be better understood by the analysis in this article, which could also provide reference for the formulation of agricultural cropping system, water resources planning and flood and drought management.

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    Changes of Green-up Day of Vegetation Growing Season Based on GIMMS 3g NDVI in Northern China in Recent 30 Years
    Jing Li, Hongbing Liu, Caiyun Li, Long Li
    2017, 37 (4):  620-629.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.016
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    Based on GIMMS 3g NDVI, landuse, temperature, precipitation and vegetation type data, the paper fitted the current year vegetation growing season curve and extracted the yearly green-up day of vegetation growing season in northern China in recent 30 years (from 1983 to 2012), analyzed its spatio-temporal changes and also the relationship between temperature and precipitation. In order to meet the actual vegetation growth, we used harmonic analysis of time-series method to reconstruct vegetation NDVI, dynamic threshold and a sixpolynomial fitting method. Some conclusions were as follows. 1) With longer time-series features and better data quality, GIMMS 3g NDVI data with time-series harmonic data analysis was very good to fit and show the actual characteristics of vegetation growing season curve in northern China and can be well used to further study of vegetation growing season in the future. 2) During the study period, green-up day of vegetation growing season mainly distributed from 80 days to 150 days, and the regional averaged value reached 111.6 days.Green-up day of vegetation growing season in regions such as northeast Plain, north China Plain, Hetao Plain, Tianshan, the Altai were earlier. 3) Green-up day of vegetation growing season in northern China showed an advanced tend in general and gradually transitioned from the northwest to the northeast. The significantly advanced regions mainly distributed in the eastern of Inner Mongolia, northeast China Plain, southern Shanxi and the Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang section area, while the significantly delayed regions were in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine regions. 4) Due to various vegetation types and regional differences and so on,green-up day of vegetation growing season responded to temperature and precipitation distinctly and temperature was the main factor that affecting green-up day of vegetation growing season changes.

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    Spatial Analysis on Changes of Microclimate in Typical Landscapes in Desert-Wilderness-Oasis in Cele, Xinjiang
    Donglei Mao, Fuyan Cai, Jiaqiang Lei, Xuefeng Yang, Yuhui Yang, Jie Xue
    2017, 37 (4):  630-640.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.04.017
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    The comparison and analysis of the wind velocity, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation at the four meteorological stations were made based on synchronous observation in oasis-desert ecotone and oasis in Cele from 1 August, 2010 to 30 June, 2011. The microclimate differences were analyzed and the reasons for variability were discussed preliminarily. The results show that during August, the daily wind velocity at the height of 2 m in semi-fixed sandy land, fixed sandy land and inner oasis was 42.69%, 50.71% and 94.32% less than that in shifting sandy land, wind velocity at the height of 4 m was 31.7%, 39.25% and 73.64% less than that in shifting sandy land, wind velocity at the height of 10 m was 7.94%, 13.66% and 59.59% less than that in shifting sandy land, which shows that the effects of wind prevention and sand resistance would be better with the increased vegetation cover. The air temperature can be slowed down and the humidity would be increased by plants. In December, the daily temperature at the height of 0.5 m in oasis was higher than shifting sandy land, semi-fixed sandy land and fixed sandy land by 1.47℃, 1.2℃ and 2.74℃. The changing trends for PAR and solar radiation are basically agree in the four landscape types, PAR is the smallest in oasis in four sites, solar radiation was highest in June. In a fine day in summer, there is a phenomenon by temperature inversion near the ground surface between 20:00 and 09:00 at night. In a fine day in winter, gust wind more than sand-driving wind is more likely to arise after the noon in the day. The air temperature decreased gradually from shifting sandy land to oasis, while the PAR first increased and then decreased gradually.

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