Table of Content

    10 December 2019, Volume 39 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Evolution of Time and Space Efficiency of Provincial Logistics in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
    Cao Bingru, Kong Zeyun, Deng Lijuan
    2019, 39 (12):  1841-1848.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.001
    Abstract ( 186 )   HTML ( 26 )   PDF (821KB) ( 201 )   Save

    Based on the development data of the logistics industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2007 to 2017, the research uses the DEA model, ArcGIS and spatial autocorrelation analysis method to calculate the logistics efficiency value and time-space evolution law of 11 provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The results show as follow. From 2007 to 2017, the logistics efficiency fluctuated smoothly in the Yangtze River Economic Zone. The average comprehensive technical efficiency was 0.830, which did not realize the efficiency of logistics. Pure technical efficiency is greater than scale efficiency as a whole. The comprehensive technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of logistics in downstream areas are higher than those in midstream and upstream areas. Spatially, the high value areas of logistics efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Belt are mainly distributed in the lower and middle reaches, while the low value areas are fixed in the upper reaches. The distribution of logistics efficiency is mainly "block" in space. In terms of spatial correlation, Global Moran's I was significantly positive from 2007 to 2017. The logistics efficiency of the provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt showed a positive spatial correlation, and the provinces and cities with similar logistics efficiency were spatially clustered. However, the internal development is uneven, with a stepped distribution from east to west. At last, in order to promote the regional coordinated development of the logistics industry in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the research proposes that it should continuously promote industrial transformation and upgrading, strengthen regional cooperation, improve infrastructure construction, increase the opening up of inland areas and establish large-scale logistics parks.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Reconstructing and Negotiating ‘Home’ of Land-lost Farmers in City: A Case Study of Ordos
    Yin Duo, Gao Quan, Yang Mengqi
    2019, 39 (12):  1849-1856.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.002
    Abstract ( 114 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (607KB) ( 116 )   Save

    Amidst China's urbanization, land-lost peasants who migrated from the countryside aspire for establishing ‘new homes’ and settling down in the city. Drawing on the theories of the critical geographies of home, this paper focuses on the rural-to-urban migrant communities in a recourse-based city, Ordos, exploring the ways and problems that land-lost peasants reconstruct their new home. This research found that: under the double pressures of private lending crisis and forced urbanization, the ‘new homes’ of land-lost peasants were caught into a state of hyper-uncertainty. Yet, the land-lost peasants were able to actively reconstruct the material and emotional meanings of home through everyday practices in response to such uncertainties. Although home-making provided emotional impetus for land-lost peasants to continue their new life in the cities, they were not able escape from the actually-existing precariousness and social inequalities, which placed their “new homes” into multiple marginalization.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Refinement Reconstruction of the Spatial Pattern of Regional Historical Population: Method and Demonstration
    Xue Qiaofeng, Jin Xiaobin, Han Juan, Yang Xuhong, Zhou Yinkang
    2019, 39 (12):  1857-1865.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.003
    Abstract ( 128 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (913KB) ( 84 )   Save

    The change of population size and spatial distribution is one of the main driving factors of global climate, eco-environment and land use / cover change (LUCC). And it is an important part of global change research. At present, the reconstruction results of China's historical population data mostly focus on the data recovery of the population of a certain administrative region or different-scale cities or the reconstruction of the pattern of population distribution within a certain region by using a simple spatial interpolation method, while the spatial pattern of the historical population which has the significance of historical population indication and with higher spatial resolution is still rare. Taking Suzhou Prefecture in the middle of Qing Dynasty as an example, this article explores the influence mechanism of population spatial distribution in historical period and constructs the method of calculating spatial distribution suitability of historical population in two typical periods (1776 and 1820), reconstruction of 1 km×1 km spatial grid population data set. The results show as follows: in quantity, the population of Suzhou Prefecture was 5.111×10 6 in 1776, of which the urban population was 1.201×10 6and the rural population was 3.91×10 6; in 1820, the total population was 5.900×10 6, including 1.687×10 6 in urban areas and 4.221×10 6 in rural areas. The urban population growth rate is significantly faster than the rural population. In the spatial pattern, from 1776 to 1820, the population of Wu, Changzhou and Yuanhe counties in the central part of Suzhou Prefecture was relatively concentrated; Zhaowen, Xinyang counties in the northeast and Wujiang, Zhongze counties in the south were relatively sparse. However, the regional differences have gradually narrowed. The population growth mainly concentrated in the urban areas, and the population agglomeration in the higher-level cities and towns was more pronounced. Through the correlation and trend test with the local historical documents and the modern population pattern, the overall characteristics, distribution trends and the characteristics of changes are consistent, which verifies the rationality of the reconstruction results.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Evolution of China's Floating Population and Its Impact on Urbanization:A comparative Analysis based on Inter-and Intra-provincial Perspectives
    Wang Xinxian, Gao Xiangdong
    2019, 39 (12):  1866-1874.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.004
    Abstract ( 196 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (2241KB) ( 156 )   Save

    Based on the data of the 2000 and 2010 China Census counties, this paper compares and analyzes the spatial pattern, formation mechanism and urbanization of the inter-provincial and intra-provincial floating population. The results are as follows: 1) The polarization pattern of the Inter- and Intra-provincial floating population is weakening, and the proportion of the floating population absorbed by the top 10 cities has declined. In the trend of agglomeration, the inter-provincial floating population showed ‘High concentration while showing signs of decentralization’, that is, the degree of agglomeration was higher, and the signs of decentralization became more obvious. The proportion of inter-provincial floating population absorbed by the former 1% city decreased significantly. The floating population in the province is characterized by “Dispersion of distribution while developing toward agglomeration”. It is more scattered and distributed in large and medium-sized cities such as provincial capitals and prefecture-level cities, and is still gathering in 1% of cities. 2) The inter-provincial and intra-provincial floating population is affected by the dual role of the government and market forces. The inter-provincial floating population is more inclined to the provincial capitals and municipalities with more employment opportunities and higher wages in the process of selecting inflows. The floating population in the province pays more attention to employment opportunities, and prefers to flow to prefecture-level cities. In contrast to the inter-provincial population, urban public services have a greater impact on the inflow of floating population in the Intra-provincial Floating population. 3) The “molecular effect” of the inter-provincial and intra-provincial floating population has increased the level of urbanization through the “molecular effect” of urban population changes. The contribution of the inter-provincial and intra-provincial floating population to urbanization reached 4.24% and 2.74% respectively in 2010. In addition, the inter-provincial and intra-provincial floating population has also greatly affected the hierarchical system and spatial distribution of China's urban system.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Measurement and Influencing Factors of Inter-Provincial Ecological Well-being Performance in China
    Li Chengyu, Zhang Shiqiang, Zhang Wei, Liao Xianchun
    2019, 39 (12):  1875-1883.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.005
    Abstract ( 137 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (701KB) ( 96 )   Save

    Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2015, this article uses the undesired output SBM model to measure the performance of China's inter-provincial ecological well-being. Based on this, the spatial autocorrelation method and spatial error model are used to analyze spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of inter-provincial ecological well-being performance in China. Conclusions are as follow: 1) China's overall ecological well-being performance level is relatively high, but it shows a downward trend. There are significant differences among 30 provinces. The performance of ecological well-being in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangdong, Qinghai and Ningxia was effective, and the input and output reached the optimal configuration. Other provinces are inefficient with different levels, but there is still room for improvement. There are also differences between regions, showing the distribution pattern of eastern region > western region > central region. 2) China's inter-provincial ecological well-being performance presents positive spatial autocorrelation, but the distribution pattern is not stable enough and is subject to change. At the same time, China's inter-provincial ecological well-being performance has a clear agglomeration in space. Provinces that embody the ‘H-H’ agglomeration state are mainly distributed in the eastern coastal areas. Provinces that embody the "L-L agglomeration" status are mainly distributed in the central and western regions. Provinces that embody the ‘H-L’ and ‘L-H’ agglomeration status are scattered in various regions. The main influencing factors of China's inter-provincial ecological well-being performance are technological progress, greening level, social expenditure, medical level, urbanization, industrial structure and environmental regulation. Among them, technological progress, greening level, social expenditure, medical level, urbanization level and ecological welfare performance were significantly positively correlated. There is a significant negative correlation between industrial structure and environmental regulation and ecological well-being performance.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Production of “Home” and Power Negotiations in the Rural Guesthouses: The Case of Shangliang Village, Huizhou, Guangdong
    Liu Meixin, Cai Xiaomei, Ma Guoqing
    2019, 39 (12):  1884-1893.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.006
    Abstract ( 121 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (629KB) ( 113 )   Save

    Based on the materials from observation and semi-structured interviews, this article investigates the production of “home” and power negotiations among different actors in guesthouses in Shangliang Village of Huizhou in Guangdong. The research indicates: 1)The production of “home” in guesthouses is the conducted through power negotiations among local authority, tourism enterprises, village committee and villagers. The different understandings of the “home” by the government, enterprises and villagers lead to different production logics. This is the direct cause of the power negotiations in the production of the “home” in the guesthouses. 2)The lack of material and spirit in villagers of “temporary home” promotes the making of commercial home, highlighting the contradictions and conflicts between “Ideality and Reality”, and between “Heritage and Commerce”. 3)The remaking and power negotiations of “home” are illustrated among different actors through four aspects including material landscape, emotional significance, boundary meaning and social relationship. This article attempts to supplement the theories of “home” geography through the current case on the perspective of the producer. At the same time, it also offers practical solutions for the rural guesthouse management.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Construction and Representation of Virtual Leisure Space: A Case Study on Online Shopping Practice
    Chen Xianfei, Zhang Bo, Zhu Hong
    2019, 39 (12):  1894-1901.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.007
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (453KB) ( 151 )   Save

    The rapid development of science and technology promotes the arrival of virtual leisure era. This article provides a grounded examination of virtual leisure, with a particular focus on the place-making of virtual leisure community in the online consumption practice. Based on semi-structural interview, the article analyses the interactive relationship and community meanings created by the participation of female groups in virtual leisure community participation. First, online shopping reshapes the leisure practice of modern female. All steps including the experience after purchasing in the process of online shopping are important dimensions to acquire the experience of leisure. Second, female online shoppers make their own virtual leisure community, at the same time, enhancing their social role through leisure activities. Third, the pleasure that is acquired by the female community members becomes the pivot of community relations, these female online shoppers sustain a positive self-value through the extension of the community. This research argues that virtual leisure also changes the experience of the agent through the virtualization of the carriers, providing a new perspective to investigate the relations between consumption practices and virtual space. Besides, human geographers, especially social and cultural geographers, should not only concern the “objectively existence” geographical space, but they also need to notice the reality of cyberspace because both spaces have their unique spatial features. Last but not least, we argue that the virtual leisure is an important and indispensable part of leisure activities.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Development Model and Driving Forces of New Urbanization in Hainan Province: Qionghai City as a Case
    Cheng Yeqing, Zhai Mengxiao, Wang Ying, Zhang Jinping
    2019, 39 (12):  1902-1909.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.008
    Abstract ( 207 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (606KB) ( 197 )   Save

    In the process of social and economic transformation in China, the rapid urbanization brought about series of such socio-economic problems as increasing urban population, lag of infrastructure services and deterioration of urban environment. The New Urbanization Strategy provides new train of thought and direction for solving these problems, and also provides a good blueprint for constructing the sustainable city and integrated development of urban and rural areas. Qionghai City, as one of the most important regional central city in the east coast of the Hainan Province. In order to build the international tourism core of the east Hainan Province, the local government of Qionghai City implemented the urbanization development strategy of 'Building a pastoral city and structuring a happiness Qionghai', and emphasized the targets of building particular small towns, constructing agricultural pars and realizing the equalization of public service facility. It sought after a new way of 'in-situ urbanization' of 'no cutting down trees, no occupying fields and no tearing down houses', which has become the typical model of the new urbanization in China. Therefore, this article, under the guidance of the theories of urbanization and urban-rural overall coordination development, analyzed the achievement of new urbanization construction of Qionghai City, and discussed 3 types of development models of new urbanization taking Tanmen town, Boao town and Longshouyang national agricultural park for examples. Moreover, we also analyzed the driving forces of the new urbanization of Qionghai city, aiming at providing reference for the new urbanization construction of Qionghai city and other regions in Hainan province. The findings are as following. Firstly, according to character of the intrinsic terrain, agricultural and ecological resources and cultures, the construction of new urbanization of Qionghai city integrated the rural scenery, folk customs, particular industries and farming culture to build the small style towns with historical memory, regional styles and ethnic characteristics. It formatted a multi-centers and group-style garden city landscape of 'one town one feature, one town one industry, and one town one style'. Secondly, based on the oceanic fishing culture, Tanmen town has built a harbor fishing town with the unique features of garden countryside, fishing village of the South China Sea and particular industry village through the construction of infrastructure and beautiful countryside. Boao town has developed an exhibition tourism town with exhibition of economy and coastal water tourism as the core and local culture as the soul relying on the Boao Forum for Asia, Danjia culture and Yudaitan tourism landscape. And the Longshouyang national agricultural park has constructed a tourism area of modern agriculture and advance demonstration area of rural urbanization integrating such functions as rural sightseeing, tourist attraction and urban leisure relying on its original rural landscape, rural landscape and agricultural ecology. Finally, the pill of industrial transformation, guidance of government policy, impulsion of infrastructure construction, attraction of special culture and propulsion of reverse thinking are the dominate driving forces on the new urbanization of Qionghai city.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial-temporal Pattern of the Vulnerability and Gender Coordination Development Characteristics of the Elderly in China Based on the Policy Framework of Active Aging
    Zeng Tonggang, Zhao Yuan, Yang Yongchun, He Rong
    2019, 39 (12):  1910-1918.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.009
    Abstract ( 77 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (942KB) ( 70 )   Save

    Based on the theoretical framework of active aging proposed by the WHO, this paper established the index system to evaluate the vulnerability of the elderly in China. Three dimensions, health, participation and security, were used to calculate the vulnerability value of the elderly in each province, Then this paper quantitatively analyzed temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the vulnerability of the elderly population in China from 2005 to 2015, as well as discussed the trend of gender coordination development using a coupling coordination model. Results obtained were as follows: 1) In the past 10 years, the vulnerability index of the elderly had decreased significantly, while differences among province shown a stepped increase from the east to the central then to the west in China. The decline tendency of the vulnerability index in the western regions was significantly higher than those in the eastern and central regions. Differences among provinces in the eastern China were the most significant; 2) The spatial evolutionary situation was non-equilibrium characterized. Spatial distribution of the vulnerability was dominated by differences between the eastern and western regions, and the coexistence between the east - west and the north - south. Except for Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the vulnerability of the elderly in the western region was generally higher, and would experience more risks in face of health and active aging; 3) Compared with men, women were marginalized by differential disparities and were sub-groups more vulnerable with a high level of vulnerability and equilibrium in spatial. In terms of gender differences, the northwest and southeastern coastal regions are relatively significant in China; 4) Under the policy framework of active aging, differences in vulnerability between genders have decreased constantly. The gender contrast relationship has undergone a major change of the Chinese elderly population in the survival and development conditions, which tend to develop in a healthy and coordinated manner. National and local governments are actively focusing on the vulnerability and unfair treatment of older women's groups throughout the life cycle, which will be an important breakthrough in achieving positive and healthy ageing in China.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Domestic Tourist Market Structure and Spatial-temporal Characteristics of Tourism Flow in Qingdao City Based on Online Travel Notes
    Wang Xinyue, Cao Chanchan
    2019, 39 (12):  1919-1928.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.010
    Abstract ( 164 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1554KB) ( 106 )   Save

    With the popularization of ‘Internet +’ and the wide participation of free travel, the tourism information represented by online travel notes has gradually increased, providing a reliable data source and a new perspective for the study of the structure of tourist source market and the temporal and spatial characteristics of tourism flow. By using the crawler tool, we collected and cleaned the online travel notes of Qingdao from Ctrip Travel website and Mafengwo Travel websit from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018, and got 1 891 effective samples, involving 131 cities in 28 provinces, regions and cities in China. Combined with statistical analysis and ArcGIS spatial analysis methods, use the prefecture-level city as a research unit to deeply explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of Qingdao's domestic source market structure and tourism flow. The results show that: 1) according to the sample number of online travel notes of domestic tourist source cities, the domestic passenger market in Qingdao can be divided into five levels: the core level, the sub core level, the middle level, the sub edge level and the edge level. There are significant differences between the two sides of 'Hu Line'. 2) the attraction radius of tourist source reaches 590.68 km, covering parts of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Liaoning, Henan and Anhui provinces; the main attraction is concentrated within 1500 km, and the highest peak of passenger flow appear around 500 km. 3) There are significant seasonal differences in tourism flows during the year, with weekends and holidays effects; the spatial distribution density of tourism flows in coastal and inland areas is extremely uneven, with significant differences in four quarters; the trajectory of tourism flows is concentrated on both sides of the east and west of Jiaozhou Bay, and closed tourist routes connecting scenic spots in series have not yet been formed.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Urban Spatial Connection and Network Structure in Zhongyuan Urban Agglomeration: A Study Based on Integrated Traffic and Information Flow
    An Yujing, Liu Jingyu, Qiao Dundun
    2019, 39 (12):  1929-1937.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.011
    Abstract ( 183 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (4605KB) ( 116 )   Save

    With the rapid development of globalization, informatization and urbanization, time-space compression has led to the considerable consolidation of linkages among cities, which show characteristics of network. Therefore, studies on urban network based on space flows have become one of the most important issues of human geography in the era of big date. This article focuses on the identification and spatial structure of multiple elementary flows as well as their synthesis effects for regional development. The data of space flows with highway buses, ordinary trains, high-speed trains and Baidu index information between provincial cities in Zhongyuan urban agglomeration are collected for analyses. Using hierarchy process, spatial variation and social network analytical methods, we explore characteristics of urban spatial connection and network structure from various aspects. Our results indicate that: 1) Traffic flows based urban network displays characteristics of the axis bands, cities with high value of external relations are distributed along the main traffic arteries, while Shanxi and Anhui are marginalized in the regional connection. In contrast, the information network shows a relatively complete, orderly, and coordinated state of connection, and generally presents a multi-dimensional diamone-shaped correlation pattern. The dominant flow is restricted by provincial boundaries and has obvious directivity, which is mostly the one-way flow from low-grade city to higher-grade city. 2) The comprehensive linkage network of traffic and information flow reflects a “one horizontal and two vertical” pattern with the basic characteristics of low density, single center and “rich club”. The connectivity ability among nodes varies significantly. Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Shangqiu and Anyang, in the core development area, have relatively stronger control over the connection network. 3) There is an outstanding phenomenon of subgroups agglomeration in this region, according to the comprehensive linkage network. Moreover, the urban distribution in each subgroup conforms to the principle of spatial proximity. “Axial and radial extension-grouped partition” is the main pattern of spatial organization in Zhongyuan urban agglomeration. 4) At last, the urban size, comprehensive development strength, infrastructure construction, administrative effects and policy orientation could explain the formation of urban spatial relationships and network structure.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress in Geographies of Education: Literature Review and Local Reflections
    Yuan Zhenjie, Chen Xiaoliang
    2019, 39 (12):  1938-1945.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.012
    Abstract ( 100 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (465KB) ( 159 )   Save

    Influenced by the development of Marxist geography and social and cultural geography in the past two decades, geographies of education, which focus on the connections between educational space and social structures with a multi-dimensional perspective, have become one of the most fast-growing research fields within human geography in the west. This paper focuses on its definition, approaches and topics in the existing literature on geographies of education, sorting out the current research from two aspects: political-economic perspective and social-cultural perspective. The findings of this paper include: 1) geographies of education is a relatively new but fast-growing sub-field of human geography; 2) its process of knowledge production is mainly based on the western social contexts; 3) few research has focused on the educational phenomenon in non-western social contexts, and China in particular. This research argues that China -one of the biggest and most diverse educational systems in the world-has great potential of contributing to the current western-dominant geographies of education, especially given that the social and economic transformations in China has led to significant changes to its educational spaces.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Progress and Prospect of Development Geography
    Liu Xiaopeng, Li Weihua, Ma Cunxia, Cheng Jing, Miao Hong, Zhao Xiaoyong
    2019, 39 (12):  1946-1954.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.013
    Abstract ( 186 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (502KB) ( 115 )   Save

    To carding thoughts and academic track of development research and modern geography, the development process of developmental geography could be divided into three stages: the embryonic stage (the Enlightenment-the late 1960s), the exploratory stage (the early 1970s-the late 1990s), and the subject construction stage (the early 2000s-present). Each stage embodied the research theme and subject connotation of global development, "underdeveloped", "developing" and "backward" of countries and regions in the academic field. Based on development epistemology, development methodology and development values, the theoretical basis of development geography mainly included global development theory, duality and center-edge theory, sustainable development theory and the thought of human destiny community, etc. At the level of meta-problem, the online word cloud tools were used to extract main research contents of development geography, including the development of development, colonization, inequality and development, poverty, livelihood and development, commodity, trade and development, environment and development, etc. In the future, the sustainable development goals for developing countries and emerging markets in 2030, the national and regional differences of new globalization and global governance will become the key areas of joint research and comprehensive innovation of development geography. Localization and internationalization should be emphasized in the subject construction and personnel training of developing geography.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial Temporal Differences of Carbon Emissions and Carbon Compensation in China Based on Land Use Change
    Zhou Jia, Wang Yuxuan, Liu Xuerong, Shi Xiaocui, Cai Chunmiao
    2019, 39 (12):  1955-1961.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.014
    Abstract ( 151 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (858KB) ( 147 )   Save

    This study selects 30 provincial districts in China as research units (not including data of Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), using land use and energy consumption data, and using the carbon emission coefficient method to explore China's land use carbon sources/sinks from 2003 to 2016. In the analysis on the spatial and temporal evolution of carbon emissions and carbon absorption, the analysis and the carbon-depletion time-space change, ecological compensation coefficient and economic contribution coefficient of land use carbon emissions are used to analyze the fairness and difference of carbon emissions, with net carbon emissions as the benchmark. The value is studied for the value of carbon offset. The results show that: 1) During the study period, the total and net carbon emissions showed an increasing trend, except for a small decrease in 2015. The total carbon absorption showed a steady trend of increasing. 2) The main carriers of carbon absorption of land use are cultivated land and forest land. The spatial difference of carbon sink resources is obvious, showing the distribution characteristics of high in the west and low in the east. 3) The total carbon emission distribution space difference is significant, and mainly from the construction land. 4) According to the regional difference of net carbon emission, it is divided into 4 types: high carbon emission area, general carbon emission area, low carbon emission area, carbon sink area. 5) Because of the difference of carbon offset standard and net carbon emission, the regional difference of carbon offset value is obvious

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial-temporal Pattern of Economic Efficiency and Livelihood Vulnerability of Resource-based Shrinking Cities and Their Coordinated Evolution Characteristics in the Three Provinces of Northeast China
    Wu Hao, Wang Xiu, Zhou Honghao, Wang Ying, Chen Xiaohong
    2019, 39 (12):  1962-1971.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.015
    Abstract ( 88 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1060KB) ( 201 )   Save

    By defining resource-based cities and shrinking cities, this paper selects 17 cities in the three provinces of Northeast China as research objects, establishes a comprehensive evaluation index system of urban economic efficiency and livelihood vulnerability, and evaluates the economic efficiency and livelihood vulnerability of resource-based shrinking cities in the three provinces of Northeast China by using Super-SBM model and function model respectively. SPSS software is used to analyze the correlation between the two systems. Four evaluation time points, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015, are selected to analyze the coupling and coordination between the two systems. The results show that: 1) the economic efficiency loss of resource-based shrinking cities in the three provinces of Northeast China is mainly due to large input and small output; 2) urban livelihoods as a whole show vulnerability, in which the degree of civic education is a key factor leading to the vulnerability of livelihoods; 3) there is a significant correlation between urban economic efficiency and livelihood vulnerability; 4) the economic efficiency and the anti-vulnerability ability of the resource-based contraction cities in the three provinces of Northeast China are the transition from the imbalance stage to the coordination stage, and the agglomeration and development of the eastern and northern regions are presented as a whole. The development level of the western and southern regions needs to be improved, the spatial distribution is relatively dispersed, and the regional differences are large.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Impact of Environmental Regulation on the Spatial Pattern Evolution of Pollution-intensive Enterprises in Foshan City: An Empirical Study Based on 2004 to 2013 Economic Census Data
    Shen Jing, Liu Wei, Yehua Dennis Wei
    2019, 39 (12):  1972-1981.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.016
    Abstract ( 77 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1151KB) ( 56 )   Save

    Little attention has been paid attention to the intra-urban scale of spatial distribution of pollution-intensive enterprises (PIEs). Most previous studies have examined the macro-middle scale impact of environmental regulation (ER) on the location changes of pollution-intensive industries (PIIs). Foshan City, in Guangdong Province, China, provides an excellent location-based case study regarding ER effect on PIEs. From the Foshan’s experience, we can exam how ER affects the spatial pattern of PIEs location within a metropolitan area. And in the Foshan study, it improves the air quality and other environmental factors by adherence to decades of environmental controls. Thus, this article employs the data of National Economic Census of 2004, 2008 and 2013 and analyzes the PIEs in Foshan City according to industry codes of Industrial Classification for National Economic Activities. Using kernel density estimation and spatial autoregression model, investigators explore the evolution of spatial distribution of PIEs in Foshan City in 2004, 2008 and 2013. Moreover, the article emphasizes the influence of dynamic ER on the location changes of PIEs at the incorporated municipal district, or urban level. In addition, we selected 4 typical firms in 4 industry sectors, so as to examine the spatial responses of different PIIs operating under ER controls. This study’s findings indicate that PIEs first concentrate in the periphery of the central city, then spread into the suburban areas which is consistent with the trend of suburbanization and borderization. Also ER has gradually become an important factor affecting relocation of PIEs at the municipal level. However, the sign of ER coefficient in the model is not static, but rather reversed as environmental policies being stricter. In detail, new businesses preferred areas with lax ER and under weak environmental controls. In contrast, enterprises tend to enter areas with stringent ER and agglomeration effect as environmental controls becoming stricter. We attribute this shift to improvement of industry awareness of environmental protection and more environmental investment to achieve higher environmental standards. Furthermore, we find the spatial response of different industries under ER differs, and there is industry heterogeneity when ER affects the spatial distribution evolution of PIEs. We attribute this pattern to difference in industry characteristics and pollution situations. These findings indicate that the governments could design proper regulations for each industry after they have weighted comprehensive interests such as consequences business relocation. The differences in environmental policies have made differentiated spatial patterns in 4 different PIEs. This article aims to complement research on the impact of ER on PIEs on the intra-urban scale by examining, in detail, the spatial pattern evolution of PIEs at the municipal level. Our results provide a finer geographic perspective for understanding the location changes of PIIs, and offer policy implications for governments to achieve business replacement and industry upgrading.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Monitoring and Analysis of the Built-up Land Changes in China Base on Remote Sensing During 2000-2015
    Zhao Dan, Wu Bingfang, Zeng Yuan, Yi Haiyan
    2019, 39 (12):  1982-1989.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.017
    Abstract ( 125 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1067KB) ( 91 )   Save

    Chinese government pulished ‘National New Urbanization Plan (2014-2020)’ (Plan for abbr.) in 2014. In the Plan, some problems were proposed, including ‘urbanization of land’ is faster than the ‘urbanization of population’, and the extensive and inefficient use of settlements, ‘the potential of urbanization could be developed in middle-western China’, ‘Urban spatial distribution and scale structure are unreasonable, and do not match the resource and environmental carrying capacity’. Also, the Plan suggested ‘effectively controlling the scale of new construction sites in mega cities’. Based on the multi-temporal landcover data obtained from time series remote sensing data, this article extracts and quantitatively evaluates the information of built-up land changes nationwide. Based on this, the trend of changes in per capita built-up land area of all provinces across the country and the seven major Metropolitan region are further analyzed. The built-up land changes validate and support some standpoints in the Plan, and provide data support for the evaluation and planning of urbanization in China. According to the ChinaCover dataset, the total area of built-up land in China was 290 700 km2 in 2015, of which 251 000 km 2 for settlements, 30 900 km2 for transportation land, and 8 800 km2 for mining field. In 2015, the total area of built-up lands increased by an annual average of 6 600 km2 compared to 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 2.57%, which is an increase over the annual average increase of 5 500 km2 from 2000 to 2010, but the growth rate is a slowdown (2.70%). Overall, the growth rate of the built-up land in most provinces in China has continued to increase in the past 15 years. This reflects the ‘urbanization of land’ is faster than the “urbanization of population”, and the extensive and inefficient use of settlements. Meanwhile, the economic transition is proved by analyzing the relation between GDP and built-up lands, which shows the urbanization influences GDP more during 2000-2010 than 2010-2015. The rapid development of western provinces primarily shows the high urbanization potential of the middle and western China. The monitoring in the 7 major Metropolitan region indicates that the pace of urbanization in China has been accelerating in the past 15 years, and in particular, the expansion rates of some late developing Metropolitan region are mostly fast, while the rate of the developed Metropolitan region have slowed down due to the requirements such as ‘effectively controlling the scale of new construction sites in mega cities’, but the problem of ‘Urban spatial distribution and scale structure are unreasonable, and do not match the resource and environmental carrying capacity’ is still existing.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Climatic Characteristics of Climatic Growing Season and Impact Factors in North China During 1960-2017
    Dong Manyu, Li Jiemin, Wang Leixin, Liu Peipei, Jiang Yuan, Wu Zhengfang
    2019, 39 (12):  1990-2000.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.12.018
    Abstract ( 132 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1559KB) ( 193 )   Save

    Variation in climatic growing season indices in North China from 1960-2017 were analyzed based on daily temperature data. The methods of Mann-Kendall test, wavelet transforms and rescaled range (R/S) analysis were employed to delineate the rate of change, abrupt change points, statistical significance of the trends, periodicity, and future trends of growing season indices, including growing season start (GSS), growing season end (GSE), growing season length (GSL), active accumulated temperature ≥10℃ (AT10) and the days of active accumulated temperature ≥10℃(DT10). Important results were obtained as follows: 1) GSS, GSL, AT10 and DT10 showed significant change trend (P<0.05) at the rate of -2.43 d/10a, 2.95 d/10a, 67.14℃/10a and 2.31 d/10a, respectively. GSE presented a non-significant trend with the change rate at 0.53 d/10a. The GSL has extended 17.2 days during the last 60 years, mainly due to the advanced GSS evident in the spring (14.1 d). 2) Spatially, as for GSS, GSL, AT10 and DT10, there were 67.1%, 62.9%, 95.7%, and 92.9% stations showed significant trends (P<0.05). The spatial distribution patterns of the trends in GSS and GSL, AT10 and DT10 were similar. 3) The growth season indices showed obvious mutation in the mid-to-late 1990s. Abrupt change points of GSS, GSE, GSL, AT10 and DT10 were at 1995, 1995 and 2014, 1994, 1998, and 1997. 4 ) The wavelet analysis showed that there were two primary short periods of 2-3 years and 5-6 years for the oscillation of growing season indices in North China. Hurst indexes (H) of growing season indices were all greater than 0.7. It indicated that there will be obvious Hurst phenomenon in the future, and the past trends of GSS, GSE, GSL, AT10 and DT10 will continue in the future period. 5) GSS was negatively related to the atmospheric circulation index of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), West Pacific Pattern (WP), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and Eastern Atlantic Pattern (EA), and positively related to Polar/ Eurasia Pattern (POL). GSE was positively correlated with AMO. As for AT10, it positively related to AMO and EA, and negatively related to NAO and WP. AMO is the main atmospheric circulation factor affected the growth season indicators (GSS, GSE and AT10) in North China during 1960-2017.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics