Table of Content

    10 February 2020, Volume 40 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Threshold Effect of Regional Collaborative Innovation on Innovation Performance
    Fan Fei, Lian Huan, Wang Xueli, Wang Song
    2020, 40 (2):  165-172.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.001
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    Innovation is the main driving force for regional coordinated development, sustainable development and high-quality development. Collaborative innovation, as an important form of integration of innovation factors, is conducive to increasing the mobility of factors within the region, and reasonable allocation of innovative elements, which will improve regional innovation performance. Based on the improved DEA model to measure/evaluate the innovation performance of 62 major cities in China (not including the urban data of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan due to data limitation) in 2003-2016, this article takes the impact(s) of regional innovation cooperation and inter-regional innovation resource flow on regional innovation performance as the starting point and uses the threshold regression model to comprehensively analyze the impact mechanism of collaborative innovation on regional innovation performance under different economic development levels. The results show that: 1) Through the analysis of the innovation performance of each city, it is found that the overall innovation performance of 62 major cities in the study period presented an increasing trend with fluctuations. The average innovation performance value increased from 0.624 in 2003 to 0.684 in 2016, and regional innovation performance had a large spatial variation. From the perspective of the four major sectors in the country, the average level of innovation performance of major cities in the eastern and northeastern regions was higher than the national average. The average innovation performance of major cities in the central and western regions was lower than the national average at the end of the study. 2) Collaborative innovation had a certain promotion effect on the improvement of regional innovation performance. There was a nonlinear relationship between the four core explanatory variables and innovation performance in this article. The impact of patent cooperation on regional innovation performance was a positive double threshold, when the level of economic development was below the first threshold of 10.441. The number of patent cooperation had the greatest impact on regional innovation performance, and its elasticity coefficient was 0.039. The number of scientific paper cooperation had a positive single threshold for regional innovation performance. The impact on regional innovation performance has shown a downward trend with varying degrees of economic development. 3) The flow of scientific and technological personnel and the flow of scientific and technological capital were different under different economic development levels, and the degree and direction of innovation performance were different. The flow of scientific and technological personnel had the most obvious effect on the innovation performance when it crosses the first threshold of economic development level of 10.088 and below the second threshold of 10.255, while the impact of scientific and technological capital flow on innovation performance was most significant when the economic development level was below the first threshold of 9.427. To improve China’s innovation performance level, in addition to focusing on optimizing the allocation of innovation resources within the city, we should also consider collaborative innovation for the region in terms of innovation factor flow and regional innovation cooperation in the process of formulating urban innovation performance policies and technology resource management, of influencing the impact of innovation performance, and formulating different collaborative innovation to promote regional innovation performance strategies under different economic development levels.

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    Regional Economic Resilience and Influential Mechanism During Economic Crises in China
    Tan Juntao, Zhao Hongbo, Liu Wenxin, Zhang Pingyu, Qiu Fangdao
    2020, 40 (2):  173-181.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.002
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    This article quantitatively analyzes the economic resilience of 31 provinces of China in terms of resistance and recoverability during two economic crises: the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Moreover, it analyzes the main factors that affected regional resilience. There are three main findings. Firstly, in the first economic cycle, the economic resistance in western region was relatively high, and the central region was low; the provinces with high economic recoverability were mainly concentrated in the central region, while those in the eastern and western regions were lower, with economic resistance and recoverability showing a certain negative correlation. All regions in second economic cycle demonstrated well resistance; those with low economic resistance were mainly located in the eastern coastal areas and along the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Thirdly, the secondary industry was stronger than the tertiary industry in terms of economic resilience during the first economic cycle, while the situation was different in the second economic cycle. Finally, the influential factors affecting economic resilience varied across the two economic cycles; location advantage, per capita fixed asset investment and per capita GDP had strong explanatory power on economic resilience, but the direction of action in the two economic cycles was different.

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    Spatial-temporal Pattern and Influencing Factors of Factor Market Distortion in China
    Sun Xiangxiang, Zhou Xiaoliang
    2020, 40 (2):  182-189.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.003
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    Compared with the product market, the distortion of factor market is serious. The factor market distortion is calculated in 30 provinces of China by using the transcendental logarithmic function during the period of 2000-2015. This study further analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of factor market distortion based on the spatial econometric model. The results indicate that: 1) There are serious distortion in China's factor market from 2001 to 2015, and the factor market distortion has been greatly improved in recent decades. From the geographical distribution point of view, the areas with high factor market distortion are concentrated in the western region, the areas with medium factor market distortions are in the central region, and the areas with low factor market distortions are distributed in the eastern region and the northeastern region. China's factor market distortion shows the characteristics of regional agglomeration. 2) The factor market distortion has significant spatial autocorrelation, that is, the factor market distortion in a region is significantly affected by adjacent regions. Specifically, the Moran Index shows a trend of decreasing volatility. With the acceleration of market-oriented reform, the agglomeration effect of adjacent areas with factor market distortion is weakened. 3) The analysis of influencing factors affecting the factor market distortion based on Spatial Durbin Model shows that urbanization, fiscal decentralization, foreign direct investment and infrastructure have improved factor market distortion, while and the development of state-owned economy have negative impact on factor market distortion. The results of this study provide important theoretical support for deepening the reform of factor market and improving the efficiency of factor resource allocation.

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    Spatio-temporal Variation Features of Air Quality in China
    Zhang Xiangmin, Luo Shen, Li Xingming, Li Zhuofan, Fan Yong, Sun Jianwu
    2020, 40 (2):  190-199.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.004
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    Cross-regional air pollution control is an urgent problem in ecological civilization construction. Based on the daily air quality index (AQI) data of 343 districts in China in 2015, used the statistical analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis method, the temporal and spatial distribution features of air quality in China and nine regions of the terrestrial surface system was analyzed. The results show that: 1) The seasonal mean values of AQI in the whole country and nine major regions show the air quality is worse in spring, is excellent in summer and autumn, and falls to its worst in winter. Meanwhile, the seasonal mean values of AQI show a “U” shape. 2) The monthly mean values of AQI in the whole country and nine major regions show a “L” shape. 3) The daily mean values of AQI in the whole country and nine major regions show a periodic W-pulse fluctuation pattern. 4) The “hot spot” and “cold spot” regions demonstrate the differential pattern of being high and hot in the North and being low and cold in the South. 5) The frequency structure of the primary pollutant in the nine regions is significantly diversified, and the highest frequency of the primary pollutant PM2.5 or PM10 has a clear differential pattern between the East and the West.

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    Performance Evaluation and Driving Mechanism of Green Development in Shandong Province Based on Panel Data of 17 Cities
    Guo Fuyou, Lyu Xiao, Yu Wei, Ren Jiamin, Chu Nanchen
    2020, 40 (2):  200-210.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.005
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    This paper comprehensively constructs the performance evaluation index system of green development, and analyzes its spatial-temporal pattern and driving mechanism of 17 cities in Shandong Province by using a variety of measurement methods. The results show that: 1) The "top-down" commanding characteristics of green development in Shandong are more prominent, and its development depends on the scale expansion and total growth of economic, and neglects the optimization and promotion of industrial structure and the lateral transfer feedback effect of economic factors; 2) The level of green development in Shandong is increasing, and the characteristics of club convergence are more prominent. But its low growth rate with 1.77% shows that the process of light and clear industry is slow, and the way of improving the green development quality is long and arduous; 3) The green development of Shandong has experienced an obvious process of spatial dependence. And there is obvious spatial differentiation in the green development, and the trend of polarization is obvious; 4) Spatial weighted regression models with spatial effects are more explanatory, and the per capita GDP, the number of R&D personnel and the investment of per capita fixed assets have a positive effect on the improvement of the green development. The second industrial added value / third industrial added value has negative correlation to the regression coefficient of green development, and the actual utilization of foreign capital has positive negative effect on the regression coefficient of green development.

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    Evaluation of the Implementation of Polycentric System Plan in Mega-City Based on Conformance Criteria: A Case Study of Hangzhou City
    Ding Liang, Niu Xinyi, Shi Cheng
    2020, 40 (2):  211-219.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.006
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    Evaluations of plan implementation focused on whether the construction of physical space is in accordance with the plan. It is difficult to answer whether the plan target is achieved. This article will evaluate the implementation of the polycentric system plan in Hangzhou core built-up area based on two conformance criteria: Conformance of physical construction and conformance of plan target. The conclusions are as follows. The physical construction of polycentric system is successful. Fifteen city-level centres have been constructed at principal, secondary and sub-secondary levels. Physical construction has successfully guided the transformation of spatial structure from a single principal centre system to two principal centre and multiple sub-centres system. However, the polycentric system fails to achieve the expected effects of the plan target. The level of gathering at newly built public centres are considerably lower than that at traditional public centres, they are hardly to disperse the excessive concentration of public activities from traditional downtown. Meanwhile, the newly built public centres fail to encourage people to visit the nearest blocks for daily public activities. These mainly because the local government enforce the plan by policy, but economic activities still tend to cluster in traditional downtown. What’s more, the expansion of the city is over rapid, residents have not had sufficient time to adjust to the spatial relationship between the residence and daily public activities.

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    Characteristics of Comprehensive Evaluation of Time and Space in the Transformation of China's Economic Development Mode
    Wang Xueyi, Xiong Shengyin
    2020, 40 (2):  220-228.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.007
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    The 19th National Congress pointed out that "China's economy has shifted from a high-speed growth stage to a high-quality development stage", indicating that the transformation of the economic development mode is the only way for China's economy to shift from high-speed growth to high-quality development, and must shift from scale to quality. Based on the core concept of high-quality economic development, this article constructs a five-dimensional economic development mode transformation evaluation index system including economic growth kinetic energy conversion, structural optimization, green development, stable opening and population development. Firstly, the article analyzes the transformation level of economic development mode in China and various provinces from 1987 to 2017 by using the "transverse and horizontal extension method", and then explores its temporal and spatial characteristics by ESDA method. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) China's economic development mode changes overall level. It is on an upward trend year by year, especially after the growth of many provinces in 2012, but the development gap between regions is large. 2) In the five dimensions reflecting the transformation of economic development mode, the population development is better; The economic structure optimization is steadily advancing; the green development shows a trend of deterioration and improvement; the economic stability and opening up ability is steadily rising; the economic growth kinetic energy conversion is poor, but The fluctuations slightly increased. 3) The spatial differentiation is obvious, and the level of China's economic development mode has generally shown a trend of decreasing the gradient in the inland hinterland with the eastern region as the core. 4) A more obvious global spatial positive correlation is presented, and the local spatial mainly forms high and low agglomeration types, and there is a relatively obvious interaction relationship. The policy enlightenment is: 1) Establish the "five developments" concept, reduce environmental pollution through structural upgrading, and accelerate the formation of new development kinetics with science and technology innovation as the core. We will work hard to implement the people-centered development thinking and continuously improve the level of social security and welfare. 2) Play the leading role of the eastern region, increase the investment of funds, technology and talents needed for the western region, and gradually narrow the difference in the economic development mode between the eastern and western regions. 3) It is necessary to fully consider the dynamic evolution of time and space in the transformation of different provincial economic development modes. Based on this, several suggestions are proposed to promote the transformation of China's economic development mode in the new era.

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    Spatial Aggregation Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Taobao Village Based on Grid in China
    Wang Fan, Wang Mingfeng
    2020, 40 (2):  229-237.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.008
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    With the digital economy growing, the Taobao village is playing a more and more significant role in stimulating rural employment and entrepreneurship. Actually, the e-commerce of Taobao villages increase income of farmers, narrow the gap and promote the integration between urban and rural areas. In recent years, the e-commerce is developing rapidly in rural areas in China, and the agglomeration characteristics of e-commerce development of Taobao villages has been observed in rural areas. Rural equipped with internet has opened up a new way to achieve revitalization. Based on the data of Taobao village during 2013-2018, this paper analyzes the development status and agglomeration characteristics of Taobao village, and explores the influencing factors of Taobao village from the national level. Results show that: 1) Taobao village grew rapidly during the study period, spreading from eastern regions to whole of China. There were 3202 Taobao village which was benefited from the development of e-commerce. Taobao villages in the eastern coastal area have expanded rapidly, accounting for 96% of the total in China. The central and western rural areas also began to enter the online business sector. Relatively, development rates of the central and western regions are small and slow. At the same time, Taobao village showed a rapid expansion but also began to eliminate partially. Areas with large eliminations are also in the east, accounting for more than 95% of the total. Before 2015, the center and direction of Taobao village distribution changed greatly. Then, the distribution direction of Taobao village tends to be stable, showing a north-south trend. 2) Before 2015, the distribution of Taobao village was random, and its Moran’ index of Taobao village failed to pass the significance test. With the growth of e-business, Taobao village began to show agglomeration characteristics, and formed two H-H clusters in the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. The high-growth area of Taobao village has a tendency to be fixed in the region, located in the east and south of China. 3) Agglomeration effects, government policies, information and communication technologies and population were the main factors, which affected the growth of Taobao village. Conversely, the relationship between GDP and Taobao village was negative. The high GDP area might be not the big number region of Taobao village and the coefficient of the road was not significant.

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    Comprehensive Evaluation of Pollution Reduction of Manufacturing Industry in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou District
    Zhang Shanshan, Zhu Xiaodong, Zhang Lei, Zhu Yu
    2020, 40 (2):  238-247.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.009
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    Taking the case study of Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou district, this paper spreads the analysis of the comprehensive evaluation indicators system based on the construction of four indexes (emission intensity of manufacturing industry, pollutant emission of manufacturing industry, agglomeration degree of manufacturing industry, water environmental health level), and obtain the comprehensive evaluation index which reflect the degree of pollutant discharge and the effect of emission reduction of manufacturing industry rely on the first three indexes. Then the water ecological health index and the contamination degree index were generated to evaluate influence relationship. Results show that: 1) The study area was divided into five categories: highest-pollution degree area, higher-pollution degree area, general-pollution degree area, lower-pollution degree area, lowest-pollution degree area. The acreage is 816.12, 3 314.56, 7 628.25, 2 500.67 and 2 861.75 km 2 and account for 4.77%, 19.36%, 44.55%, 14.61% and 16.71% of the total area respectively. And it showed that the spatial difference is evident, the up-stream and region around Taihu are mainly “lowest” and “lower” pollution area, the mid-stream and down-stream region around Taihu are mostly general-pollution degree area, the mid-stream and down-stream regions far away from Taihu are essentially “highest” and “higher” pollution area. 2) The pollution level of manufacturing industry has a direct effect on the health of water environment in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou district. They have a strong spatial positive correlation, as there is wide distribution area of more health-light pollution, medium health-medium pollution and low health and-heavy pollution (about 45%). From the perspective of spatial analysis, the upstream of Taihu lake basin is mainly the distribution of more health-light pollution and medium health-light pollution area. The midstream and downstream is mainly the distribution of medium pollution-more health, medium health-heavy pollution and low health-heavy pollution area. The coupling relationship between industrial pollution degree and water environment pollution appears positively vegetative, therefor, the water environmental can be improved by readjusting the structure and distribution of manufacturing, and limiting the industry with high pollution intensity layout near Taihu or the Lake stream.

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    The Spatial Characteristics of Rurality and Its Relationship with the Transportation Accessibility in the Loess Plateau
    Lyu Minjuan, Cao Xiaoshu
    2020, 40 (2):  248-260.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.010
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    In the context of rural transformation and reconstruction and urban-rural integration, production factors such as population, land and capital, continue to flow between urban and rural areas, so rural areas have happened great changes. Accessibility, as the direct medium to drive the change of rural characteristics, has an important impact on rural poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Taking the counties as the basic spatial unit, we examine the spatio-temporal dynamic of rurality and potential accessibility in the Loess Plateau by evaluating the rurality and potential accessibility indexes quantitatively of the 243 counties in the years of 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015. At the same time, this article analyzes the geographical concentration and the correlation of the rurality and potential accessibility of the Loess Plateau by using the methods of exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial econometric model. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) Rurality indexes of the counties in the Loess Plateau tend to decline, but the difference among 243 counties becomes wider, and the distribution pattern of rurality index presents the pattern of “high in the west and low in the east”; the potential accessibility in Loess Plateau tends to enhanced, but the difference among 243 counties becomes shrinking, and the distribution pattern of potential accessibility—“high in the east and low in the west”—is basically unchanged from 1990 to 2015. 2) The spatial distribution of rurality and accessibility has a strong positive spatial autocorrelation respectively, but the spatial aggregation tends to weaken from 1990 to 2015, and distributes along the line of “Yulin-Qingyang”. Moreover, the rurality’s high-high agglomeration areas are mainly distributed in Liupan Mountainous Area and Luliang Mountainous Area, while the potential accessibility agglomeration areas are mainly distributed in Guanzhong plain, Henan and Shanxi, and gradually extend to Inner Mongolia. What’s more, the increase in accessibility has a negative effect on rurality and this effect becomes enhanced volatility, which verifies the hypothesis that areas with high accessibility is always with weaker rurality, meanwhile, the low accessibility-high rurality types are mainly distributed in Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia, the high accessibility-low rurality types are mainly distributed in the northeast with a higher economic development. 3) The rurality shows significantly spatial spillover effect, that is significant spatial lag and spatial error spillover effect, which means the rural development in the region will be affected by the surrounding rural area. The improvement of potential accessibility will make the rural population change rate and the primary industry rate decline, while make the agricultural labor productivity, rural per capita net income, and agricultural land productivity increase. What’s more, the accessibility has the greatest impact on agricultural land productivity from 1990 to 2015, but the impact on rural residents' per capita net income enhanced most.

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    Spatial Difference and Influencing Factors of Floating Population’s Settlement Intention in the Three Provinces of Northeast China
    Gu Hengyu, Li Qiting, Shen Tiyan
    2020, 40 (2):  261-269.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.011
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    In recent years, the three provinces of Northeast China (Liaoning, Heilongjiang, and Jilin) have suffered from economic decline and labor force loss. Supported by the China migrants dynamic survey in 2015, the present study aims to examine the spatial pattern and driving forces of the settlement intention of the floating migrants in the three provinces of Northeast China. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and trend analysis methods are applied to characterize the spatial pattern of the settlement intention at the city level, and a binary logistic model is constructed to detect the drivers of the settlement intention at the micro-level. According to the aboveanalyses, the main findings of our research are as follows: 1) The spatial distribution of the settlement intention of the floating population in three northeastern provinces presents a characteristic of “higher in the north and lower in the south”. Besides, the settlement intention has a more significant spatial variation in the north-south direction, yet the spatial variation degree is weaker in the east-west direction. 2) The spatial autocorrelation is insignificant in the spatial pattern of floating migrants’ settlement intention in the three provinces of Northeast China. Qiqihar City and Heihe City are detected as the High-Low cluster areas, while Haerbin City is detected as the High-High cluster area. With the increase in the size of cities, the settlement intention of the floating population shows the trend of first rising and then declining. From the perspective of the city level, the settlement intention of the floating population in sub-provincial cities is higher than that of ordinary prefecture-level cities in the three provinces of Northeast China. 3) Individual, economic, and social factors show significant effects on the settlement intention of floating migrants in the three provinces of Northeast China. In terms of individual factors, the model results indicate that migrants with agricultural hukou, migrants who are married, highly educated migrants, and ‘80s’ migrants have a stronger willingness to stay in destination cities. 4) For economic factors, income level has a significantly positive relationship with the settlement intention of the floating population, while housing expenditure has a negative effect. 5) Considering social factors, the results show that migrants with longer duration of staying, migrants whose occupation categories are professional or technical personnel and business service personnel, migrants whose employment status is the employer, and migrants participating in urban employee medical insurance have a stronger settlement intention.

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    The Impact of High Speed Railway on Urban Network Structure in Northeast China
    Liu Shuzhou, Han Zenglin, Guo Jianke
    2020, 40 (2):  270-279.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.012
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    Transport infrastructure has always been regarded as one of the indispensable conditions for society development. Its quality improvement is often manifested in its speed and quantity enhancement.With reference to the complex network theory, based on the railway train timetable as the basic data, the spatial impact of the opening of the high-speed railway on the railway network structure and the urban network structure in the northeast region is discussed. The results show that: 1) The overall characteristics of the Northeast urban railway: individual cities have high degree values while most cities have low degree values. The clustering coefficient is basically inversely proportional to the degree. The average path length has been reduced after the opening of the high-speed railway. The complex network features such as scale-free and small world are more obvious, and the overall connectivity of the railway network hasbeenstrengthened. 2) After the opening of the high-speed railway, the sub-dual-core railway network structure greatly reduces the dispersion of the topological network, and significantly improves the centrality of network connections in cities such as Changchun and Dalian. 3) The center of gravity of railway traffic shifts to the northwest, and regional imbalances increase.After the opening of the high-speed rail, surpassing Liaoning's leading position, Jilin Province's spatial connection capacity has grown rapidly. At the same time, the overall spatial difference in Northeast China has further expanded, the balance has been reduced, and the core-periphery structure has been further polarized. 4) Compared with the other three central cities, Dalian cannot attract other cities at the first gravity, but it is at the same level as other central cities in the second gravity, which also reveals the unique gateway characteristic of Dalian as a central city: The scale of external contacts is strong, but due to the marginal location, Dalian does not have the function of radiating urban agglomerations in passenger and freight traffic flows.

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    Progress on Adaptability of Tourism Destination Social-ecological System
    Su Fei, Mo Xiaohang, Tong Lei, Zheng Ke, Cao Yirong
    2020, 40 (2):  280-288.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.013
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    Adaptability thinking and method have become a focus in the world academia due to its fitness for requirements for biodiversity protection and its significance to the sustainable development and the improvement of livelihoods in a social-ecological system (SES). Firstly, this article reviews a great amount of relative literatures about studies on the adaptability of a tourism destination SES and then summarizes in the aspects of research scale of objects, research methods, research contents, resolution path and target management of complex subsystems. This article also tends to provide some references and guidance for the construction and the studies on adaptability of tourism destination SES. Among current researches, the scales include macroscopical and microscopical ones, the majority of which is microscopical. As for the research contents, they comprise several dimensions such as “social-ecological” “social-economic” and “ecological-economic”. Secondly, by comparing relevant literatures domestic and abroad, this article indicates the resolution paths of studies on adaptability include “vulnerability-adaptability” “resilience-adaptability” and “resilience-sustainability”, and evaluation methods mainly consist of “conceptual evaluation and framework construction” and “model building”. On the other hand, researches reveal that tourism destination SES is a complicated adaptive system including many subsystems like society, ecology and economy, whose connectivity can be constructed by target management among these subsystems. Finally, it concludes that scholars home and abroad place their focus on “concept of adaptability of SES”“application of adaptability theory or method” and “connection between adaptability thinking and tourism destination SES” in the studies on adaptability of tourism destination SES. Since relevant research on tourism destination SES is still at its early stage both domestic and overseas, it requires a great of studies. This article gets the following inspirations after sorting out the concept of adaptability of tourism destination SES: 1) Researches on medium scale lack now. Scholars should pay more attention to local culture, transportation in the scenic area and tourist attraction. In the time of doing so, they also should carry out their researches with integrity and comprehensiveness rather than in single aspect or several specific ones; 2) Based on multi angle path analysis and multivariate evaluation methods, future researches should introduce new ideologies, angles crossing subjects, and further improve the application of adaptability of tourism destination SES; 3) By constructing connectivity among complex subsystems in multi routes through target management, relevant researches need to integrate various discipline theories and methods on purpose of explanation and analysis on different types of tourism destination SES and internal elements within. At last, scholars enrich their research contents so as to achieve the sustainable development in tourism destination SES.

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    Evaluation and Obstacle Factors of Life Services Level of Typical Tourism Cities in China
    Sun Zhenjie, Yuan Jiadong, Liu Jibin
    2020, 40 (2):  289-297.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.014
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    Compared with daily life, tourism activity is becoming an indispensable component of people's life and it is more and more important to people's better life. The tourism city is the key space to achieve a better life not only for tourists, but also for urban residents. In the new era of pursuing a better life, China's focus has shifted to higher-quality growth, and the connotation and evaluation index system of life services level of tourism cities also need to update. Therefore, on the basis of combing the evolution and connotation development of better life, the evaluation system of life services level of tourism cities is constructed in this article. Taking 23 typical tourism cities in China as the research objects, this study evaluates life services level of these tourism cities and reveals the main obstacle factors to make suggestions on the development of life services level. Based on various statistical data of 23 typical tourism cities from 2010 to 2016, the evaluation system consists of total 35 indicators to evaluate life services level of these tourism cities from 7 aspects, including economic foundation, innovation ability, public services, travel facilities, ecological environment, open sharing, and society and culture. The entropy-TOPSIS method is used to measure the life services level of tourism cities, and the major obstacle factors are measured through the Obstacle Degree Model (calculating factor contribution, index deviation and obstacle respectively). The results show that the life services level of 23 typical tourism cities in China presents a steady improvement trend, and the life services level gap of the different tourism cities has not gradually expanded during the study period. Four aspects, including ecological environment, innovation ability, economic foundation and public services, reveal the outstanding contributions to the improvement of the life services level of tourism cities. The Obstacle Degree Model results show that the main obstacle factors of the life services level of tourism cities are relatively stable. Travel facilities, open sharing, public services, society and culture factors are the primary constraints for most cities. In the future, toward the new era of pursuing a better life, the tourism cities should make efforts to solve the main obstacle factors of achieving better life. The development of tourism cities should focus on people's happiness and convenience, not only for tourists, but also for urban residents. And the targeted measures according to local conditions especially its significant constraints deserve much more attention to promote the better life level of tourism cities.

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    Evolution of Urban Tourism Flow Network Structure Based on Network Travel Notes: A Case Study of Beijing City
    Zhou Li, Wu Dianting, Yu Hu, Wang Yongming, Ma Teng, Hu Can
    2020, 40 (2):  298-307.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.015
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    Studying the law of urban tourism flow is an important scientific problem to be solved first in the utilization and optimization of urban recreational space. Based on the text of network travel notes, this article combines the crawler technology and social network analysis method, obtains the data of tourist flow in Beijing during the 12th Five-Year Plan and 13th Five-Year Plan, and analyses the evolution characteristics of urban tourist flow network structure. 1) The overall density of Beijing's tourism flow network is low, the network structure is increasing unevenly, and the tourism flow network is obviously controlled by the core tourism nodes. 2) The structure of Beijing's tourism flow network is characterized by central agglomeration and hierarchy. The traditional recreational sites such as Tiananmen, the Forbidden City, the Summer Palace and the Badaling Great Wall are still the core tourist nodes of Beijing's tourism flow, and the scale and energy level of the peripheral tourist nodes are greatly improved. 3) The unbalance of tourism flow nodes in different directions of urban development is aggravating, which is greatly influenced by the distribution of urban historical and cultural heritage, and the agglomeration ability of emerging tourism attractions is relatively weak. 4) The rapid development of urban rail transit is reshaping the spatial pattern of urban tourism flow. The demand for new cultural space such as Olympic Sports Center, 798 Art District and Sanlitun is increasing, which makes it develop towards multi-node and multi-region.

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    Evaluation of Ecological and Social-economic Benefits of Large Water Conveyance Projects: A Case Study on the Lower Reaches of the Tarim River
    Wang Xiyi, Peng Shuzhen, Xu Hailiang, Ma Tingting, Yue Junsheng
    2020, 40 (2):  308-314.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.016
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    There are many problems of ecology and environment in arid area, and the ecological vulnerability is one of the focuses in arid regions. As a result, ecological protection and environmental management in arid regions have always been a hot topic of global concerns. The Tarim River Basin, which is very vulnerable, is located in the inland arid regions of Northwest China. Before the implementation of ecological water transport, due to the impacts of natural environmental changes and intensified human activities, the vegetation in the region was seriously damaged, desertification was gradually intensified, and economic developments was seriously hindered. Therefore, the ecological and environmental problems of the Tarim River Basin have been attracted great attentions of the state. In 2000, the Chinese government invested 10.7 billion yuan to carry out ecological control projects in the Tarim River Basin, and to implement ecological water conveyance in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. From 2000 to 2016, 17 times ecological water transfers have been carried out in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Studying whether the ecological water conveyance projects in the lower reaches of the Tarim River could improve the ecological environment and promote local economic development, and how to quantify the changes of ecological environment and economic development, and how to analyze the characteristics of the relationships between water conveyance and the changes of ecological environment and economic development, are the important basis for the scientific and sustainable implementation of ecological water conveyance, and of great significance for the sustainable development of regional economy. It is of great significance. Based on the remote sensing data of 2000, 2010 and 2016 in the lower reaches of Tarim River, land types in the region were classified and changing characteristics of ecosystem service value in the region were assessed; Then, Principal Component Analysis was applied to estimate the evaluation scores of regional socio-economic. The results are as follows: 1) Since the beginning of ecological water conveyance, the area of unused land in the lower reaches of the Tarim River has not changed much, and it has always accounted for more than 70% of the total area of the region; The water area increased most significantly, and the area of farmland and construction land has also increased, but the area of woodland and grassland decreased. 2) From 2000 to 2016, the value of each service function of ecosystem has increased, and the value of provide aesthetic landscape and gas regulation increased greatly, which were 318.35% and 312.94% respectively; What’s more, the total value of ecosystem services increased by about 69.57%. 3) The factors that affect the economic development of lower reaches of the Tarim River were economic geography factors and agricultural development level; From 2000 to 2016, social economic scores in the lower reaches of the Tarim River increased, that shows the social-economic benefits of ecological water conveyance were very significant, and there was a positive correlation between social and economic benefits and ecological water conveyance. As a result, the ecological water conveyance project should be continued with reasonable control and management measures in order to promote the local ecological restoration and sustainable economic development.

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    The Effects of the “Grain for Green” Project on Gross Primary Productivity in the Loess Plateau
    You Nanshan, Dong Jinwei, Xiao Tong, Liu Jiyuan, Xiao Xiangming
    2020, 40 (2):  315-323.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.017
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    The vegetation coverage and carbon sequestration have been reported experiencing a significant increase since the implementation of the “Grain for Green” (GFG) project in the Loess Plateau (LP). However, the assessment of the effects of the project on ecosystem is not timely and accurate due to the limit of data availability. Using the newest land use dataset (2000 and 2015) interpreted by Landsat and the Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data from 2000 to 2016 based on the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), we examined the spatiotemporal pattern of land use changes due to the GTG project and estimates the inter-annual trend of GPP. A systematic comparison of the inter-annual variations of GPP was conducted among the GFG areas and the unconverted cropland areas (CRO), to reveal the effects of the GFG project. The results showed that an area of 3.5×10 4km 2 croplands was converted into grasslands and forests. The annual GPP showed a significant increasing trend from 2000 to 2016 for the whole plateau with averaged increasing rate of 24.1 g/(m 2?a), and the area with a significant increasing trend of annual GPP accounted for 67.29% of the whole plateau. Although the multi-year averaged annual GPP in the GFG areas was lower than that in the CRO due to the relatively young ages, the increasing rate of annual GPP in the GFG areas was 5.9 g/(m 2?a) higher than that in the CRO. The relative change ratio of annual GPP showed the same situation, the relative change ratio in GFG areas was 1.5% higher than that in the CRO. The GFG project accelerated the increasing of GPP in GFG areas, and then promoted the rising trend in the whole LP. This study provided an updated and more accurate analysis on the pattern of land use change and its effects on GPP dynamics in the Loess Plateau, which could contribute to the effectiveness assessment of the GFG project, future planning of the project, and decision making for the sustainable development of the eco-socio-economic coupling system in the plateau.

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    Effect of Rainstorms on Vegetation Activities in Eastern Coastal Area of China
    Li Jianguo, Yuan Fengwei, Zhao Yanqing, Liu Lili
    2020, 40 (2):  324-334.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.018
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    Within the context of global climate change, rainstorm has become one of the important factors restricting plant growth. In this study, the NDVI and meteorological dataset (GIMMS-NDVI and daily precipitation, temperature and radiation) in eastern China from 1982 to 2015 have been obtained to explore the relationships between rainstorm frequency anomaly and NDVI changes. The results show that rainstorm frequency of the study area varies from 0 to 13 times per year during the study period, with a mean value of 2 times per year. In addition, summer rainstorm frequency tends to increase gradually. The mean of NDVI values in the study area is 0.54, which show a clear spatial pattern. Furthermore, the NDVI values in the southern part of study area are generally higher than that in the northern part. However, the slope of NDVI values of the whole region show a rising trend, with an increase of 0.002/10a. The mean of partial correlation coefficients and multiple regression coefficients between rainstorm frequency anomaly and the NDVI variations are -0.02 and -0.01 respectively, representing that rainstorms have a significant negative effect on vegetation activities. In general, the NDVI in the study area will decrease by 0.01% with an increase of 1% of rainstorm frequency. Spatially, the significantly negative effect of rainstorms has been found in northern Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces. However, in Hebei, Guangdong and northern Guangxi Provinces, a significantly positive effect of rainstorm has been observed.

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