Table of Content

    10 November 2020, Volume 40 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Exploring the Characters of Public Psychological Resilience Under Diffusive Crisis
    Liu Yi, Meng Lingkun, Cao Yihan, Xie Zhiying
    2020, 40 (11):  1763-1773.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1997KB) ( )   Save

    The outbreak of COVID-19 in late 2019 causes grave losses to life and property of Chinese, and also lead to many public panics. How to reduce panic in the process of epidemic prevention is a major challenge for crisis management departments and the public. Current researches mostly reveal the mechanism from the perspective of public management, sociology and psychology, whereas the geographical perspective is absent. Such a theoretical gap cannot support the spatial management of crisis information under the macro scale. Therefore, this paper aims to reveal the spatial structure and changing characteristics of public panic psychology, as well as the regional differences and influencing factors of psychological resilience. This paper uses Baidu search index of keywords related to the COVID-19 during the epidemic period, which are divided into four categories according to whether they are the direct impact of the epidemic, and explores the spatial structure and variation characteristic of public panic psychology. In this paper, the average of the daily fluctuation of the search index, namely the average of the change degree of the search index, was finally adopted, which is called the PR (Panic Ripple) index, to measure the panic degree of the people in all provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions). Secondly, in this paper, the linear distance of each province from the crisis core area is taken as the x-coordinate, and the PR index is taken as the y-coordinate to make a scatter plot, and then Matlab software is used to conduct smooth spline fitting so as to obtain the spatial influencing factors of mental resilience. The research findings are: 1) with highly accessible Internet, crisis information spreads so fast that there is no obvious spatial diffusion process, but is simultaneously spreading to the whole country. There is no obvious information blind spot; 2) With the increase of distance, the public’s panic psychology does not show the spatial law of distance decrease or increase, nor does it fully follow the “psychological typhoon eye” hypothesis. Instead, it presents a ripple and undulating circle structure with severe epidemic situation, like Wuhan as the center, and the resilience index fluctuates between 1.112 and 1.947; 3) The resilience of public panic psychology to crisis information is varied according to different types of information and spatial distance. This incurs a spatial turbulence effect that results in a heterogenous spatial structure of the panic. This study reveals the basic spatial structure of psychological resilience under diffusive crisis from a geographical perspective. The advice given in this paper is that future crisis management should pay crucial attention to spatial zoning when implementing relevant policies according to the spatial relationship with the crisis core area, so as to minimize the validity of public panic.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial Accessibility Evaluation and Layout Optimization of Basic Education Facilities in Community Life Circle: A Case Study of Shahekou in Dalian
    Han Zenglin, Dong Mengru, Liu Tianbao, Li Yuan
    2020, 40 (11):  1774-1783.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.002
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (10170KB) ( )   Save

    As an important part of basic public service facilities, basic education facilities are of great significance for improving the quality of life of residents and improving the efficiency of urban operations. At present, the research on educational facilities is comprehensive, mainly focusing on spatial layout, spatial accessibility and facility configuration. However, in the research scale, residential units and even subdistrict are mostly basic units. Such accuracy is obviously poor. This paper uses UNA toolkit, which based on Rhino, to analyze the spatial accessibility of three basic education facilities in kindergarten, elementary school and junior high school in Shahekou District of Dalian from the residential building and community level, and proposes optimization ideas and site-selection schemes. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The spatial distribution of various basic education facilities is uneven, and there are phenomena of duplication and lack of coexistence; the phenomenon of “dislocation” of facilities and residential buildings is serious. 2) All kinds of basic education facilities have the problem of a small number of residential buildings within the service area. It will take a long time and distance to go to school. If the facility only serves residents within the scope of the specified service, some facilities may be underutilized. 3) In the scope of the prescribed services, junior high schools have the largest proportion of accessibility, followed by primary schools and kindergartens. Outside the prescribed scope of services, kindergartens have the worst accessibility, followed by junior high schools and primary schools. 2.97% of residential buildings with poor accessibility of the three types of facilities. These areas should give priority to adding education facilities. 4) In consideration of supply, demand and accessibility, two new facilities reference site selection schemes were proposed.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial Layout Characteristics of Ethnic Minority Villages Based on Pattern Language: A Case Study of Southern Dong Area in Xiangxi as An Example
    Li Bohua, Xu Chongli, Zheng Shinian,  Wang  Sha, Dou Yindi
    2020, 40 (11):  1784-1794.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.003
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2491KB) ( )   Save

    Pattern language refers to the structural and logical nature of language and regards landscape space as an orderly space entirety formed by different elements under a certain logical relationship. There are great differences in the patterns, vocabulary, syntax and grammar of different regional spatial layout. It is of great significance to excavate and analyze the commonness of the elements, combination forms and nesting mechanism among the similar traditional villages in order to realize the efficient protection of traditional villages. Through the analysis of examples, this paper finds that: 1) The spatial layout characteristics of three typical Dong traditional villages, Yutou village, Huangdu village and Gaoshang village, are analyzed. It is found that the vocabulary types of different Dong traditional villages are diverse, but there are similarities among them. On this basis, a pattern language system of Dong traditional villages is constructed. Taking Pingtan village as an example, the spatial nesting of pattern language is carried out, which verifies the validity and universality of the spatial layout pattern language system of Dong traditional villages. 2) Through the analysis of the vocabulary, syntax and grammar of the spatial layout of three typical Dong traditional villages, it is found that the traditional Dong villages have developed orderly in accordance with the basic idea of “letting nature take its course and adjusting measures to local conditions”, presenting the spatial sequence of “water space-residential space-connecting space-public space”. 3) The spatial layout pattern language system of Dong traditional villages has rich and stable vocabulary, syntax and grammar. The overall space is characterized by the centripetal and cohesive distribution of public buildings. 4) The grammatical principles of locality and order are always followed in the development and expansion of villages. In order to achieve the realm of harmony between man and nature, the elements are often designed and laid out with the help of the concepts of Yin and Yang, evil luck and accumulation of Tibetan wind and gas. 5) The spatial renovation and renewal of traditional villages can be based on the construction of pattern language system of spatial layout of the same type of traditional villages, and the generality of vocabulary, syntax and grammar can be applied to the protection and construction of the target villages in order to achieve the effective protection and sustainable development of traditional villages.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Evaluation and Spatial Differentiation of High-quality Development in Northeast China
    Wang Wei, Wang Chengjin
    2020, 40 (11):  1795-1802.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.004
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4007KB) ( )   Save

    High-quality development is the basic feature of China’s economy and society in the new era, and is the only way for the development of Northeast China under the new normal. Based on the specific connotation of high-quality development and the regional characteristics of Northeast China, we constructed an index system of 34 specific indicators form six dimensions: Effectiveness, stability, coordination, innovation, sustainability and sharing. Then we measured the high-quality development status, explored their spatial differences and shortcomings of development in various regions, and finally put forward the promotion path for different types of regions. In this article, we found that the level of high-quality development in Northeast China is lower than the national average, and only seven cities are above the average, they are Dalian, Shenyang, Changchun, Harbin, Daqing, Panjin and Benxi. On the whole, the effectiveness and stability of economic development in Northeast China are good, but the coordination, innovation and sharing are poor. Specifically, the shortcomings of development mainly include the proportion of the tertiary industry, the degree of dependence on foreign trade, the proportion of research and development investment in GDP, the number of patent grants per 10 000 people, and the growth rate of urban and rural residents' income. Therefore, the key to promote high-quality development in the future is to develop the tertiary industry and foreign trade, increase R & D investment, encourage invention patents, and increase the income of urban and rural residents. The high-quality development level of sub-provincial cities such as Dalian, Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin are in the forefront. The overall pattern of high-quality development is ‘high in the south and low in the north’ and ‘uplift belt’ is formed along the Harbin-Dalian Railway. Cities with higher levels of coordination and sustainability are concentrated in central and southern Liaoning and Harbin-Changsha economic zone; Cities with high effectiveness and innovation level are mainly distributed along the Harbin-Dalian traffic corridor, while cities with high stability and sharing level are mainly distributed in the western and central parts of Northeast China. According to the score value of each dimension, all cities can be divided into seven types, and each type has different development shortcomings and upgrade path. For example, Dalian and Shenyang should improve the stability and sustainability, while Chaoyang, Suihua, Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Mudanjiang should improve the innovation and sharing. This research can help to enrich the theoretical research of high-quality development evaluation and provide reference for the high-quality development of Northeast China and other regions.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    ‘Sub-Zone’ Model and Benefit Evaluation of Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Zone
    Meng Guangwen, Zhao Chuan, Zhou Jun, Wang Yanhong, Wang Shufang, Du Mingming
    2020, 40 (11):  1803-1811.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.005
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (759KB) ( )   Save

    ‘The Belt and Road Initiative’ provides a vast space for China’s production capacity cooperation and industrial upgrading, while the overseas economic and trade cooperation zone is an effective platform for capacity cooperation between China and the countries along the Belt and Road. On the basis of an overview of China’s overseas zones, this article uses China’s direct investment data in Thailand and Thailand’s GDP to analyze bilateral trade and investment. The development mode of Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Park is discussed in detail in 4 aspects: ‘Sub-Zone’ model, location, service environment, and enterprise char-acteristics. The data envelopment analysis method is used to evaluate the development efficiency of Chinese overseas zones in recent years. The research results show: 1) Thai-Chinese Rayong Industry Zone is the first platform for Chinese companies to invest in Thailand and an effective carrier for capacity cooperation between China and Thailand; 2) Thai-Chinese Rayong Industry Zone adopts the ‘Sub-Zones’ model, which is an effective model for Chinese overseas zones; 3) Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Zone has higher input-output efficiency and benefits from 2012 to 2018, especially in 2016 and 2018; Finally, the experience of Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Zone is discussed for benefiting other Chinese overseas Zones: the investment environment and efficiency can be improved by ‘Sub-Zone’ model, building a complete industrial chain by combines its own advantages with the host country, the localization of overseas zone for promoting socio-economic development of the host country. This research will contributes to the theoretical and practical research of BRI and Chinese overseas zones.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Local Quality of Place Drives the Spatio-temporal Evolution Pattern of China’s Urban Creative Ability in the New Era
    Li Zaijun, Jiang Youxue, Qin Xingfang
    2020, 40 (11):  1812-1821.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.006
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (5089KB) ( )   Save

    Innovation in essence is driven by talent, while talent is driven by local quality of place. In this sense, local quality of place is an important logic of promoting urban innovation, which is conductible to improve the ability of technological innovation for the development of modern cities in the present and future. This article aims to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution pattern and driving forces of the innovation ability of Chinese prefecture-level cities from 2001 to 2016. The results show: 1) The overall difference of innovation ability between prefecture-level cities continues to expand, but it tends to decline slowly since 2008. There exits significantly spatial agglomeration phenomenon of innovation ability. 2) The local spatial structure of prefecture-level cities’ innovation ability is relatively stable, and the innovative and dynamic cities are scattered in provincial capitals or regional centre. Among them, the eastern coastal cities have relatively stable multi-region innovation poles to enhance innovation vitality, while the innovation environment in the central and western regions is weak as a whole, and the high level innovative cities are mostly located in the regional centers with strong economic strength. 3) The evolution of the innovation ability of prefecture-level cities shows the fixed “core-edge” spatial structure, and it appears to be time-varying cumulative and inertial effects. As a result, the synergistic high growth of prefecture-level cities’ innovation ability is weak, resulting in aggravated differentiation of innovation level. 4) The spatio-temporal differentiation pattern of prefecture-level cities’ innovation ability is the result of the comprehensive effect of multidimensional local quality of place. Local service quality, consumption quality, information level, infrastructure construction and medical service quality have important effect on local innovation ability, while local ecological environment quality, convenient transportation and absorbing foreign investment quality have weak impact on innovation ability. In the future, the investment and construction of local quality should be the key to gather high-end innovation talents.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial Pattern and Determinants of Highly Educated Talents in China, 2000-2015
    Wu Rongwei, Wang Ruoyu, Liu Ye, Gu Hengyu
    2020, 40 (11):  1822-1830.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.007
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (948KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the data from the 2000 and 2010 China censuses by prefecture level and above, and the 2015 1% population sample survey data of Chinese provinces, this article studies the spatial pattern evolution of the distribution of highly educated talents and its influence mechanism in China. The coefficient of variation, Theil coefficient and Gini coefficient are used to measure the spatial imbalance of the highly educated talents proportion. The panel data Tobit model is used to identify the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of the proportion of the highly educated talents. The results show that: 1) The distribution of the highly educated talents proportion in China shows a great imbalance, closely related to the city level, which is highlighted in administrative regions such as municipality, provincial capitals, and city specifically designated in the state plan, to which a large number of talents are attracted, while the talents proportion in ordinary prefecture-level cities is relatively low; 2) In the past 15 years, the coefficient of variation, Gini coefficient and Theil coefficient of the talents proportion have all declined, indicating that the spatial imbalance of the talents proportion has decreased; 3) Average wage level, cost of living, city hierarchy, students enrollment of regular institutions of higher education per 10 000 people, the number of hospital beds per 10 000 people, expenditure for education per capita, expenditure for science and technology per capita are positively correlated with talents proportion; The ratio of middle school students to teachers and the number of internet users per 10 000 people are negatively correlated with talents proportion; Unemployment rate, green rate, sulfur dioxide emissions per unit area have no significant impact on the talents proportion.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Innovation Linkage Network Structure and Innovation Efficiency in Urban Agglomeration: A Case of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta
    Sheng Yanwen, Gou Qian, Song Jinping
    2020, 40 (11):  1831-1839.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.008
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3899KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the modified Gravity Model, SNA method, DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) model and Tobit model, this article analyzes the effect of spatial structure of the innovation linkage network on the innovation efficiency in cities. The main findings of this study are drawn as follows: 1) The innovation linkage showed a radial expansion with the core of Beijing-Tianjin in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), and a diamond-shaped structure in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), the innovation linkage presented a spatial pattern with the cities on both sides of the Pearl River estuary as the core and other cities as important nodes. 2) The innovation linkage network had a polar core development and the innovation linkage highly depended on the core cities in the BTH, but in the YRD and the PRD, the innovation linkage network showed the balanced development from single-center driving to multi-center driving. In addition, the innovation linkage networks in the BTH and PRD were characterized by the ‘small world’. 3) Tobit regression results showed that the central position, betweenness position, occupying capacity of structural holes and agglomeration had different effects on the innovation efficiency in the three urban agglomerations.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Achieving Effective Connection Between Rural Revitalization and Targeted Poverty Alleviation in Poverty-stricken Regions
    Wang Yongsheng, Wen Qi, Liu Yansui
    2020, 40 (11):  1840-1847.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.009
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1132KB) ( )   Save

    Rural is a system with specific structure and function constructed by various interrelations and interactional elements. Rural system exchanges important elements, such as people, capital, technology and information with urban system. Rural and urban are an organic whole. Both urban and rural must be developed sustainably to support each other. In China, rural system decline and rural diseases has become increasingly prominent under rapid urbanization. Rural development is important to urban and regional economic development. Rural areas are still the short boards in China’s urban-rural equalization. Poverty alleviation is a global issue. China has a large number of people living in extreme poverty. China’s rural poverty problem has attracted wide attention from academics at home and abroad due to its various types and complex causes as well as arduous task of anti-poverty. China has been committed to build an all-round well-off society and eliminate the absolute poverty from poor households, impoverished county and poverty-stricken areas by 2020. Government needs to make sure that all the poor people, particularly those with low incomes or disease, benefit from the national targeted poverty alleviation policy. Over the past three decades, China has taken five unconventional measures (Wuge Yipi) to push forward the targeted poverty alleviation strategy, and has achieved the millennium development goal of halving poverty ahead of schedule, making outstanding contributions to global poverty alleviation. China’s rural poor population has dropped from 250 million in 1978 to 70.17 million in 2014 and the corresponding poverty headcount ratio has decreased from 30.7% to 7.2%. Under conditions of rapid urbanization, rural revitalization is needed to improve rural decline and rural poverty. Currently, Central government has initiated rural revitalization strategy to make up the weakness of urban and rural harmonious development. China’s rural revitalization projects, including investments in infrastructure, energy, irrigation and new technologies have proven an effective poverty reduction strategy. A three-year alternating period before 2020 is not only the critical of poverty alleviation but also the basis of rural revitalization. Rural revitalization is the important way to coordinate urban and rural development in the new era. Targeted poverty alleviation can provide the foundation and energy to rural revitalization. Effectively integrate rural poverty alleviation with rural revitalization plays crucial role in the development of poverty-stricken regions. Rural areas have abundantly land resources while characterized by poor agricultural infrastructure, fragmented cultivated land, declined land quality and lower land productivity. Targeted poverty can solve the imbalance of urban-rural development through improving rural production, living and ecological environment. China’s rural revitalization strategy emphasizes the industry, ecology, talent, organization revitalization. Rural revitalization can solve rural underdevelopment through activated vitality, capacity, impetus and competitiveness. Targeted poverty alleviation provides the basis for rural revitalization via eliminating rural development drawbacks. Rural revitalization enhances the performance of targeted poverty alleviation. Synchronized poverty alleviation and rural revitalization will appear until 2020. Rural poverty alleviation will be sustainable eliminated using regional poverty alleviation ruler based on the index of people-land-industry-wealth coordination. And rural revitalization ratio and housing-industry symbiosis degree should be used to evaluate the effectiveness of rural revitalization.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Coupling Coordination Degree of the Urban Population Flow Tendency Strength and Urban Gravity in Northeast China Based on Network Attention Data
    Yan Guanghua, Zhang Yun
    2020, 40 (11):  1848-1858.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.010
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (904KB) ( )   Save

    Targeting at 177 cities in three provinces of Northeast China, collecting networking attention data as samples from twelve websites such as Zhaolian recruitment, worry-free future, 58 city recruitment, Ctrip, where to go, Tuniu, 58 city rental network, market, Gu Anke, Baidu map, Gaode map and Tencent map. Using network data mining technology to construct the measurement model of urban population flow tendency intensity and attractiveness, combined with the coupling coordination model and nuclear density measurement method, the hierarchical characteristics, type characteristics and spatial characteristics of urban population flow tendency intensity and attractiveness in the cities of three northeastern provinces are measured. The results from the survey related to the intensity of population flows and coupling coordination above show that: 1) The intensity of population mobility tendency and attractiveness of cities of different scales in Northeast China are various, and the larger the scale of cities, the higher the intensity of population mobility tendency and attractiveness of cities; the intensity of population mobility tendency and attractiveness of cities of similar scales also show obvious differences; the intensity of urban population mobility tendency and attractiveness of cities in Northeast China are in positive relations as a whole. The intensity of urban population mobility tendency and urban attractiveness in Northeast China are characterized by high urban primacy and obvious long tail characteristics; 2) The cities with extreme coupling, high coupling, moderate coupling and low coupling of population mobility tendency intensity and urban attractiveness in Northeast China accounted for 2.26%, 7.91%, 24.29% and 65.54% of the total number of cities in Northeast China, respectively; the overall difference between provincial population mobility tendency intensity and urban attractiveness coupling coordination level was small, and the gap was not obvious; The leading type, synchronous type and lagging type of population flow accounted for 63.85%, 17.51% and 18.64% of the total number of cities in Northeast China, respectively, with obvious inter-provincial differences; 3) The spatial characteristics of coupling and coordination between the intensity of population mobility tendency and urban attractiveness in Northeast China show the characteristics of hierarchy, agglomeration and depression. The regional distribution characteristics of coupling and coordination are closely related not only to the location of these areas, but to the city scale and economic development level of the region.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial Livability of Residential Areas in Changsha City
    Zhu Zheng, He Qingyun, Qin Wei
    2020, 40 (11):  1859-1867.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.011
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (9925KB) ( )   Save

    In the contemporary background of livable city construction, it is necessary to accurately analyze the spatial livability of urban residential areas, which could be the important basis for formulation of the municipal territorial space planning. Taking Changsha City as the example, this article established a 3D urban model including 20 367 building blocks and waters, terrain, roads and other factors. Through the calculation of 20 indicators in 5 aspects of the construction, the environment, the traffic, the service and the landscape, a comprehensive analysis has been conducted upon 1 860 residential areas in the whole city. Results show that: There are significant spatial differences in livability of residential areas in Changsha City, which could be expressed in spatial characteristics of ‘west high, east low’ and ‘one corridor, three highlands and three lowlands’. The ‘corridor’ along the Xiangjiang River waterfront and ‘three highlands’ surrounding the Meixi Lake, the Songya Lake and the Yang Lake have higher spatial livability, while the ‘three lowlands’ which located in the central city have the lowest spatial livability. The comprehensive livability is positively correlated with landscape indicators and environmental indicators in space. The construction indicators show the phenomenon of ‘central area low and edge area high’, while the traffic indicators and service indicators show the phenomenon of ‘central area high and edge area low’. The main reasons for the above characteristics lie in: The speed of urban expansion and residential area construction is too fast, the residential areas are strongly dependent on landscape resources, the speed of transformation and reconstruction of old residential areas are slow, and the supporting services of residential areas in new urban areas are inadequate. In order to further optimize, we should control the build of residential areas around the city, promote the urban renewal, strengthen the landscape construction and improve the supporting services.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Framework and Empirical Study of Input-output Efficiency of Resources and Environment in China
    Kang Lei, Song Zhouying
    2020, 40 (11):  1868-1877.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.012
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2824KB) ( )   Save

    How to improve the economic development benefits is a significant issue to global sustainable development. Under the background of resource and ecological constraints and economic transformation in China, it is important to scientificly and comprehensively evaluate the input and output efficiency of economic development. Based on the input-output research framework and according to the progressive research approach, this paper adopts traditional SBM model, undesirable-SBM model, and the two-stage network DEA model to analyze the resources productivity efficiency, eco-efficiency, and resource productivity efficiency and environmental efficiency of two-stage system, with a view to comprehensively depict the input-output efficiency of China, and then provides some advice and suggestions for further economic sustainable development. The major findings were summarized as follows. Firstly, China’s economic efficiency decreased from the east, to central to northwest and to north. Secondly, taking environmental pollution into consideration, the ranking changes of ecological efficiency in different provinces and cities are different, which reflects that environmental pollution has different effects on regional input-output efficiency. Thirdly, the economic efficiency and environmental efficiency of most provinces are obviously imbalance, and there are notable spatial differences. Provinces in eastern China show high economic efficiency and low environmental efficiency, except Beijing and Tianjin, whose economic efficiency and environmental efficiency made some balance. Provinces in northeast China have moderately high economic efficiency and moderately low environmental efficiency, with some environmental constraints. Provinces in central China have moderate to low economic efficiency and low environmental efficiency, with obvious environmental constraints. Economic efficiencies of provinces in western China are lower than the national average, while their environmental efficiencies performed much better.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Coupling Coordination Characteristics and Its Influencing Factors of Brand Tourism Resources Competitiveness and Tourism Flow in Yunnan Province
    Zhao Shuhong, Bai Meng
    2020, 40 (11):  1878-1888.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.013
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1376KB) ( )   Save

    On the basis of constructed coupling coordination model and evaluation index of brand tourism resource competitiveness and tourism flow, taking Yunnan as a typical case, this paper analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of the coupling coordination development of brand tourism resources competitiveness and tourism flow from 2009 to 2018 by using entropy weight TOPSIS Model and coupling coordination model. It finds that: 1) There is a significant positive correlation between brand tourism resources competitiveness and tourism flow with a strong coupling coordination relationship. 2) As time goes by, the coupling coordination degree of brand tourism resources competitiveness and tourism flow in Yunnan Province is gradually improved, but the spatial difference of coupling coordination degree between the cities is enlarged, demonstrating an obvious ‘Core-periphery’ spatial structure. 3) The influence degree is ‘tourism transportation and reception service > human capital > economic environment > natural environment > Infrastructure > policy environment > tourism publicity’. 4) In view of the different types of coupling and coordinated development, we provide some advices to promote the coordinated development of tourism resources and tourism flows. Such as improve the convenience of tourism transportation and strengthen tourism publicity.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Driving Mechanism and the Spatial Differentiation of Coupling Coordinated Development of Tourism Supply and Demand in China
    Yu Hongyan, Wang Qunyong, Zhang Bo, Liu Jisheng
    2020, 40 (11):  1889-1898.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.014
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1288KB) ( )   Save

    The relationship between tourism supply and demand is an important issue in tourism economic research, and it is also an urgent problem to be solved under the background of supply-side structural reform. Based on coupling coordination theory, this article calculates coupling coordinated degree of tourism supply and demand of 31 provinces in 2004-2016 years. Fixed Effect Model, Dynamic GMM Model, Spatial Error Model and Spatial Autoregressive Combined Model are used to grasp the influencing factors of coupling coordinated development of tourism supply and demand. Geographically weighted regression model is used to study the spatial differentiation of influencing factors in 2016 from a local perspective, in order to explore the driving mechanism of coupling coordinated development of tourism supply and demand in China. The research shows that: 1) The spatial zonality difference of coupling coordinated development of tourism supply and demand is significant, the spatial distribution pattern continues to evolve, and the spatial correlation is more and more obvious. 2) The fixed effect estimation of static panel shows that, institutional factors, resources endowment, industrial structure and capital factor have significant positive correlation, cultural factors had not yet passed the significant test. The results are very robust, and the direct and indirect effects of space are significant. 3) GWR model estimated that the spatial differentiation of the coupling coordinated development of tourism supply and demand is obvious, and industrial structure decreases from southeast and northern fringe to the inland, resource endowment is centered in the northwest and diffuses counterclockwise to the south, the central and the northeast, institutional changes gradually decreased from the southeast coast to the Northwest inland, and the two poles confronted each other, capital factor decreases clockwise along the southeast coast to the northwest inland and to the northeast. 4) The coordinated development of tourism supply and demand is constrained by the internal production unit and external environment orientation. The development and dynamics of tourism demand and supply system itself have evolved into internal primary driving forces. The external macro-environment-oriented driving forces include industrial structure, resource endowment, capital driving force and institutional change control force.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Siting Reliability Evaluation and Discussion of Vertical Shelter in Coastal Cities: A Case of Port-urban Area in the Binhai New District, Tianjin
    Zhang Weitao, Ren Lijian, Yun Yingxia
    2020, 40 (11):  1899-1908.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.015
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1782KB) ( )   Save

    ‘vertical shelters’ is deeply explored on the summary of vertical shelters’ construction demands. Secondly, a vertical shelter siting reliability evaluation model is derived from the IPCC vulnerability conceptual model. Based on this model, physical geography factors and built environment factors are integrated to build a 3-level evaluation index system. There are 3 dimensions involved in this index system: sitting exposure related to the direct effects of disasters, sitting sensitivity related to emergency transportation, and sitting adaptability related to emergency services. There are 3 primary indexes, 9 secondary indexes, and 17 tertiary indexes forming this system. Thirdly, taking Tianjin Binhai New District as an example, and focusing on the most population located and worst disaster effected area—port-urban area, an empirical research is explored. Using classification and visualization in ArcGIS, it is found that there is an obvious spatial differentiation between higher and lower sitting reliability. It can be decomposed into 3 aspects: Sitting exposure shows ‘offshore is higher and far from the shore is lower’. Traffic sensitivity shows ‘marginal is higher and central is lower’. Service adaptation shows both ‘central and riverine is higher and marginal is lower’ and ‘close to port is higher and far from port is lower’. Meanwhile, it is found that the land for primary and secondary schools and land for social welfare facilities are the backbone of vertical shelter’s sittings with high reliability. The land for commercial facilities is a strong supporter of high-reliability sittings. The lands for cultural and research facilities and for recreation and sport facilities are important supplements of high-reliability sittings. The internal high reliability ratio of all types of land use is less than 20%, so it is very important to promote multiple participation in vertical shelters’ sitting. Among all the sittings, the lower reliability is the most, so it is imperative to improve the reliability of sitting. Finally, this paper proposes the vertical shelters’ sitting and sitting reliability’s improvement strategies in coastal cities.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Evolution of Synergy Between Population Urbanization and Circulation Industry Development and Its Poverty Reduction Effect in Wuling Mountain Area of Hunan Province
    Yang Shuigen, Wang Lu
    2020, 40 (11):  1909-1920.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.016
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2239KB) ( )   Save

    Poverty alleviation in poverty-stricken areas has reached the decisive stage, which is more arduous and complicated. Based on the coordinative interactive mechanism, this article uses the coupling coordination model, spatial ESDA, trend surface analysis to analyze the spatial-temporal pattern evolution of population urbanization and circulation industry synergy about the Wuling Mountain Area of Hunan Province from 2001 to 2017. Subsequently, using the panel and space panel econometric model quantitatively measures the impact of synergistic development on poverty alleviation in the Wuling Mountain Area of Hunan Province. The results can be drawn as follows: 1) The synergy of population urbanization and circulation industry development is up from 2001 to 2017. There are still some significant differences among different plates in the Wuling Mountain Area of Hunan Province, and that the gap of coordination between population urbanization and circulation industry in plates emerges a expansion tendency. 2) On the basis of ESDA, an “agglomeration-dispersal-agglomeration” spatial cycle process of synergistic development has been produced in general. And the local spatial polarization effect is obvious, which is forming a significant hot spot in the Shaoyang plate but a significant cold spot in the Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture plate. 3) Commence from the space analysis, there is a more obvious the spatial distribution pattern of “high in the East and low in the west” on synergy, however the distribution trend of “high in the north and low in the south” is weakened; 4) The panel and space measurement results show that synergistic development of population urbanization and circulation industry has a significant and positive promoting effect on farmers’ income and poverty reduction, and further decomposition of spatial effects reflects that the spatial positive spillover of synergistic poverty reduction is notable, which plays an driving role of optimizing spatial allocation of resources, promoting the alleviation of local poverty as well as releasing the spatial spillover effect, so as to achieve the overall regional poverty alleviation. Therefore, the implementation of the “two-wheeled” coordinated strategy of population urbanization and the development of the circulation industry has been proved to be the practical needs of Rural Revitalization, which also has an important support for implementing high quality poverty alleviation strategy. A series of supporting measures should be adapted to promote the internal synergism level of population urbanization and circulation industry, and achieve the synchronous development of targeted poverty alleviation and high quality economy.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Manufacturing Industry Structure Changes and Spatial Agglomeration Influence Factors in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration
    Zhou Wei, Zhao Yan, Ning Xuan
    2020, 40 (11):  1921-1929.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.017
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (587KB) ( )   Save

    The manufacturing industry plays an increasingly important role in supporting the national economy. Meanwhile, as a major historical decision of China, the Beijing-Tianjing-Hebei coordinated development strategy has entered into a new stage. Therefore, it is of great impetus and solid foundation in promoting the region to build a world-class competitive Urban Agglomeration by exploring the answers to the following two questions: the first is what are the characteristics of the spatial distribution and agglomeration trend of manufacturing industry in this region? The other is what are the factors that cause the variation of the latter? Essentially, the transferring and diffusion process of manufacturing industry under the spatial layout involves multiple dimensions. Therefore, based on the revised geographic aggregation index (EG), spatial econometric methods such as spatial lag model (SLM) and spatial error model (SEM) are constructed systematically to analyze the characteristics of spatial variation trend and influencing factors of manufacturing industry in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration. In addition to the deduction that the spatial distribution of different types of manufacturing industry has different characteristics, through rigorous calculation and analysis, the research also obtains the following conclusions: 1) Compared with Hebei Province, the characteristics of transfer and diffusion of technology intensive manufacturing industry in Beijing and Tianjin are more obvious; 2) Capital factors have a significant promoting effect on manufacturing agglomeration in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, while the impact of knowledge intensity on manufacturing agglomeration in the region is not significant, and unlike the former two, the influence of labor factor intensity is negative; 3) The level of financial interest rates has a prominent negative correlation with manufacturing agglomeration, on the contrary, government intervention and macro tax burden have a positive promotion on manufacturing agglomeration; 4) The improvement of transportation infrastructure and the expansion of market scale can effectively stimulate the agglomeration of manufacturing industry in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, however, the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) have a negative correlation with the agglomeration of manufacturing industry in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration. At the end of this paper, the conclusions of spatial lag model (SLM) and spatial error model (SEM) can be used to put forward some comprehensive suggestions and measures for formulating reasonable spatial layout and long-term development strategy of manufacturing industry in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatio-temporal Evolution and Influencing Factors of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency of Cities Along the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River
    Gong Canjuan, Xu Chenglong, Zhang Xiaoqing
    2020, 40 (11):  1930-1939.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.018
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1545KB) ( )   Save

    Water was the basic resource for human survival and the decisive factor for regional economic development. The improving of the water resources utilization efficiency was an important way to solve the water crisis and promote regional high quality development. The super efficiency DEA model was used to measure the water resources utilization efficiency of cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River from 2010 to 2017. GIS spatial analysis method was applied to probe into the spatial and temporal evolution of water resources utilization efficiency. System GMM estimation in Dynamic Panel was used to quantitatively measure the influence of different factors on water resources utilization efficiency. The conclusions are as follows: 1) In time sequence, water resources utilization efficiency of cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River decreased with fluctuation, the average value of efficiency decreased from 0.7 in 2010 to 0.67 in 2017. Water resources utilization efficiency went on a fluctuated downward trend in more than 70% cities in the region, consistent with that of cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. The situation of inefficient utilization of water resources in cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River was still serious, and the water resources utilization efficiency needed to be improved urgently. 2) The spatial pattern of water resources utilization efficiency of cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River was basically stable. The water resources utilization efficiency along the both sides of the U-shaped region was relatively high, while that of the middle region was relatively low. The spatial distribution center of water resources utilization efficiency always located in the north of geographical center. 3) Environmental regulation, economic development level, industrial structure optimization and technical level all had a significant positive impact on water resources utilization efficiency, while farmland water conservancy facilities construction and urbanization level had a significant negative impact on water resources utilization efficiency. In the future, cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River should continue to improve the economic, environmental and technological policies conducive to the improvement of water resources utilization efficiency, and pay more attention to improving the water-saving technology level of farmland water conservancy facilities and the development quality of the New Type of urbanization. The above conclusions can provide decision supports for ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatio-temporality of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants in Northeast China Based on Current Emission Inventories
    Zhang Mengduo, Chen Weiwei, Gao Chao, Zhang Xuelei, Jiang Yibing, Xiu Aijun
    2020, 40 (11):  1940-1948.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.019
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (6049KB) ( )   Save

    Quantifying local anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants emissions is the basis of comprehensive prevention and control of air pollution. Although heavy pollution periods occurred frequently in Northeast China over past years, the development of anthropogenic emission inventory relatively lags behind other regions. Based on current four emission inventories (i.e., EDGAR, CEDS, MIX, PKU), we analyzed the spatio-temporality of atmospheric pollutants emissions (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NOx, NMVOCs, NH3, OC, BC) from five source sectors (i.e., industry, energy, transportation, residential, and agriculture) in Northeast China (i.e., Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, East Fourth League of Inner Mongolia). The results showed the NOx, SO2 and NMVOCs were the main pollutants in Northeast China, which were mainly from industry, energy, and transportation. PM2.5 and PM10 were mainly from residential and industry, and the former is greater than the latter in contribution. All pollutants emissions (except NH3) followed the order; Liaoning Province > Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province > East Fourth League of Inner Mongolia. The annual emission of pollutants (except NH 3) displayed a “positive U” with significant higher intensity in winter than other periods, while NH3 emissions was the opposite with the main occurrence from May to July. Among four inventories, the total emission and source contribution of each pollutant were obviously different, especially for NH3.The NH3 emissions from PKU was significantly lower by 170% as compared to EDGAR values in Northeast China. Furthermore, diversity factor reached 96% in East Fourth League of Inner Mongolia, which was the largest contributor of NH3 emission. In addition, the disagreement for SO2, NOx, BC and OC emissions were above 30%. An important reason for the large difference might be the use of different activity data and emission factor. By providing the basic information, this study contributes to better understanding of current status of atmospheric pollutants emissions in Northeast China, and also may be useful to select reasonable emission inventory for numeric simulation.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics