Table of Content

    10 October 2020, Volume 40 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    A Research Framework of Precise Epidemic Prevention and Control from the Perspective of Space-time Behavioral Geography
    Chai Yanwei, Xu Weilin, Zhang Wenjia, Li Chunjiang, Li Yanxi
    2020, 40 (10):  1585-1592.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.001
    Abstract ( 278 )   HTML ( 49 )   PDF (914KB) ( 227 )   Save

    The COVID-19 spread globally in 2020. Scholars in the field of geography and cognate disciplines have conducted COVID-19 research in order to mitigate the effects of this epidemic. However, within the growing number of geographical scholarship on COVID-19, little attention has been paid to the micro analysis of human behaviors. This paper argues that Space-time Behavioral Geography has great potential to play an significant role in epidemic prevention and control. It constructs a research framework of precise epidemic prevention and control from the perspective of Space-time Behavioral Geography. This framework integrates the classical theories of Space-time Behavioral Geography, including Time Geography, Behavioral Geography and Mobility Geography, with the approach of visualizing the space-time paths, the approach of visualizing the daily activities in complex contexts and the approach of analyzing risk perception map. This framework can be employed to assess the risk of space-time behaviors, to guide residents to optimize their space-time behaviors, to improve residents’ psychological health and smart-community governance. This paper calls for the study of space-time behavior in the future to follow the principles of people-oriented, mobility oriented and application-oriented, so as to highlight its application value in urban planning, urban management, residential services.

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    Geographical Academic Responses and Outlook in the Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Epidemic Prevention and Control
    Xue Bing, Xiao Xiao, Su Fang, Tang Chengrui, Cheng Yeqing, Xie Xiao, Zhao Hongbo, Wang Yanxia, Zhang Zilong, Li Jingzhong
    2020, 40 (10):  1593-1600.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.002
    Abstract ( 227 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (572KB) ( 139 )   Save

    Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) epidemic has spread rapidly across the country in a short period of time, and after January 23, 2020, major public health emergency first-level responses have been successively launched across the country. The NCP epidemic has become “a major public health emergency with the fastest spread, the widest scope of infection, and the most difficult prevention and control in China since the founding of New China”. A major infectious epidemic has the general attributes of a geographic research object. Organizing an efficient emergency dispatch during a major epidemic involves a large amount of spatial information and attribute information. These cannot be separated from the comprehensive use of geographic information technology. The occurrence process of major infectious diseases and its consequences have a profound impact on the regional human-land complex system. How to make better use of geography expertise in early prevention and control to support decision-making is a question worthy of our in-depth consideration. With spatial analysis and human-land interaction as its major methodology, the contribution and development trend of geography in the prevention and control of epidemic situation is an important and urgent topics to be discussed and summarized. Based on a text-data analysis from Jan. 20 to Feb. 28, 2020, we emphatically summarize relevant research of geographers and others from the perspective of geography, systematically tease out the role and contribution of geography in this outburst epidemic situation in view of transmission and spread, regional planning and emergency, data and decision support. These research results reflect the responsibility and responsibility of geography for national and local scientific decision-making. We have found that new generations of geospatial big data, such as mobile phone signaling and Baidu migration data, have effectively solved the problems of untimely, inaccurate and inadequate predictions caused by the lack of information on population movements in previous health emergencies, and improved the simulation prediction of infectious disease models. At the same time, in epidemic prevention and control, geography research methods tend to be diversified, advanced, and intelligent. Advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence, data mining, and semantic recognition have been further applied, extending the geography’s technical methods to support public health safety prevention and control system. Through the merge and integration of methods supported by geography in the process of epidemic prevention and control, we presented the prospect of future in-depth studies which include spatial diffusion simulation, emergency facility location and urban planning, time response of geography to outburst epidemic situation, interdisciplinary research and data fusion sharing etc. Spatial diffusion models should be improved from studying the spread of different individuals to the dynamic transmission network between different regions, and from the study of discovering epidemic to predicting and preventing in advance. The government should focus on the application of concepts such as “flexible space” and “healthy space”, rationally lay out functional units and the public health system. Geographers should continue to broaden the thematic direction of international scientific research cooperation based on the international epidemic response situation. Multi-source big data and methods across departments and regions should be further integrated to analysis the relationship between infectious diseases and multiple environmental factors, supporting the implementation of scientific and efficient control measures. These prospects and reviews would help to offer theoretical support and practical reference for the early warning, and precise prevention of magnitude outburst public health incident, provide scientific support and basis for the economic and social management and space governance in the “post-epidemic” period.

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    The Effects of Police CCTV Camera on Crime Displacement and Diffusion of Benefits: A Case Study from Gusu District in Suzhou, China
    Liu Lin, Li Lu, Zhou Hanlin, Jiang Chao, Lan Minxuan
    2020, 40 (10):  1601-1609.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.003
    Abstract ( 112 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1944KB) ( 64 )   Save

    Ever since the Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) has been widely installed in mainland China, the police CCTV plays an indispensable role in the police strategy. According to the theory of situational crime prevention and the theory of crime prevention through environmental design, the police CCTV cameras should deter the potential offenders by increasing the risk of being exposed or arrested, and thus reduce crime. The crime reduction schemes can lead to crime displacement or diffusion of benefits. The installation of CCTV will not only affect crime in the surveillance areas of CCTV, but also the surrounding environments. Scholars have found that whether CCTV causes crime displacement or diffusion of benefits varies among different crime types. Existing research has applied the weighted displacement quotient (WDQ) to study the effect of crime displacement and diffusion of benefits in many countries. However, WDQ will not work properly when the denominator is equal to zero. Additionally, little research investigates the effect of crime displacement and the diffusion of benefits related to police CCTV in China. This paper attempts to fill the aforementioned research gaps and propose an appropriate approach to assess the impact of CCTV on the surrounding environment in a Chinese city. Based on difference-in-differences (DID) and WDQ, this study introduces a new quadrant estimation method, which displays the result plots after calculating DID between the target area and the control area and DID between the buffer area and the control area. This method not only avoids the problem in WDQ calculation but also exhibits the phenomenon of crime displacement and diffusion of benefits more intuitively. Taking the Gusu district in Suzhou city as the study area, this paper applies this new method to investigate crime displacement and diffusion of benefits related to CCTV from three aspects: all crime, different types of crime, and crimes in the different temporal periods. This study investigates the impact of the police CCTV cameras on crime events from 2014 to 2016 in Gusu. The results show that when any crime reduction at a site could be observed after the open-street CCTV implementation, diffusion of benefits rather than crime displacement was the norm. In terms of variations among crime types, the crime displacement phenomenon of theft is more obvious than all other three types of crime: fraud, fighting, and violation of public order; and electric vehicle battery theft's displacement is more obvious than that of electric vehicle theft. In terms of the temporal variations, the phenomenon of crime displacement is more obvious in holidays and daytime, while diffusion of benefits is more obvious in weekdays and evenings.

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    Framework, Measurement and Inspection of Regional Innovation Policy Evaluation
    Yu Liping
    2020, 40 (10):  1610-1617.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.004
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (430KB) ( 88 )   Save

    Innovation policy is the sum of direct or indirect policies and measurements which are formulated and conducted by the government to rule the behaviors of innovation subjects, and to promote the generation and development of technology innovation. Innovation policy evaluation is of great significance for regional innovation policy optimization. This article constructed the theoretical framework of regional innovation policy evaluation, and introduced informatization in macro knowledge production function as a surrogate variable for innovation technology advancement to eliminate the influence of technology advance to total factor productivity. Based on the DEA and Malmquist indices, the processed total factor productivity index is used to measure regional innovation policies. And the provincial high-tech industry was taken as an example for empirical research. The results show that the characteristics and evaluation dimensions of regional innovation policy determine the diversity of evaluation, so the evaluation of regional innovation policies which is based on policy performance and policy interaction is important; the regional innovation policy is generally in a steady improvement phase, and the lower regions are mainly in the central western region; the regional innovation policy measurement model is systematic, but its inspection method needs further development; It is debatable to use government R&D expenditure as a surrogate variable for regional innovation policy. This article provides a new policy measurement method, making up for the deficiency of related fields.

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    Chinese Provincial Geographical Differences of Foreign Trade Risks Arisen from U.S.A Export Control
    Jiang Hui
    2020, 40 (10):  1618-1626.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.005
    Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1787KB) ( 49 )   Save

    U.S.A has implemented export control on high and new technology against China for many years. The ZTE and Huawei incidents indicated that Chinese transnational companies have to seriously and urgently consider the overseas business risks because of America export control. The tariffs imposed on Chinese products exporting to U.S. market damaged and distorted the production and operation of Chinese export-oriented enterprises, increased foreign trade operation and administration risks of Chinese transnational firms. This paper divides the risks caused by US export control policy into direct risks and indirect risks. The former include the risks of technology absorption, technology trade and enterprise’s breach-law activities according to the U.S. export control policies, the latter refers to the chain effects and side effects caused by export control, which include risks of cooperation opportunities loss and reduction with the other countries, trade loss or decreasing in related products, and the entrance barrier risk of Chinese products to American market. In order to evaluate foreign trade risks, this paper constructed the coefficients of overall foreign trade risk, export risk, import risk, investment risk and personnel risk, and selected the 2017 statistical data of 34 provinces and cities in China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, to measure and compare the geographical differences of foreign trade risks among Chinese provinces and cities which suffer from the United States export control policies. The results are as follows: 1) From the perspective of total trade risk, Shanghai, Zhejiang and Fujian not only have a large scale of import and export trade with the United States, but also have a high degree of dependence on the U.S. market, thus bear the highest foreign trade risks. 2) From the perspective of export risk, Henan and Chongqing bear the highest export risks from the United States, and both provinces are overly dependent on the U.S. market. 3) From the perspective of import risk, Hainan, Xinjiang, Tianjin and Tibet heavily depended on the import of American products, therefore have an urgent need to identify and prevent the import risks of related high-technology products. 4) From the perspective of the risk of foreign investment, Chongqing not only absorbed the most amount of American capital, but also heavily relied on American capital, so it faces the highest risks of foreign investment. Although Ningxia and Shanxi got a small scale of investment from the United States, they heavily relied on American capital. 5) From the perspective of personnel risk, when export control policies affect the entry and exit of high technology and strategic trade personnel, Shanghai, Beijing and Zhejiang inevitably face greater personnel risk than other provinces and municipalities. In order to cope with the export control policy of the United States, Chinese provinces and municipalities should improve the identification of business risks and strengthen management of foreign trade risks arising from the American export control policies, and adopt differentiated prevention and resolution measures to deal with different risks.

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    Vertical Mobility of City: Reconstruction of Human-Environment System in Guangzhou’s Reterritorialization
    Chen Haoran, An Ning, Zhu Hong
    2020, 40 (10):  1627-1635.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.006
    Abstract ( 152 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (756KB) ( 85 )   Save

    Since the end of the 20th century, mobility has become a key issue in Geography, which reshapes the relationship between human and environment. However, the study of mobility ignores the place itself: the enclave can be regarded as the ‘horizontal mobility’ of the suzerain, and the process of cities’ reterritorialization can be regarded as ‘vertical mobility’. Since the 1980s, China begun to adjust administrative divisions by a county-to-district reform, which reshaping the original urban administrative structure. County-to-district reform is a typical vertical mobility of city. In that reform, the identity politics of local residents has altered a whole heap, and their relationship between county and new city has also changed. This article takes Guangzhou as a study case to learn the relationship between local residents and territory in the county-to-district reform, and then explores the alterations in human-environment system within the mobility theory. The study found that local residents’ identity politics has changed from a majority community in the original territory to a minority community in the new territory. In addition, this alteration has led to a formation of an exclusionary strategy for local residents and a residential space of resistance in the new territory, which reconstructed the relationship among local residents, original territory and new territory. The research on the process of cities’ reterritorialization is a supplement to the exploration of mobility in geography, which is conducive to a deeper understanding of the impact and significance of mobility from a geographical perspective.

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    An Empirical Test of Spread-backwash and Market Area Effects of Economic Growth in Guangdong Province
    Wang Xiaomei, Yu Zhengying, Liu Xiaoyong
    2020, 40 (10):  1636-1645.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.007
    Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1092KB) ( 46 )   Save

    This paper proposes an explanatory spatial analysis of the regional development pattern of Guangdong Province, based on the spatial panel data of 121 counties in Guangdong Province over 2001-2017 period. It proposes three regional division models of core-subordinate-peripheral regions, from the perspectives of economic development level, regional economic difference and network layout of administrative levels, to empirically test the spread-backwash and market area effect based on a spatial econometric model of spatial decomposition. The results show that: The regional development of Guangdong Province is evolving towards the pattern of Guangzhou and Shenzhen-the Pearl River Delta excluding Guangzhou and Shenzhen-non-the Pearl River Delta. The impact of the upper-level region on the lower-level region is still dominated by the backwash effect, and the spread effect is gradually emerging. The development of sub-regions and peripheral regions is still constrained by the level of administrative divisions. The urban hierarchy system under administrative divisions still significantly affects the spread-backwash and market area effects of regional economies. The market area effect of the lower regions on the upper regions depends on the economic development level of the lower regions. When the levels of economic development differ greatly, it is difficult for the lower regions to form a consumer market to support the economic development of the upper regions. The markets of Guangzhou and Shenzhen are mainly national and international markets. The markets of other non-the Pearl River Delta cities and non-the Pearl River Delta downtown areas remain local markets.

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    Layout Evolution and Its Influence Mechanism of Chemical Industry in China
    Zou Hui, Duan Xuejun
    2020, 40 (10):  1646-1653.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.008
    Abstract ( 118 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (831KB) ( 131 )   Save

    Under the background of economic high quality development and ecological environment protection strategy, the spatial distribution of chemical industry which is the most representative polluting industrial sector has become the focuses of academic world even all walks of life. Based on the enterprise data from 2003 to 2013, this study analyzes the spatial evolution and its influencing mechanism of chemical industry in China. Chemical enterprises present distribution pattern like “π” shape which include coastal regions, Longhai Railway and regions along the Yangtze River. Chemical enterprises are concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, the Bohai Rim, the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Regions and their peripheral regions. Major chemical cities show “dual-core structure” such as Tianjin-Zibo, Shanghai-Nanjing and Guangzhou-Maoming. Overall layout chemical industry presents diversification trend. Chemical industry sectors (i.e. coking, fertilizer, pesticide and explosive fireworks sectors) with high pollution and low added value are transferred from coastal areas to the central and western regions of China, whereas relatively sophisticated and high-end chemical industry sectors (i.e. refining, chemical raw material, coating, synthetic material, special chemical and daily chemical sectors) are concentrated in coastal areas or transferred among coastal areas. Factors analysis showed that the influence of port conditions, market demand, geographical location and environmental regulation presents downtrend contribution. On the contrary, the contribution of resource conditions, foreign investment and investment in science and technology reveal rising. It reflects the influence factors change of China’s chemical industry in the background of the global industrial restructuring, resource supply situation, environment protection strategy, and industry gradient transfer situation.

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    Impact of Land Urbanization and Population Urbanization on Economic Growth in China
    Zhu Jiguang, Xu Jiawei, Li Xiaojian, Lou Fan, Chen Yurong
    2020, 40 (10):  1654-1662.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.009
    Abstract ( 134 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (914KB) ( 150 )   Save

    By using the panel data of 331 cities from 2000 to 2017 in China, this article builds an econometric model to analyze the impact of urbanization on economic growth from two aspects of spatial urbanization and population urbanization. The results indicate that: 1) In the overall sample, both land urbanization and population urbanization promote economic growth, but the comprehensive effect and investment effect of population urbanization on economic growth are greater than that of land urbanization; The consumption effect of land urbanization on economic growth is greater than population urbanization. 2) Time difference exists in the impact of urbanization on economic growth. In terms of time effect, the investment effect in land urbanization has a downward trend, while the comprehensive and investment effect in population cities and towns has a strengthening trend. 3) There are regional differences in the effect of urbanization on economic growth. In eastern China, the impact of population urbanization on economic growth lags behind that of land urbanization, and the consumption effect and investment effect are the strongest. Land urbanization in the central region does not play a significant role in driving economic growth. Population urbanization mainly promotes economic growth through consumption effect and investment effect, and consumption effect is greater than investment effect. The impact of land urbanization on economic growth in western China is greater than that of population urbanization. Land urbanization in northeast China significantly promotes economic growth, and the consumption effect of land urbanization is the strongest, followed by investment effect and comprehensive effect. The impact of population urbanization on economic growth is not significant. Land urbanization has the strongest impact on economic growth in the western region, followed by the eastern region, northeast region and central region.

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    Network Structure of Maritime Producer Services of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road
    Wang Liehui, Zhang Nanyi, Zhu Yan
    2020, 40 (10):  1663-1670.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.010
    Abstract ( 81 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (3651KB) ( 66 )   Save

    Under the initiative of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), China should change from a large shipping country to a strong shipping country, and the development of maritime producer services, especially high-end maritime producer services, is of great significance to the consolidation and promotion of ports’ status and function in China. Based on the Taylor’s Network Interlock Model, using the distribution of 103 multinational corporations in 7 different types of maritime producer services in 1054 cities along the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, a database is constructed to calculate the network characteristics. Studying the network structure of the maritime producer services which along the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. And exploring whether the maritime producer services will also migrate after the migration of container transportation to East Asia. The results show that: 1) The maritime producer services is mainly concentrated in a few important node cities. The hierarchy characteristics of the maritime producer services network are obvious. The first-layer cities are Hong Kong, Singapore, Beijing, Shanghai and Dubai. Their relative network connection values are 1.00, 0.98, 0.89, 0.88, 0.86, which are much higher than other cities. Simultaneously the first two layers are all Asian cities, which shows that the maritime producer services in Asian is becoming more and more important. 2) The maritime producer services in Europe is numerous and has obvious agglomeration characteristics. The maritime producer services in Asia is mainly distributed along the coastline in the shape of a strip. At the level of 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, the links among London, Hong Kong and Singapore constitute a big triangle. At the Chinese level, the links among Shanghai, Hong Kong and Beijing constitute a small triangle. This network structure has emerged in recent years and shows the rapid development of maritime producer services in Chinese cities. 3) From the perspective of spatial distribution, maritime producer services are most densely distributed in Europe, East Asia and Southeast Asia. High-end maritime producer services are mainly concentrated in European cities which are mainly capitals or economic centers. Asian cities play an important role in the mid-end maritime producer services, especially in the freight forwarding industry. A total of 13 Asian cities rank in the top 20, indicating that as the center of gravity of global shipping moves to Asia, and the center of gravity of freight forwarding industry also moves to Asia. In terms of low-end maritime producer services, African cities have performed prominently in warehousing services, while Asian and European cities play an important role in shipbuilding. 4) High-end maritime producer services are often influenced by the city’s history, culture, language, and political system. It is rooted in the local area and tends to be in the capital and other inland cities. The middle and low-end maritime producer services, which is mainly dependent on the transportation, is greatly influenced by the factors such as natural conditions and location conditions. It tends to transfer with the transportation and tends to be distributed in the port city.

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    Characteristics of Inter-provincial Network Connection Based on Railway Freight Flow in China, 1998-2016
    Zhao Yinghui, Zhu Liang, Ma Baitong, Xu Yue, Jiang Bo
    2020, 40 (10):  1671-1678.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.011
    Abstract ( 102 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1161KB) ( 88 )   Save

    Based on the data of railway freight flow among provincial administrative regions of China (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), this article analyzes the characteristics of inter-provincial network by social network analysis and GIS in China from 1998 to 2016. The results show that: 1) The density of China’s railway freight network has been increased from 1998 to 2011 and it has been decreased from 2012 to 2016. In 2011, the density of China’s railway freight network reached its maximum, and it began to decline slightly in 2012. The density declined in 2016 and it is roughly the same as that in 2006. It shows that the contribution of railway freight to economic development has increased from 1998 to 2011, and the connection among provincial administrative regions has become closer. From 2012 to 2016, the demand for railway freight flow in economic development has decreased; 2) The provinces in the eastern China and in the Bohai economic rim are in the leading position in the railway freight network, and the railway freight connections among the provinces in the eastern China are decreasing; 3) There is a huge amount of coal in Shanxi Province; it has the largest connection with other provincial administrative regions. Therefore, Shanxi Province plays a very important role in China’s railway freight network. Inner Mongolia autonomous region also has a huge amount of coal, which is sent to North China and Northeast China by the railway. So it also plays a very important role in China’s railway freight network. Hainan province and Tibet autonomous region are marginalized in China’s railway freight network because of limitations of geographical location, a short history of railway operation and its low economic development level; 4) Guangdong in the southern coastal regions is a developed province and its economy development is prospering. And there is a very important Guangzhou port in Guangdong Province. A lot of freight is flowing between Guangdong Province and the provinces in Central China and Southwest China, so there are lots of close connections between them. Most provinces (autonomous regions) in the Northwest China are developing provinces (autonomous regions) and their density of the traffic network is low. Therefore, the northwestern provinces (autonomous regions) are weakly connected to each other and to the provinces in the other regions. 5) In the railway freight network, geographical proximity and economic connections largely determine the composition of the cohesive subgroup. With the economy development and the continuous changes of railway freight transportation, the cohesive subgroups of railway freight network increase, and their scales become smaller. For example, in China’s railway freight network, there are 4 cohesive subgroups in 1998; and the number of cohesive subgroups increases from 6 cohesive subgroups in 2011 to 7 cohesive subgroups in 2016. The members of cohesive subgroups have decreased from 4-10 members in 1998 to 3-5 members in 2016.

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    The Neighborhood Effect of Exposure to Green and Blue Space on the Elderly’s Health: A Case Study of Guangzhou, China
    Chen Yujie, Yuan Yuan, Zhou Yuquan, Liu Ye
    2020, 40 (10):  1679-1687.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.012
    Abstract ( 93 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (1103KB) ( 62 )   Save

    Exposure to green and blue space refers to the surrounding green and blue space exposed in residence and activity place in daily life, which can bring about health benefits for residents. The neighborhood green and blue space is related to the elderly’s health. Based on questionnaire data in Guangzhou in 2018, remote sensing image, street scape and so on, we extracted various green and blue space indicators, etc. From the perspective of reducing harm, restoring capacities and restoring capacities, we also constructed research framework including five mediating pathway. This research employed multilevel linear regression model and mediating effect model and propensity score matching method to examine biopsychosocial pathways and mechanism linking exposure to green and blue space to the elderly’s health. According to this empirical analysis, firstly, neighborhood exposure to green and blue space is significantly associated with the elderly’s self-reported health and mental health; Secondly, physical activity encouragement and reduction in stress and social cohesion facilitation play a separate role in mediating the effect of green and blue space exposure on the elderly’s health, while reducing environmental harm and improving aesthetic pleasure did not perform significant role on the elderly’s health; Thirdly, the impact of exposure to green and blue space on the elderly's health differs significantly among different social strata. According to our findings and conclusions, we suggest the necessity of achieving 'Healthy city' and 'Health aging' construction, such as increasing the proportion of water body in public space, optimizing the layout of urban green space and improving vertical green space view, which provide new references for relevant public policies for the elderly.

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    Cruise Attribute Evaluation and Brand Positioning: An Empirical Study on Professional Cruisers
    Sun Xiaodong, Xu Meihua
    2020, 40 (10):  1688-1697.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.013
    Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (911KB) ( 36 )   Save

    EWOM has become an important source of product information influencing people’s purchase decisions, especially for service, where consumption uncertainty and risk are greater than for goods. For cruise tourism, eWOM tools have become key sources of information for cruise passengers in choosing cruise companies, ships, and destinations. As such, it is critical for cruise lines to understand online WOM generated by both cruisers and experts to market brands effectively to the right consumers. According to Motivation Theory and Attribute Knowledge Theory, consumers and experts will value attributes differently based on their motivations and product-related knowledge. Extant studies related to cruise eWOM are largely based on cruiser-generated contents, few are using expert perceptions. Based on text reviews and ratings of 10 ship attributes from editors of the world’s largest online cruise community (httpw://ww.cruisecritic.com), this article evaluates 167 cruise ships from 21 cruise brands. Firstly, we use the method of word frequency to analyze the text reviews of 167 ships. By extracting high frequency words related to cruise attribute, we identify attributes that are paid high attention by experts. Then, combined with satisfaction evaluation of experts on 10 attributes of 167 ships, this paper discusses the product attributes that need to be improved in the international cruise industry in terms of attention and satisfaction. Secondly, taking the overall rating as dependent variable and 10 cruise attributes as independent variables, the factors influencing experts’ overall cruise ship ratings are identified by multiple regression analysis. Finally, we use 10 cruise attributes as categorical variables to divide 21 cruise brands by cluster analysis, and the differences between three categorizations defined by experts, defined by industry and defined by self-brand are further explored. Results show that core attributes such as cabin, dining and entertainment not only occupy the highest attention to experts’ reviews, but also become the most influential factors on the overall ship evaluations. However, relatively low evaluations by experts indicate they are critical areas for cruise companies to improve upon with urgency. The brand categorization derived from expert perception is mostly in line with that defined by industry, but notable differences in the two types of brand categorizations are also identified. Variance analysis further shows that the expert-derived cruise brand categorization is more informative than that defined by industry. The main contribution of this research is a clarified understanding of the reviews conveyed by expert, which offers insights for third-party opinion platforms and cruise practitioners in optimizing brand positioning and improving information value of online word-of-mouth.

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    Scale and Accessibility of School System and Its Spatial Differentiation of Elementary Schools in Henan Province
    Liu Kai, Liu Rongzeng, Chen Tingting, Nie Gege
    2020, 40 (10):  1698-1709.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.014
    Abstract ( 74 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (3560KB) ( 53 )   Save

    The article adopts Gini coefficient, Ziff index, accessibility analysis and urban-rural imbalance index to empirically study the model of the scale spatial pattern of the urban and rural school system scale of the compulsory education in the central agricultural area of county in Henan from 2004 to 2016. The results show that: 1) The difference in the size of primary schools in the district and county area increased, the polarization was serious, the number of middle suitable size decreased significantly, and the urban-rural imbalance index between students and teachers increased greatly. The Ziff index analysis of order of primary school students in the county shows that the first school and the top schools increased in size and monopoly. 2) Compared with 2004, there was a slight decrease from the natural villages within 2 km specified by the Ministry of Education in 2016; the natural villages were significantly reduced from the nearest complete primary school in 2016. The number of natural villages with a school distance of more than 2 km increased by 2.87, and there was a significant reduction (50.6%) in complete primary schools. And there was a sparse spatial distribution and an increase in the range of services. 3) The coverage of all primary schools in the study area in 2016 was less than that in 2004, but the coverage of complete primary schools decreased significantly, with 1 km coverage reduced by 60%, compared to 2004; and the coverage of 2 km service area decreased by 48%. The 2 km coverage required by the Ministry of Education accounts for only about 40% of the county's area, which did not meet the requirements of the Ministry of Education. 4) The Gini coefficient of students and teachers in the townships in the study area in 2004 was relatively small, but the size of the school and the teachers were in a state of balanced development as a whole, and the Gini coefficient of students and teachers increased significantly in 2016, and the spatial differences were basically consistent. The main part of the townships with large changes in the Gini coefficient is around the county and towns with high level of urbanization. 5) The natural villages in the study area showed the change of elevation with the increase of enrollment distance; the further the distance of admission is, the higher the average altitude is. Compared with 2004, with the increase in altitude from the nearest primary schools and the nearest complete primary schools, an average distance increased significantly. 6) In 2016, compared with 2004, the distance from villages and towns has a greater impact on the access to school, especially on that to the nearest complete primary schools.

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    Spatial Difference of Human Capital Promoting Regional Tourism Economic Efficiency: Empirical Research Based on "Hu Line"
    Sheng Yanchao, Liu Qing
    2020, 40 (10):  1710-1719.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.015
    Abstract ( 55 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (701KB) ( 38 )   Save

    In this article, based on DEA-MI model, the relationship between human capital and regional tourism economic efficiency and the contribution of human capital to regional tourism economic efficiency are explored by using spatial econometric model. The research results show that the tourism economic efficiency has the typical spatial characteristics of “Hu Line”, and the regional tourism economic efficiency of tourism and its sub-sectors fluctuates up and down with 1 as the standard line; the spatial relationship of Human capital and the regional tourism economic efficiency also basically have the spatial characteristics of “Hu Line”. Meanwhile, the economic efficiency of northwest regions such as Ningxia is higher than other northwestern regions, although the stock of human capital in Ningxia is insufficient, the contribution rate of its human capital is larger than other northwestern regions. There is a phenomenon of “mismatch of human capital” in tourism along the southeast regions such as Fujian province, and along the lines of Sichuan province and Yunnan province and so on. The southeastern region is rich in human capital, yet its contribution rate is low than other provinces in the northwestern regions and along the “Hu Line” regions. In the meantime, star hotel industry and travel agency industry break the regional characteristics of “Hu Line”; Medium human capital can positively promote the regional tourism economic efficiency in tourism and its sub-sectors, while high-level human capital can promote the growth of economic efficiency in tourism sub-sectors. However, high-level human capital can inhibit the tourism economic efficiency as a whole, which shows that tourism as a whole is still a typical labor-intensive industry. And that also shows star-rated hotels and travel agencies have initially possessed the characteristics of knowledge-intensive industries; Regional geography, opening to the outside world and infrastructure and so on, are the main influencing factors of human capital efficiency, which restrict the promotion of regional tourism economic efficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to establish and improve the matching system of tourism talents, play maximum extent efficiency in human capital, and scientifically construct the synergy mechanism between human capital and regional tourism economic efficiency.

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    Characteristics and Territorial Types of Agriculture Multifunction Evolution in Mid-southern Liaoning Urban Agglomeration
    Liu Bencheng, Fang Yangang
    2020, 40 (10):  1720-1730.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.016
    Abstract ( 62 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (4853KB) ( 80 )   Save

    Urban agglomeration is the leading and pressure-bearing area for the development of agriculture multifunction transformation. This paper constructed agriculture multifunction evaluation index system, and studied the characteristics and influencing factors of agriculture multifunction evolution in Mid-southern Liaoning Urban Agglomeration by using spatial-temporal diagnosis model, regression analysis and cluster analysis. The results demonstrated that: 1) The multifunction evolution of agriculture in Mid-southern Liaoning Urban Agglomeration from 2006 to 2016 has different characteristics. The agricultural products supplying function had enhanced, and the counties with significant enhanced are mainly concentrated in the “L-shaped” connection line of Kangping, Liaozhong and Kuandian. The economic development function had enhanced, and the considerable enhanced counties are mainly distributed in counties in Benxi. The social security function had enhanced, and the counties with evident enhanced are including counties in Dalian and Benxi. The ecological service function had weakened, and the counties with obvious weakened are mainly distributed in areas such as Jinzhou, Shuangtaizi, Xinglongtai and Changtu. The leisure and cultural function had enhanced, and the counties with major enhanced are mainly in the southern coastal counties of the urban agglomeration. 2) The multifunction evolution of agriculture is affected by stability factors and driving factors. The influencing direction and intensity of different factors are different. 3) The territorial types of agriculture multifunction evolution in Mid-southern Liaoning Urban Agglomeration can be divided into five types. Targeted development strategies for them should be implemented.

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    Climate Zone of Grassland Agriculture and Its Forage Suitability in China
    Zhou Daowei, Wang Ting, Wang Zhiying, Li Qiang, Huang Yingxin
    2020, 40 (10):  1731-1741.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.017
    Abstract ( 65 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2062KB) ( 53 )   Save

    The article based W Koppen Climate classification system and used database of Peel and China’s records of more than 700 climate station, produced a Koppen Climate classification system of Grassland agriculture for China, based approach of USDA plant hardness zone map and AHS plant heat zone map, produced a plant hardness zone map and a plant heat zone map for China. China included 5 climate zones (tropical climate zone, arid climate zone, temperate climate zone, cold climate zone and polar climate zone), 10 climate types (tropical monsoon climate type, tropical Savannah climate type, desert climate type, steppe climate type, dry winter temperate climate type, without dry season temperate climate type, dry summer cold climate type, dry winter cold climate type, without dry season cold climate type and tundra climate type), and 17 climate subtypes (tropical monsoon climate class, tropical Savannah climate class, cold desert climate class, cold steppe climate class, hot summer-dry winter temperate climate class, warm summer-dry winter temperate climate class, hot summer-without dry season temperate climate class, warm summer-without dry season temperate climate class, warm summer-dry summer cold climate class, cold summer-dry summer cold climate class, hot summer-dry winter cold climate class, warm summer-dry winter cold climate class, cold summer-dry winter cold climate class, hot summer-without dry season cold climate class, warm summer-without dry season cold climate class, cold summer- without dry season cold climate class and tundra climate class). We identified 6 forage climate systems in China, including cold wet forage climate system, temperate wet forage climate system, warm wet forage climate system, steppe forage climate system, desert forage climate system and cold dry forage climate system. According to the standard of plant hardiness zonation, there were 11 plant hardiness zones divided in China. The temperature of zone 1 is lower than ?39.2°C and that of zone 11 is higher than 11.2°C. According to the standard of plant heat zonation, China contained 8 plant heat zones. The number of days in zone 1 was less than 1 day, and the number of days in zone 8 was greater than 165 days. We summarized a list of forage crops in each forage climate system of agriculture grassland for China, discussed its adaptability and profitability (suitability) and managing strategy for each forage climate system.

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    Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Surface Solar Radiation and Agroclimatic Zoning in the Qinling-Bashan Mountains
    Zhang Jing, Wu Jie, Qin Gongwei, Feng Junxiao, Zheng Bo, Zhao Wenbo
    2020, 40 (10):  1742-1752.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.018
    Abstract ( 102 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (2532KB) ( 95 )   Save

    Revealing the spatiotemporal dynamics of surface solar radiation in Qinling-Bashan Mountains is helpful to the utilization of regional solar energy resources and to agricultural production. In this article, using GIS spatial analysis, the spatiotemporal dynamics of surface solar radiation in Qinling-Bashan Mountains from 1960 to 2015 were studied to reveal distribution law, which laid a foundation for the study of agroclimatic zoning. The results showed that: 1) The annual average of surface solar radiation is 4 482.77 MJ/m2 in Qinling-Bashan Mountains, showing an increasing trend from south to northeast and northwest; the interannual variation coefficient is 8.85%, showing a decreasing trend from southwest to northeast. 2) With an average interannual decline rate of -10.17 MJ/m2. The interannual variation of surface solar radiation temporally showed a significant downward trend, especially in 1970-1992, and spatially showed non-significantly slight increase in part of the northwest and significantly general decrease in the East. 3) The innerannual surface solar radiation showed a single peak pattern, with the maximum in July and the minimum in December. It spatially increased from south to northwest and northeast. The annual decline rate is -0.49 MJ/m2 in July, obviously declining in Jiange County and Beichuan County in the southwest and Baokang County in the southeast. The annual decline rate is -0.715 MJ/m2 in December, with fastest declining in Hanbin District. 4) According to precipitation and ≥10℃ accumulated temperature, the Qinling-Bashan Mountains are divided into five agroclimatic zonings. The surface solar radiation in Qinba mountain area is “longitudinal variation of high in the north and low in the south, differentiation between the east to the west in high latitudes”. Regional differences should be reflected in the use of light resources to help the poverty alleviation in agriculture.

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    Impacts of Urban Heat Island on Building Loads During A Single Extreme Low-temperature Process in Tianjin City
    Meng Fanchao, Guo Jun, Li Mingcai, Zhang Lei, Zhang Ruixue
    2020, 40 (10):  1753-1762.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.10.019
    Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2259KB) ( 68 )   Save

    For better heating regulation and energy-saving design, the impact of urban heat island (UHI) on office building hourly heating loads during extreme low-temperature process, were analyzed based on the observed hourly data from auto-weather stations and the simulated heating loads during the heating periods in Tianjin, a large city in Northern China. The results showed the heating loads of office buildings decreased from 2009 to 2017, and the average annual heating loads in urban were 7.46% lower than rural areas. For every 1°C increase in Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII), the annual heating loads of office buildings decreased by 2.19 kWh/m2 in urban compared with rural areas. The increase of the UHII reduce the heating loads of office buildings in urban, which is beneficial to the heating energy saving of urban buildings. Taking a typical extreme low-temperature process from January 21 to 25, 2016 as an example, we found that the hourly heating loads of office buildings in urban and rural areas have increased significantly, which increased by approximately 10%-20% than before and after the low-temperature process. Affected by large-scale weather processes, the temperature difference between urban and rural areas becomes smaller and the UHII becomes weaker during the low-temperature process. The decrease values of the heating load in urban than that in rural areas were 6%-8% before and after the low-temperature process, but which was approximately 3% during the low-temperature process. Moreover, the difference of heating loads in urban and rural areas was not obvious from 0700 LST to 1900 LST in high load period during the low-temperature process. These results show that the urban heat island has little effect on the heating loads of office buildings during the low-temperature process.

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