Table of Content

    10 December 2020, Volume 40 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Spatial-temporal Pattern of Industrial Soot and Dust Emissions in China and Its Influencing Factors
    Guo Zheng, Yao Shimou, Wu Changyan
    2020, 40 (12):  1949-1957.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.001
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    This essay intended to evaluate the spatial-temporal characteristics and driving factors of industrial soot and dust emissions in the provinces of China from 1999 to 2017. The data were collected and analyzed using different methods such as Gini coefficient, pollutant distribution index, standard deviational ellipse analysis, exploratory spatial data analysis and SDM model. The study concluded that: 1) The trend for industrial soot and dust emissions ratio and area ratio in different types of districts is inconsistent. The emission distribution in high, medium, relatively low and low areas, decreased significantly, however, at a relatively high emissions areas expanded significantly. 2) The Gini coefficient, disequilibrium index and concentration index of industrial soot and dust emissions in China are all fluctuating and decreasing, indicating that their spatial distribution presents a diffusion trend. 3) The standard deviational ellipse flatness of industrial soot and dust emissions revealed a significant decline, indicating that the direction of its spatial distribution was weakened. The average azimuth angle is 32.428°, which indicates that the spatial distribution pattern of industrial soot and dust emissions is in a northeast-southwest direction, which is basically consistent with the trend of industrial distribution in China. In addition, the standard deviational ellipse of industrial soot and dust emissions short axis expansion is much higher than that of long axis expansion. This implies that the evolution of spatial distribution of industrial soot and dust emissions in China is mainly due to the growth of the eastern and Western directions. In the meantime, the coverage area of the standard deviational ellipse is increasing, indicates the expanding of spatial distribution of industrial soot and dust emissions in China. Furthermore, the standard deviational ellipse center of industrial soot and dust emissions in China gradually moved from Henan Province to Shanxi Province. In the meantime, the spatial distribution of industrial soot and dust emissions in China tends to be stable after great changes. 4) The global Moran’s I of industrial soot and dust emissions in China changed from 0.126 to 0.312 at 5% significance test. Thus, there was a spatial correlation in the spatial distribution of industrial soot and dust emissions in China. Furthermore, the number of provinces in hotspots and coldspots of industrial soot and dust emissions in China increased, provinces in transition-spots and sub-hotspots decreased, while the number of provinces in sub-coldspots unchanged. 5) The increase of energy consumption, proportion of secondary industry, population density and economic development level will increase the emission of industrial soot and dust, while the improvement of foreign investment level, governance technology level and strength of environmental regulation will help to reduce the emission of industrial soot and dust.

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    A Comparative Study on Network Structures of High-speed Train and Inter-city Coach Based on the Urban Agglomerations
    Huang Jie, Du Delin, Wang Jiao’e, Zhou Jian, Jin Fengjun
    2020, 40 (12):  1958-1966.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.002
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    High-speed railway and highway are the important components of land transportation and play an important supporting role in the development and integration of the urban agglomerations. At the urban agglomeration level, this article takes high-speed trains and inter-city coaches as the representatives of the two modes, and compares the characteristics of the two networks with the network analysis method. The results show that: 1) The frequency of high-speed trains is generally higher between urban agglomerations, and the frequency of inter-city coaches is mainly concentrated in the city-pairs in urban agglomerations; 2) The inter-city coach network are more mature and complex in many urban agglomerations and have higher values of the network characteristic indicators than high-speed trains. 3) The development of the two modes of transportation varies greatly in different urban agglomerations. The two networks in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta are relatively mature and developed. The inter-city coach network connectivity in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomerations is obviously superior to that of the high-speed train network. 4) The high-speed train network is with axis structure, while the inter-city coach network shows the ‘core-periphery’ structure. In the specific urban agglomeration, the two networks’ structures hold differences.

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    Regional Potential Economic Relations Based on the Potential Energy Connection Model: Empirical Analysis of 26 Cities in Yangtze River Delta
    Jiang Ziran, Cao Weidong, Wang Chengjin, Zhu Huayou
    2020, 40 (12):  1967-1977.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.003
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    With the regional integration of the Yangtze River Delta becoming a national strategy, scientific understanding of the potential economic relations and cooperation potential among the core cities in the Yangtze River Delta has become an important theory and contemporary issue. First of all, the paper analyzes the main forming process and driving factors of potential economic relations from two aspects of external environment and internal power. It holds that globalization, localization and informatization promote the formation and evolution of potential economic relations, and explains that competition and cooperation are the key elements to measure potential economic relations from the perspective of mechanism. Then, based on the four dimensions of capital circulation, industrial development, labor supply and traffic information, the index system is constructed. The potential energy connection model is used to calculate the intensity of potential economic relations in the Yangtze River Delta from 2007 to 2017, and the measurement results are analyzed and mined in depth. The main research conclusions are as follows: 1) From 2007 to 2017, the potential economic relations of the Yangtze River Delta have been on the rise significantly, showing a prominent “three-layer” pattern in space, and this pattern presents a strong spatial stability. 2) The potential economic relations in the Yangtze River Delta generally showed a spatial polarization trend. The Gini coefficient of potential economic relations between Shanghai and the other three provinces decreased significantly, but the Gini coefficient among the three provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui still showed an upward trend. 3) The degree centrality and intermediate centrality of potential economic relations in the Yangtze River Delta both have risen during 2007-2017, and the distribution of intermediate centrality became more concentrated. The potential economic relations network shows four types of cohesive subgroup structure. 4) The potential economic relations in the Yangtze River Delta show the Matthew effect of ‘the strong always strong’ in space, and the heterogeneity of a few cities is obvious, which deserves further attention. Finally, based on the conclusions of the study, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions: optimizing the spatial pattern of “one strong and multi-polar”, weighing the development relations between cities within and outside, strengthening the economic association between cities according to the cooperation potential, and further improving the mechanism of regional integration operation.

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    Development Potential and Spatial Pattern of Urban-rural Settlement System in the Fenhe River Basin
    Hou Zihua, Liu Min, Fan Xiaoxia, Jia Yuping
    2020, 40 (12):  1978-1989.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.004
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    The article used field model to calculate development potential of urban-rural system choosing 11, 188 settlement patches as study object, analyzed the spatial characters by GIS technology and explored factors based on Geodetector model, lastly, discussed the spatial pattern of the urban-rural integration. Several conclusions can be drawn as follows: 1) The development potential has significant difference and its distribution was unbalanced. From a vertical perspective, the average value of potential was the highest in the middle reaches, the second in the lower reaches and the lowest in upper reaches. From the crosswise view, it was occupied first place in basin, come second in hilly area and was third in mountain. 2) The potential of settlements overall positive spatial autocorrelation and showed a significant pattern of high-high spatial clustering. The potential has distinct spatial heterogeneity and was different in the each direction. The spatial interaction is the strongest in those settlements among the main direction of the Fenhe River. By hot spot analysis, it was found that the hot spots and hot sub-spots were intensively distributed with the spatial structure of “main core-corridor-sub core”. 3) Natural conditions, social and economic development level and distance to the center cities are the three main factors influencing the development potential and spatial structure of urban-rural settlement system. Non-balanced development is necessary, and “Point-Axis-Net-Area” development mode was build. Specifically, in the beginning, we should focus on building the core region, then set up the main development axis. The key remaining step is putting priority on the development of distinctive settlements which processes some kind of energy level and radiometric force. Finally, all settlements in urban-rural system support and promote each other and ultimately achieve integrated development.

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    Exploring Regional Disparity and Influencing Factors of Rental House Development in China
    Zhan Dongsheng, Yu Xiaofen, Wu Qianqian, Jin Haoran, Zhang Wenzhong
    2020, 40 (12):  1990-1999.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.005
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    Accelerating rental house market development is an important part of housing system reform in China for the new era. Based on China counties census data in 2000 and 2010, this article empirically studies regional disparity and influencing factors of rental house development for 337 cities at prefecture level and above using GIS spatial statistical method and spatial econometric models. Results indicate: 1) From 2000 to 2010, rental house development in China has experienced a change trend from “spatial decentralization” to “spatial agglomeration”, and the high-value areas of rental house development are mainly located in urban agglomerations of theYangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, several regional central cities in the Western region, and several economically developed cities like Beijing and Xiamen. 2) There is a significant spatial clustering for rental house development in China and its change in 2000—2010, and increased spatial clustering intensity is observed. As for local spatial autocorrelation, hot spots distribution of rental housing development in China varies by different period. 3) Spatial econometric model shows that impact factors of proportion of employees in the secondary and tertiary industries, housing prices, ratio of rent and sale, proportion of migrant population, permanent population, proportion of population over 65 years old, families size and average educational year all have a significant effect on regional disparity of rental housing development in 2010. Rental house development change in 2000—2010 are mainly related to permanent population, proportion of migrant population, per capita housing area, proportion of population over 65 years old, average educational year and proportion of ethnic minorities.

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    Evolution and Dynamic Simulation of the Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Urban Resilience in Harbin-Changchun Urban Group
    Chen Xiaohong, Lou Jinnan, Wang Ying
    2020, 40 (12):  2000-2009.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.006
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    The Harbin-Changchun Urban Group is an important growth pole leading the economic development of Northeast China. The improvement of urban resilience of the Harbin-Changchun Urban Group is of great significance to the promotion of the all-round revitalization of the Northeast region and the sustainable development of cities. This article takes 11 prefecture-level cities in the Harbin-Changchun Urban Group from 2010 to 2018 as examples, Constructing an urban resilience evaluation system based on the evaluation framework of “ecology-economy-society-engineering”. Using the entropy weight-TOPSIS evaluation model to comprehensively measure the urban resilience of the Harbin-Changchun Urban Group, And using ARCGIS spatial analysis tools, BP neural network model, etc. to explore its temporal and spatial pattern evolution and dynamic simulation research. The result showed that: ① The overall level of urban resilience in the Harbin-Changchun Urban Group is low. The higher and higher resilience is mainly distributed in the core area, which is distributed in “spots and scattered”. The low and lower resilience are mainly distributed in the peripheral areas, showing a spatial pattern of “widely distributed on the edge”. ② Judging from the characteristics of the types of evolution trends, from 2010 to 2018, more cities showed a divergent trend than a convergent trend, indicating that the spatial differences in urban resilience gradually increased during the evolution process. ③ Economic resilience, wage income, financial capital, public resource protection, education level, and transportation facilities are the main factors that affect the resilience of the “Harbin-Changchun” urban agglomeration. ④ In terms of dynamic simulation, from 2020 to 2030, the development of urban resilience will be slower, and the resilience level will gradually decrease, and the first-level and second-level resilience are the main ones. Cities with higher resilience levels account for a smaller proportion. In terms of future development trends, the temporal and spatial differences of urban resilience are obvious. The east-west direction shows a trend of “high in the east and low in the west”, with an “inverted U-shaped” distribution in the north-south direction, indicating that the high resilience points of individual core cities in the Harbin-Changchun Urban Group are prominent and Most marginal cities are characterized by low resilience.

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    Spatial-Temporal Distribution Characteristics of COVID-19 Epidemic Disease in Zhejiang Province
    Bai Xue, Qiao Guanmin, Li Jialin, Mei Siyu, Ma Renfeng
    2020, 40 (12):  2010-2018.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.007
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    The new coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia is highly infectious, and its symptoms are hidden, which is seriously damaging to social public security. As the fourth largest epidemic area in China, it is a good case for studying the spatial diffusion of epidemics to explore the epidemiological characteristics and spatial diffusion law of COVID-19. Based on the data of pneumonia cases diagnosed with novel coronavirus infection in Zhejiang Province from January 21 to February 29, 2020, SPSS24.0 was used for data mining and ArcGIS10.2 for spatial analysis The main results are: 1) The temporal variation of the number of new cases in Zhejiang Province has the characteristics of randomness, which conforms to the Poisson distribution function. The difference in infection rates between men and women was not significant. The typical symptoms of COVID-19 were fever, cough and pulmonary imaging lesions. 2) The infection rate showed significant spatial clustering, presenting as ‘One belt and four centers’. ‘One belt’ being the county level regional unit of the Taizhou-Wenzhou coastal railway belt, ‘four centers’ being Haishu district of Ningbo City (11.02/100 000), Xiuzhou district of Huzhou City (4.29/100 000), Shangcheng district of Hangzhou City (4.06/100 000), Jianggan district of Hangzhou City (4.80/100 000), and Tonglu County of Hangzhou City (5.78/100 000). On the whole, the areas with high infection rates are mainly concentrated in the areas with strong commercial exchanges, while the areas with low infection rates are concentrated in the regions with traditional industries and relatively less developed economies. 3) The cluster center of kernel density presents a North-South-North orientation transfer. The spatial evolution characteristics are four stages: ‘multi-core and multi-center’ ‘main nucleus fixation, polycentric evolution’, ‘single main nucleus, polycentric regression’ and ‘epidemic regression’.4) the diffusion rate in Zhejiang Province was first increased from January 29 to February 4, and then decreased from February 5 to February 29. According to the diffusion source, the Epidemic areas can be divided into: ‘no infection risk area’ ‘only endogenous infection with low risk area’ ‘mainly endogenous infection and high risk area’ ‘mainly exogenous infection with controlled high risk area’ ‘only exogenous infection and controllable risk area’. The internal logic of infectious disease deduction is the transmission from exogenous diffusion to endogenous contact. 5) From the evolution of the epidemic and the characteristics of the epidemic, the four-stage treatment strategy is proposed, such as: at the first stage, the fundamental measure for controlling infectious diseases is to cut the source of infection; at the second stage, it is important to promote group governance and prevention, and realize the common governance of the government, enterprises, communities, and individuals; at the third stage, the epidemic situation is classified and regulated to restore production and life; at the final stage, it is necessary to control the imported disease source powerfully. Four stage method is treating symptoms but not root causes. It is the fundamental solution to the public health problem to promote the construction of life circle and build a healthy city.

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    The Practice and Development Path of Rural Revitalization Driven by Tourism: Taking Wulingyuan District of Zhangjiajie City as An Example
    Ma Xuefeng, Liu Yulin, Tan Jiaxin
    2020, 40 (12):  2019-2026.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.008
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    Rural revitalization is a new strategy to adapt to the new era. Rural tourism is a new type of industry combining traditional agriculture and tourism, based on the features of rural resources. In order to provide a new perspective for understanding the role of tourism in rural revitalization, the study generalizes what Wulingyuan District has done to get rid of poverty and adapt to the needs of the times, analyzes the practice mode of rural revitalization driven by tourism in Wulingyuan District from the three turns (industrial turn, management turn, and space turn). At last, the article summarizes the general mechanism and path of rural revitalization driven by tourism development. The results show that: 1) The development of tourism is the main channel and backbone of poverty alleviation in the poor regions with abundant resources to realize rural rejuvenation. The development and concentration of tourism in a region is based on local tourism resources. Meanwhile resource-rich areas rely on their own development advantages and have established corresponding popularity in the local area. 2) Wulingyuan has shifted from forestry development to tourism development, which provides a dynamic basis for achieving rural revitalization. The separation of management rights and administration authority in the scenic spots has promoted the development of rural economy. Meanwhile, the pattern of ‘scenic spot tourism, urban residential’ has accelerated the pace of rural revitalization in Wulingyuan District. 3) Wulingyuan District has formed a practical pattern of tourism industry, tourism city, integration of urban and rural, and rural revitalization. The Three Turns is not only a material change, but also an ideological improvement to optimize the regional industrial structure. With the continuous extension of the tourism industry chain, the flow of factors between urban and rural areas has been accelerated, and the gap between urban and rural areas has been continuously reduced. 4) Accelerating the innovation of tourism ecology, continuously increasing the income of farmers, and strengthening the construction of rural social infrastructure by taking the government as the leader can achieve the revitalization of rural in the resource-rich impoverished area. In accordance with the general requirements of industrial prosperity, ecological livability, rural civilization, effective governance, and affluent living, the government will take the lead in establishing a benefit distribution mechanism for cooperative construction.

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    The Daily Life and Place Identity of the Francophone Population in Guangzhou
    Chen Haoxi, Yuan Zhenjie, Cai Xiaomei
    2020, 40 (12):  2027-2036.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.009
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    The new normal of ‘flowing China’ has rendered China an important site for observing and theorizing international immigration research in a non-Western context. Recent years, Guangzhou has assumed the role and function as a global city, which attracts a large number of foreigners. The mobility of the international population and their assembly of international districts have become not only a new urban landscape of Guangzhou, but also new social-political actors of Guangzhou. In recent years, researchers focus primarily on Asian immigrants who live in large Chinese metropolises such as Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing etc. The Francophone immigrant, as a traditional immigrant group in Guangzhou, is still understudied. The history of Francophone immigration can date back to the founding of French Indochina from 1887. And at the end of the 1990s, due to the centralization and development of the urban economy of Guangzhou, many francophone immigrants have arrived in Guangzhou. They currently occupy a large part of the international population in Guangzhou. With the progress of The Belt and Road Initiative and the deepening of Economy Reform, more and more francophone immigrants will arrive in China to participate in commercial, educational, tourist, investment activities, etc. Francophone immigrants deserve further study in order to summarize their way of life and the formation of the place identity, and thus to examine their perceptions and practices of integration into the local society of Guangzhou. This study employs questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to investigate daily life and place identity of the francophone immigrants in Guangzhou. In order to ensure representativeness of interviewees, this study has taken various demographic characteristics into account, for instance, nationality, occupation, gender, etc. in the process of interviewee recruitment. In total, 13 interviewees from 10 French-speaking countries were recruited. Findings of this paper include: 1) The francophone immigrants are more active at the economic level and have a positive sense of self-efficacy. However, the differences linguistic and the inconvenience in regard to life supporting services leave a negative impact in building the place identity of Guangzhou; 2) Comparing with Japanese and Korean immigrants in Guangzhou, Francophone immigrants’ willingness of integrating into the local society is generally higher, and their passive driving force of integration is also stronger. In the shift from ‘Anglo-globalization’ to ‘multiculturally-led globalization’, to provide better services for international immigrants from non-English speaking background, and to enhance immigrants’ place identity to host societies are both demanded, in which deserve both researchers’ and policy makers’ further attention.

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    Influence of Farm Machinery Input on Agricultural GTFP and the Regional Difference of Threshold Effect
    Liu Min, Jiang Huiming, Jiang Tianlong
    2020, 40 (12):  2037-2045.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.010
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    According to the production and marketing of grain, this article divides the country into 3 types of grain function regions. The influence of machinery input on agricultural green total factor productivity (GTFP) and the regional difference of threshold effect were analyzed using fixed effect model and threshold effect model. The results show that: 1) There is regional heterogeneity in the degree of impact of machinery input in 3 grain function regions on agricultural GTFP. Farming machinery input has the largest promoting effect on the improvement of agricultural GTFP in the balanced area of grain production and marketing, next came the main grain area, and the main grain-producing area is the smallest; 2) There is regional heterogeneity in the influence paths of machinery input in 3 grain function regions on agricultural GTFP, farming machinery input in the grain production and marketing balance zone promotes agricultural GTFP by promoting agricultural technical efficiency improvement and agricultural technological progress, farming machinery input in main grain-producing areas promotes agricultural GTFP by promoting the improvement of agricultural technical efficiency, farming machinery input in the main grain marketing area promotes agricultural GTFP by promoting agricultural technological progress; 3) There is a double threshold effect of machinery input on agricultural GTFP in main grain-producing areas, and there is a single threshold effect on agricultural GTFP in main grain area and production and marketing balance area.

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    The Path of Transformation and Updating of Food Industrial in Northeast Region in the Perspective of the Belt and Road Initiative
    Xu Wenming, Zhu Xianping
    2020, 40 (12):  2046-2054.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.011
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    This paper mainly uses the method of logical speculation to analyze the important value and driving mechanism of the transformation and upgrading of grain industry in Northeast China in the perspective of the Belt and Road initiative. On the basis of identifying the development problems of grain industry in Northeast China, this paper puts forward the optimization path of grain industry. The results show that: 1) The mechanism of the optimization and upgrading of grain industry comes from the endogenous driving of factor endowment in the new structural economics, forward investment through efficiency seeking, market seeking and resource seeking, while import and export trade drives the optimization and upgrading of grain industry through trade liberalization competition effect, trade structure leading effect and market scale expansion effect; 2) The development of grain industry in Northeast China is faced with the problems of unstable grain growth, unsustainable growth rate, continuous optimization of planting structure, and urgent improvement of planting quality and agricultural product efficiency; 3) In the future, Northeast China needs to promote the transformation and upgrading of grain industry with innovation driven as the driving force, the value-added of grain industry chain as the focus, the forward investment as the important way, and the import and export trade as the breakthrough point to promote the transformation and upgrading of grain industry.

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    Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Farmland Circulation and Influencing Factors in Metropolitan Suburbs: A Case Study of Caidian District, Wuhan City
    Xu Hongmei, Guo Yan, Li Zhigang, Lin Sainan, Li Luanqiong
    2020, 40 (12):  2055-2063.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.012
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    The paper takes Caidian district in the suburb of Wuhan as an example, combines panel data of farmland circulation at the village level, and adopts the methods of Exploratory Spatial Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Model to reveal the spatial-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of farmland circulation, respectively. The study finds that: 1) Farmland circulation area shows a leapfrog growth in general, experiences two stages of increasing growth and decreasing growth in specific, and the circulation speed is greatly affected by land policy; The spatial distribution changes from random dispersion to agglomeration. The high-value agglomeration area changes from a few towns along the main road to wide plain agricultural towns, while the low-value agglomeration area changes from inexistence to towns around urban cores; 2) After controlling factors such as geographic conditions, location, socio-economic elements, we find that types of investors and uses for circulation have very significant influence on farmland circulation ratio. The policy implications are as follows: policy implementation should fully consider spatio-temporal characteristics of farmland circulation, focus more on investor types and uses for circulation, to build coordinated relationship between land and people in metropolitan suburbs, and to promote coordinated rural-urban development and rural revitalization.

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    Social Integration on the Subjective Well-being of Seasonal Tourism Immigrants in Sanya
    Zhao Chen, Chen Yangle, Zhang Kai, Shen Wencan
    2020, 40 (12):  2064-2072.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.013
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    At present, the theory of Mobility has become a popular research topic in tourism, but there are rarely researches on tourism consumption immigrants among local scholars. This article takes the representative group of tourism consumption immigrants, which is the seasonal tourism immigrants as the research object, constructs the conceptual model of the influence of the social integration of seasonal tourism immigrants on subjective happiness, and proposes relevant hypotheses; Sanya is taken as the case, and the structural equation model is used to verify the hypothesis. The results are shown as follows: 1) The social integration of seasonal tourism immigrants consists of cultural integration, identity integration and psychological integration. This article developed the scale of social integration of seasonal tourism immigrants and tested its dimensions, reliability and validity through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. 2) The cultural integration of seasonal tourism immigrants has the least impact on subjective well-being, and has only a significant positive impact on positive emotion; while psychological integration and identity integration are positively used for life satisfaction and positive emotion, and have a significant inhibitory effect on negative emotion.3) Sanya has created a superior living space for seasonal tourism immigrants, which not only satisfies the needs of happy life of seasonal tourism immigrants, but also greatly enhances the subjective happiness of them. In addition, the diversity and inclusiveness of Sanya as a tourist city can eliminate the role of cultural integration in promoting subjective happiness. However, conflicts and misunderstandings caused by obvious identity boundaries have greatly reduced the happiness of seasonal tourism immigrants. Therefore, there is an urgent need to improve the identity integration of the seasonal tourism immigrants. Finally, based on empirical analysis, the promotion strategy of subjective happiness of the seasonal tourism immigrants is proposed from the aspects of cultural integration, identity integration and psychological integration.

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    Industrial Synergy of Tourism Development and Dutch Disease Effect: Consideration Based on the “Hu Line”
    Liu Changsheng, Dong Ruitian, Jian Yufeng
    2020, 40 (12):  2073-2084.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.014
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    As an important part of the economic development, the research on the industry driving ability of tourism development has always been one of the focuses of tourism economic research. Tourism has become a pillar industry in China. The geographer Hu Huanyong introduced western modern geography theories and methods to study China’s population and agriculture issues from the perspective of man-land relations, and proposed that the geographical distribution of the Chinese population is divided by the Heihe (Aihui)-Tengchong Line. Tourism activities are social, economic and geographical phenomena with the main characteristics of population mobility. At the same time, the development of tourism has a very important impact on the social and economic development and industrial structure of tourist destinations. To study the industrial structure effect of tourism development and to explore whether it has the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of the “Hu line” is helpful to grasp the spatial differentiation law of tourism activities scientifically. Based on the neoclassical economic growth theory, this paper constructs the theoretical analysis model of the industrial structure effect of tourism development, establishes the evaluation index of tourism development industry synergy and Dutch Disease effect. With the “Hu line” for the geographical area boundary, with excellent tourism cities as the key node, based on the panel data of 60 excellent tourism cities in China from 2000 to 2017, the empirical analysis shows that: the tourism development of the first, second and third industry industrial coordination with the Netherlands effect significantly exist at the same time, the overall performance for the Dutch Disease effects respectively, with poor industry synergies, strong industrial synergies; The overall difference in time and space is significant, showing a change rule of “steady increase-fast decrease-steady decrease”. The research on whether the industrial structure effect of tourism activities has the spatial distribution characteristics of the “Hu line” is helpful to grasp the spatial differentiation rules of tourism activities scientifically and deepen the understanding of the geographical spatial characteristics of the “Hu line” in the development of tourism in China.

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    Impact of Farmers’ Dual Risk Perceptions on Resettlement Intentions and Behaviors: A Case Study of Former Caopo Township in Southwestern China
    Chen Yong, Li Qingxue, Cao Yang, Xu Yumei
    2020, 40 (12):  2085-2093.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.015
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    In China a large rural population inhabits mountain areas where people are prone to a variety of natural hazards such as flood and landslide. In order to reduce disaster risks, the Chinese government has increasingly and extensively resorted to relocation of people at risk areas. Due to constraints for finding safe places for reconstruction of houses, distant relocation is sometimes seen as an expedient option. However, such resettlement programs, if not well planned and implemented, may incur relocation risks for those displaced, which include landlessness, unemployment, poor housing quality, indebtedness, marginalization, increased cash payment on food, adaptation of climate. Risk perception refers to the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Existing studies show that attributes of risk and household characteristics may affect people’s risk perception, which may further influence people’s relocation decision-making regarding when and where to migrate. Taking the case of former Caopo Township in Wenchuan county in the southwestern Sichuan Province of China, using sample survey and in-depth interview with rural households, village leaders and local officials, this paper proposes the concepualization of ‘dual risk perceptions’-perception of natural hazard risk and perception of relocation risk: both having informed resettlement intentions and behaviors of people to be displaced. It is concluded that dual risk perceptions have significant and robust consequences on people’s intention to migrate, households with higher perception of natural hazard risk have greater propensity to migrate, while those with a higher perception of relocation risk tend not to migrate. It is also shown that dual risk perceptions have marked consequences on people’s migration behaviors: a stronger perception of relocation risks makes people more likely not to resettle their whole family while a higher perception of natural hazard risk will increase the possibity of people’s relocation from areas at risk; migration intention has significant consequence on behavior of those staying at their origin places, while those having no intention to migrate are more likely not to relocate; family size plays a significant role in people’s migration behaviors as larger families are more likely not relocate the whole family; family income only affects people’ behavior of those who do not relocate as those who have a higher income have a higher propensity to relocate; relocation risk perception is more influenctial than natural hazard risk perception for households whose family members do not totally relocate. Households who are reluctant to migrate show perception of higher relocation risk than natural hazard risk. This research reveals that, although preventive resettlement is planned and implemented for disaster risk reduction, people may apt to remain in areas at risk of disaster if they perceive higher risk arising from relocation. All in all, migration behavior of people living at risk of disaster is a complicated process concerning their perception of disaster risk and relocation risk, relocation intention and household characteristics. All these factors should be taken into account in planning preventive resettlement.

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    Evaluation of the Development Coordination Relationship Between Resilience and Efficiency of Regional Water Resources System in China
    Sun Caizhi, Meng Chengcheng
    2020, 40 (12):  2094-2104.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.016
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    On the basis of defining the concept of water resources system resilience, the comprehensive application of the weighting method, the SBM-DEA model, and the development coordination model for the efficiency, resilience, and both of regional water resources systems in 31 provinces and regions in China from 2000 to 2016 Evaluation of the development coordination relationship. The results are as follows: 1) The efficiency of China’s regional water resources system as a whole is in an ineffective zone, and it has shown an upward trend in fluctuations during the study period. 2) The average toughness of regional water resources system in China is 0.39, which is low on the whole and fluctuates on the whole during the study period. 3) The development degree of the efficiency and resilience of China’s regional water resources system generally shows a steady rise—rapid rise—rapid decline—increasing trend, showing an inverted “U” -shaped development; the degree of coordination shows an upward trend in fluctuation during the study period, and most provinces The development degree of the district is good, but the coordination degree is weak. 4) From 2000 to 2016, the coordination degree of the development of water resources efficiency and resilience has maintained a “east-middle-west” stepwise decreasing pattern, the number of imbalanced provinces and regions has decreased, and the number of primary, intermediate, and well-coordinated provinces has gradually increased. The overall development is in a coordinated trend; the spatial pattern has evolved from an inverted “E” symmetrical distribution pattern in 2000 to a three-level pattern that now surrounds Tianjin in the north, Shanghai in the middle, and Guangdong in the south. The pattern distribution is similar to the three economic zones in China. Basically, we can see that there is a clear relationship between the level of coordinated development of the efficiency and resilience of China’s water resources system and the level of economic development.

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    Meteorological and Agricultural Drought Characteristics and Their Relationship Across the Loess Plateau
    Li Ming, Ge Chenhao, Deng Yuying, Wang Guiwen, Chai Xurong
    2020, 40 (12):  2105-2114.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.017
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    In recent years, the combined effects of climate change and soil and water conservation measures have led to more complex drought conditions in the Loess Plateau, which has caused huge agricultural and socioeconomic losses. In this paper, standardized precipitation index (SPI) and vegetation condition index (VCI) are selected as indicators to evaluate the meteorological and agricultural droughts on the Loess Plateau, respectively. The distribution characteristics and trends of droughts in the Loess Plateau are analyzed using drought frequency and Sen slope, and the correlation between meteorological drought and agricultural drought is also discussed. The results show that: 1) The drought frequency in the western Loess Plateau is generally higher than that in the east. The trends of meteorological droughts are different from that of agricultural droughts in space. The meteorological droughts in the western and northern Loess Plateau show no significant slowing down trends, and the meteorological droughts in the eastern and southern Loess Plateau show no significant increasing trends. However, the agricultural droughts in most areas are slowing down, especially in the areas on both sides of the line with a rainfall of 400 mm. 2) The frequency of meteorological drought in summer and autumn is higher than that in spring and winter. The frequency of agricultural drought is the highest in spring and the second in summer. VCI is more suitable for real-time monitoring of agricultural drought. 3) In different seasons, the lag time of agricultural drought to meteorological drought is different. The lag time is about 2 months in winter, 1 month in spring, and less than 1 month in summer and autumn. There is a good positive correlation between SPI-12 and VCI in one-harvest regions of the Loess Plateau. The results can provide scientific basis for drought monitoring and early warning, drought regionalization and drought disaster risk assessment in the Loess Plateau.

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    Correlation Analysis of Variation of Dry-wet Climate and ENSO in Northern China During 1960-2017
    Jia Yanqing, Zhang Bo
    2020, 40 (12):  2115-2124.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.018
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    Based on the long-term daily data measured at 424 meteorological stations in Northern China during 1960-2017, ET0 was calculated using Penman-Monteith method, Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were established using precipitation and evapotranspiration. On the basis of these results, the dryness/wetness trends measured by SPEI and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence on the dryness/wetness threshold over Northern China during 1960-2017 are analyzed. The overall annual SPEI of Northern China fluctuated around the 58-year mean and its linear trend was not significant. The seasonal mean SPEI showed an increasing trend, the mean SPEI had increased more significantly in winter. Seasonally, the more significant wetness trend occurred in spring and winter. Geographically, a significant wetness was apparent over the areas of western Northwest China, and drought trend mainly occurred in the Loess Plateau, the Northern Northeast China and the eastern Inner Mongolia. Moreover, different grades of drought events decreased and different grades of wet events increased across the entire region. Among them, the moderate drought events showed the most significant decreasing trend, moderate and extreme drought events decreased significantly in western Northwest China, extreme wet events increased significantly in northern Northeast China and part area of Xinjiang. Three types of drought events decreased significantly and three types of wet events increased significantly in four seasons, Seasonally, three types of drought events decreased significantly in western Northwest China. The relationship between the ENSO and dryness/wetness climate arrives with a delay. The wet events occurred frequently in the following El Ni?o, the drought events happened often in following La Nina. SSTA had a significant positive correlation with SPEI of next year in annual and spring time scales. The SSTA was one of the factors that had an important impact to drought and wet condition in most areas of Nothern China.

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