Table of Content

    10 February 2021, Volume 41 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Systematic Structure and Trend Simulation of China’s Man-land Relationship Until 2050
    Li Xiaoyun, Yang Yu, Liu Yi, Chen Yuanyuan, Xia Siyou
    2021, 41 (2):  187-197.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.001
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    Man-land relationship is the eternal research subject of geography and the key scientific issue to promote the implementation of sustainable development. Based on systematic thought, this paper applies system dynamic method that is good at dealing with complex interactive relations to explore the internal structure and element correlation of man-land relationships, and to construct man-land system model to simulate the development trend and core characteristics of China’s man-land relationship until the middle of this century under the two development scenarios, that is basic mode and regulatory mode. The results show that, in the contemporary man-land system composed of population, economy, society, resources and environment, there are four core positive and negative feedback loops, and the aforementioned five factors play different roles in the system, which can be summarized as: population is the main cause, economy is the promoting cause, resources are the foundation, environment is the representation, and society is the regulation. From 2017 to 2050, if the current man-land relationship mode is allowed to continue, the core resources and environmental factors will always be under high pressure, and the man-land system will face the risk of collapse. However, under the regulatory development mode bearing multiple policy intentions, although the core resource factors are still overloaded, the overall trend of the system is positive, and the man-land relationship will meet its inflection point. In the future, relevant policy regulation needs to continue to make more efforts in the gap between energy supply and demand, as well emission reduction targets.

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    Spatial Pattern and Its Impact Mechanism of Urban Commercial Fitness Space: Evidences from Shanghai, China
    Sun Feng, Zhang Jinhe, Wang Chang, Hu Quanxu, Zhang Haizhou
    2021, 41 (2):  198-206.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.002
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    The reasonable layout of urban commercial fitness space and the identification of influencing factors are the basis for the sustainable development of urban fitness industry and the effective implementation of ‘Healthy China’ strategy. Based on POI (Point of Interest) data from Baidu and network evaluation data from Meituan, this article explores the spatial pattern and impact mechanism of commercial fitness space in Shanghai. The results show that: 1) The core-edge pattern of commercial fitness space is presented as a whole in Shanghai. A core agglomeration distribution area has been formed at the junction of Huangpu District, Jing’an District, Xuhui District, Changning District, Putuo District and Hongkou District, and there is no phenomenon of ‘hollow city center’. 2) The distribution of commercial fitness space keeps a high coincidence with the spatial distribution of high population density, high housing prices, developed transportation networks, residential area, office buildings and shopping centers in Shanghai. 3) Population density, underground distance, residential area distance, office building distance, chain situation and housing price level are the key factors affecting the spatial pattern. Population density has the greatest impact, followed by housing price level and office building distance, underground distance, residential area distance and chain situation are the smallest. Housing price level has negative impact, the remaining five have positive impact. Through the analysis of influencing mechanism, the paper is proposed to meet people’s growing demand for fitness, optimize urban commercial space, improve the quality of urban life, and help to achieve the national strategic goal of ‘Healthy China’.

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    Evolution Characteristics and Impact Factors of the Cultural Heritage Ethnic Structure in China
    Xu Chunxiao, He Lingling, Zhang Jingjing
    2021, 41 (2):  207-214.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.003
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    Taking Chinese cultural heritage as the research object, the basic data of major historical and cultural sites protected at the national level, national intangible cultural heritage, national museums are obtained to explore the evolution characteristics and impact factors of the cultural heritage ethnic structure in Chinese mainland. The result shows that: 1) The equality trend of ethnic groups’ culture development in our country is more and more obvious. The national cultural heritage has covered all ethnic groups with a national coverage of 1 by 2019. From the perspective of the share of cultural heritage owned by various ethnic groups, the share of the minority’s cultural heritage fluctuates; 2) The authenticity of ethnic groups’ culture in our country is getting more obvious. The distribution characteristics of ethnic cultural heritage show that the protection of the authenticity and integrity of cultural heritage is fully reflected in the areas where ethnic groups live together; 3) The share of national amalgamation cultural heritage rising continuously shows that the trend of national culture amalgamation is obvious. The various ethnic groups interacted and learned from each other, showing a diverse blend of colors in the process, of which the Han nationality is the core force of cohesion; 4) The cultural heritage ethnic structure in Chinese mainland is obviously affected by population, economic, and policy factors. The population scale of each ethnic group is the most important factor while economy is the guarantee factor for the heritage protection of each ethnic group’s cultural heritage. Policy is the support factor.A large number of supportive policies was issued by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council play an important role in the optimization of the ethnic structure of cultural heritage.

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    Spatial-temporal Evolution Characteristics of Urban Logistics Spread Based on the Logistics Land Panel Data of 329 Cities in China
    Ji Xiaofeng, Wang Ran, Chen Fang, Qin Wenwen, Li Jiemei
    2021, 41 (2):  215-222.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.004
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    As the space carrier of logistics facilities, the study of urban logistics spread based on the data of logistics land use can identify the inherent law of urban logistics development as a whole, and provide a basis for urban planning and related strategies. Based on the data of logistics land on China Land Market Network, a land use spread index model is constructed, and spatial analysis methods such as kernel density and weighted standard deviation ellipse are used to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of logistics spread in China from 2008 to 2017 from multiple perspectives such as the size and direction. The results show that: 1) From 2008 to 2017, The highest level of urban logistics sprawl in China is in the northeast, followed by the East, West and central. About 67.48% of the cities in China are in a slow state of sprawl. 2) Urban logistics spreads has formed three major high-value areas of nuclear density across the country: The Yangtze River Delta, Shandong Peninsula and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. The cold spot area of logistics land is mainly distributed in southwest areas such as Gansu and Yunnan. 3) The trajectory of urban logistics spread center of gravity in China has experienced a movement law of northeast-southwest-southeast direction. To some extent, this is influenced by national strategy, economic level and other factors. Reasonable expansion of logistics land should be made to minimize the negative impact of logistics spread.

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    Spatial-temporal Pattern Evolution and Influencing Factors of High Quality Development Coupling Coordination: Case on Counties of Zhejiang Province
    Hua Xiangyu, Jin Xiangrong, Lyu Haiping, Ye Yafen, Shao Yuanhai
    2021, 41 (2):  223-231.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.005
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    By using the entropy method, the mean square deviation weighting method, the coupling coordination model, the spatial correlation analysis method, and GWR model, the research studied the dynamic coupling coordination level, spatial-temporal pattern differentiation and influencing factors of the high quality development in counties of Zhejiang Province. It shows that over the past 10 years, the spatial differentiation of the high quality development in Zhejiang Province has shown the overall spatial characteristics of ‘high development in the east, low development in the west, high development in the north and low development in the south’; The coupling spatial pattern of high quality development is relatively stable, with good coupling as the main factor, and the coordination level of high quality development is relatively low, with intermediate coordination as the main factor, and the counties with high coupling and coordination are mainly concentrated in the area around Hangzhou Bay; The dynamic coupling and coordination spatial structure of high quality development of counties in Zhejiang Province shows a high agglomeration trend around Hangzhou Bay, with significant changes in the spatial coupling cold hot spots and spatial coordination cold hot spots, with evolution path dominated by successive transfer and supplemented by cross-level transfer, the distribution pattern is relatively stable. The influence factors of coordination of high quality development have obvious regional characteristics. The intensity of its influence factors decreases from economic strength, agglomeration capacity, government financial support and infrastructure in turn.

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    Differentiation and Dynamic Mechanism of Rural Development in Metropolitan Fringe Based on the Functional Perspective in Guangzhou City
    Yang Ren, Zhang Jing, Chen Yanchun
    2021, 41 (2):  232-242.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.006
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    This article takes the differentiation of rural development types in metropolitan fringes areas as the theme. The comprehensive analysis of the rural development types, formation mechanism and optimization were examined on village scale in Guangzhou by using the village planning survey database of Guangzhou in 2013 and methods such as spatial concentration and functional identification. The results as fellows: First, the spatial gradient difference of rural function in Guangzhou is significant. The functions of economic development and social security are gradually decreasing from urban areas to suburbs, while the functions of agricultural production and ecological conservation are gradually increasing from urban areas to suburbs. According to the principle of rural dominate function, the rural areas in Guangzhou are divided into 6 types: economic development leading type, social security leading type, agricultural production leading type, ecological conservation leading type, balanced development type and comprehensive development type, among which the balanced development type is the main type. Secondly, the rural areas of Guangzhou are divided into urban development type, mixed development type and traditional development type by the characteristics of rural development and the location, which exhibit layer structures surrounding the downtown and the sub-center of city. Third, government, market and social forces are important driving forces of rural development, which exert multi-directional influences on the differentiation of rural development through different forms of action. The government promotes the rapid development of urbanization through administrative division adjustment, strategic development planning, major projects and major infrastructure construction. Market forces promote rural industrial structure transformation and non-agriculture diversified development through enterprise investment and industrial. Social forces promote the reconstruction of rural production, living and ecological space through the development of economic organizations and the establishment of township enterprises. Fourth, the system of multi-participation in the community management, the space integration of village cluster, as well as the construction of town-township interaction circle will be an important way to optimize rural development.

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    Spatial-temporal Differentiation and Influencing Factors of Chinese Core Journals
    Liu Hailong, Xie Yalin, Wang Hu, Li Man
    2021, 41 (2):  243-251.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.007
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    Based on the contents of Chinese core journals (core journals) from 1992 to 2017, this article uses Moore structure value to calculate the internal structure change of core journals, calculate the position of gravity center by gravity center model, analyzes its spatial and temporal differentiation characteristics through GIS visualization, assess the rationality of the impact model by ordinary least squares, and quantitatively analyzes the influencing factors of spatial and temporal differentiation of core journals through geographic detector model. The results show that the number of core journals has experienced development process of ‘decline-rise-gradual stability’ from 1992 to 2017, and the East-West differentiation is obvious with ‘Heihe-Tengchong Line’ as the boundary, showing the spatial characteristics of ‘overall dispersion and local agglomeration’. The change of internal structure is ubiquitous and different, and the change of internal structure in the west is higher than that in the east and the middle. The center of gravity of core journals shows a trend of eastern agglomeration with significant features in stages. The spatial differentiation of core journals is the result of the comprehensive effects of many factors, the influential factors of core journals will vary from time and region, science and technology factors are the main influencing factors of the spatial differentiation of core journals, followed by economic and educational influence, and social and policy factors are the general influencing factors of the distribution of core journals.

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    The Spatial-temporal Patterns and Formation Mechanism of Rural Tourism Public Service in China
    Gao Nan, Zhang Xincheng, Wang Linyan
    2021, 41 (2):  252-260.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.008
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    Taking the public service level of rural tourism in 30 provinces (regions and cities) of China as the research object, this article established a bayesian time-space model to study the temporal and spatial differentiation trend, influencing factors and action mechanism of the development level, evolution speed and acceleration of rural tourism public service in China from 2006 to 2017. The results show: 1) During the observation period, the public service level of rural tourism in China showed a trend of fluctuation and increase, with distinct periodical characteristics. The development level of the three regions is unbalanced, showing a ladder pattern of decline from east to central to west. The difference between east and west regions is significant, showing a descending pattern from east to west regions, and the imbalance problem within the regions are prominent. 2) In terms of the local change trend, the development level and speed of rural tourism public services in the three regions are positively correlated with each other, and have the 'Matthew effect' feature that the stronger the strong. The study also finds that the acceleration growth trend of rural tourism public service level in most areas has the cyclical characteristics of fluctuation and fluctuation, which reflects the intermittent and unsustainable problems in the process of the growth expansion of rural tourism public service level in China. 3) The temporal and spatial patterns of rural tourism public service level is the result of supply and demand factors combined action. They mainly including: The supply of resource abundance is the internal driving force, the supply of industrial development is the guide force, the supply of economic base is the core driving force, the supply of policy system is the external driving force, the demand of tourism market potential is the potential thrust, the demand of urban-rural integration is the double driving force, the social demand is the non-sensitive factor.

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    Household Registration Differences and the Intention of Hukou Transfer of Floating Population in Urban China
    Tian Ming, Liu Yuemei
    2021, 41 (2):  261-270.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.009
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    The household registration (can be known as Hukou) transfer intention of floating population is the key factor to improve the new-type urbanization. The factors influencing the willingness of Hukou transfer are very complex. However, the existing studies have paid little attention to the differences between the floating population with non-agricultural household registration and with agricultural household registration. Besides, the classification of various influencing factors is not clear, which makes the mechanism research lack of depth, as a result, the relevant policy suggestions put forward are limited. This study analyses the factors influencing the floating population’s intention of Hukou transfer through a multi-level regression logit model from three dimensions of initial agency, mediating factors and urban factors. It focuses on the differences of Hukou transfer intention between non-agricultural and agricultural floating population, and explore the influence mechanism. Data comes from the Survey of Social Integration and Mental Health of Migrants, which is conducted by the Department of Floating Population Service and Management of the National Population and Family Planning Commission of China in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that the floating population’s intention of Hukou transfer gradually adjusted with the changes of themselves, their families and the external environment. It is found that people with non-agricultural household registration have stronger willingness to transfer their Hukou in the cities than people with agricultural household registration. The initial factors, mediating factors and urban factors all have significant influences on both non-agricultural population and agricultural population. The stronger the personal agency is, the stronger the floating population’s intention of Hukou transfer; the stronger urban attraction, the stronger the willingness of the floating population to transfer their household registration; the mediating factors that change with time is the key to the change of Hukou transfer intention. It is worth noting that the effects are different between agricultural and non-agricultural floating population: First of all, the initial factors such as education and the district of their hometown have a greater impact on agricultural population; Secondly, the influence of mediating factors, such as age and the length of going out, on agricultural population is greater than non-agricultural population. Thirdly, the non-agricultural population pay more attention to the quality of the city and have stronger personal agency in the choice of the household registration destinations. The agricultural floating population are more sensitive to almost all kinds of factors due to less urban life experience and weak personal agency, and the factors affecting their Hukou transfer intention are more complex. The non-agricultural floating population have strong personal agency, few factors affecting their intention of Hukou transfer, and have a stronger preference for the quality and location of the city. Combined with the main conclusions of this study and the problems encountered in the process of urbanization, we put forward to policy suggestions to further promote the citizenization of the floating population.

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    Spatial Structure of Industrial Ownership of Fujian Province Based on Top 300 Industrial Enterprises in Fujian Province
    Chen Yueying, Wang Cuiping, Liu Shanhong, Chen Yingfeng
    2021, 41 (2):  271-279.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.010
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    Under the guidance of system theory of regional economic, top 300 industrial enterprises of Fujian Province are taken as samples. We take county-level administrative regions as the basic geographical units which are divided into 4 types of regions that consist of different ownership on basis of the quantity dynamics of the types of ownership in each region. Taking the types of ownership and industry attributes of major products of top 300 industrial enterprises as the research object of this article, we analyzed the spatial characteristic of the regional construction of ownership. Based on the results of analysis we studied the relationship between the construction of ownership and the construction of industry, and we also revealed the relationship between the construction of ownership and the level of regional economic development. The research results show that: 1) there are some spatial differences between the ownership constitution of regions in the southeastern Fujian and that in the non-southeastern Fujian. The level of economic development in the southeastern Fujian is higher than that in the non-southeastern Fujian, which provides an advantage for the development of ownership constitution of regions the southeastern Fujian. The ownership constitution of regions in the southeastern Fujian is complex, and the joint ventures and exclusive foreign owned enterprises are clustered in the southeastern Fujian. The ownership constitution of regions in the non-southeastern Fujian is simple. The ownership constitution of most of regions in the non-southeastern Fujian is no more than 3 types of ownership, and the publicly-owned enterprises dominate in non-southeast of Fujian. 2) there are also some spatial differences in the ownership constitution of county-level administrative regions in southeast of Fujian. The county-level administrative regions in southeast of Fujian are divided into 4 types, including regions that consist of no more than three types of ownership, regions that consist of more than 3 types of ownership, regions that consist of no more than 3 types of ownership go up to more than 3 types of ownership and regions that consist of more than 3 types of ownership decline to no more than 3 types of ownership, and the development gradient of four types of ownership construction has formed. The regions that consist of more than 3 types of ownership are the economic barycenter of industry in Fujian, the ownership constitution of which is the most complicated. The economic status of private enterprises in the southeastern Fujian has been on the rise, which weakens the dominant position of the enterprises by investors from Taiwan in Fujian. This study shows that the ownership constitution with different types of ownership will facilitate the economic growth in Fujian.

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    Evaluation on Agricultural Production Space and Layout Optimization Based on Resources and Environmental Carrying Capacity: A Case Study of Fujian Province
    Zhou Kan, Li Jiuyi, Wang Qiang
    2021, 41 (2):  280-289.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.011
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    The evaluation on agricultural production space based on resources and environmental carrying capacity is a necessary basis for scientifically delineating agricultural space and permanent basic farmland, which of great significance for national food security and ecological security. In this regard, this article puts forward an efficient and reliable method for delineating agricultural space and assessing the production capacity, which integrates the technical frame of resources and environmental carrying capacity evaluation with the model of suitability assessment for agricultural production, taking Fujian Province as a case study. The results indicate that: 1) the evaluation method should include four crucial elements: land resources, water resources, environment, and natural disasters, which are respectively indicated by cultivation condition, water supply condition, environmental condition, meteorological hazards. 2) Based on the results of carrying capacity grading, suitability for agricultural production needs to consider the spatial form, location conditions, and production conditions. 3) The proportion of spaces with high, sub-high, medium, sub-low, and low grades of resources and environmental carrying capacity in Fujian are 29.9%, 16.3%, 12.0%, 18.9% and 22.9%, respectively. The spaces with high and sub-high grade are distributed in coastal plains, terraces, and gentle hillside, as well as valleys and basins in inland areas. 4) The proportion of agricultural production suitable zone, general suitable zone and unsuitable zone are 36.4%, 26.8%, and 36.9%, respectively. The suitable zone has comprehensive resources and environmental conditions for agricultural production activities, with excellent structural integrity and cultivation convenience. 5) As suggested by this study, the method of delineating agricultural production space based on resources and environmental carrying capacity evaluation, can meet the needs of agricultural production space zoning and planning, which has been applied in the national territorial spatial planning. According to the results of the “double evaluations” on carrying capacity and suitability, the layout optimization and land consolidation of agricultural production can be implemented, targeting at types of reserved type, remediation type, withdrawal type, etc.

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    Spatial Evolution and its Drivers of Regional Agro-ecological Efficiency in China’s from the Perspective of Water Footprint and Gray Water Footprint
    Wang Shengyun, Lin Yujuan
    2021, 41 (2):  290-301.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.012
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    The water footprint and gray water footprint are integrated into the input and output index system, and the agro-ecological efficiency and spatial distribution pattern of China from 1990 to 2016 are analyzed using the SBM model based on undesired output, and Tobit panel model mothoods. The main findings are as follows: 1) From 1990 to 2016, agricultural water footprint and gray water footprint increased significantly; The regional center of gravity of high agricultural water footprint moved northward, and transferred from the Yangtze River basin to the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The range of high ash water footprint in China is obviously expanded, and the whole area of ash water footprint moves from southwest to northeast; 2) China’s agricultural ecological efficiency is obviously decreasing, and there are obvious regional characteristics in China’s agricultural ecological efficiency. The agricultural ecological efficiency in South China is the highest, while that in Northeast China, Northwest China, regions along the Great Wall, Qinghai and Tibet, and Southwest China is relatively low. These regions are the key areas of agricultural pollution control and prevention in China; 3) The results show that there is a significant spatial autocorrelation of agricultural ecological efficiency in China, and it tends to gather more and more spatially; 4) There are differences in driving factors of agricultural ecological efficiency evolution in seven regions of China. It is suggested that China’s agricultural ecological efficiency should be adapted to local conditions and differentiated development should be adopted. This article provides a reference for promoting agricultural ecological efficiency and sustainable development in China.

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    Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Corresponding Network of County Traffic Flow in Chongqing and Its Influencing Factors—Based on the Analysis of Highway Freight Car Data from 2012 to 2016
    Gao Xin, Duan Dezhong, Gao Yang, Xiu Chunliang
    2021, 41 (2):  302-309.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.013
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    Geography concerns on urban systems for a long period of time. The ‘central place’ hierarchy system, which was the first systematic exposition of the urban hierarchy, has always been the classic structure of the urban system. With the rapid development of science and technology, and the improvement of instantaneous information and communication technology and high-speed transportation infrastructure, population, materials, capital, knowledge, technology and other factors flow fast among cities. Therefore, Castells proposed the concept of ‘ space of flows’ to distinguish the traditional static place space and bit space. Castells gradually proposed the ‘sandwich’ structure of the space of flows. Although the space of flows originated from the field of sociology, it had a profound impact on urban geography. It has become a consensus on the structure of cities and regions from dynamic and relational networks. In recent years, the research on urban association networks supported by big data has gradually become one of the hot spots. The depiction of regional space is also more refined. However, there are obvious shortcomings in the existing research: 1) In terms of inter-city connections, the method of characterizing network connections is relatively simple, and the attention paid to traditional transportation methods (such as highway transportation) is insufficient. The recent study usually emphasizes the commonality of different national and regional networks and ignore the uniqueness. 2) Less attention has been paid to the western region of China. The state-owned real economy in this region is dominant, and the urban-rural relationship model is quite different from that in the Eastern region. 3) Because the accumulation time of big data is short, the existing researches are mostly on a certain time section, but not on continuous time sections. The information construction of highway started quite early, which can overcome the mentioned shortcomings to a certain extent. This article uses the cargo flow data of October from 2012 to 2016 to dynamically demonstrate the structural evolution of the cargo flow network in Chongqing’s districts and counties, and uses spatial regression to explore its evolution mechanism. This article draws the following conclusions: 1) The main city and Wanzhou are the core parts of the highway cargo flow network in Chongqing. The status of the main city ring zone is the most prominent zone. With Wanzhou as the center, the status of the ‘triangular zone’ consisting of Kaizhou, Yunyang, and Liangping has declined gradually. The cargo flow connection network of Chongqing’s districts and counties is a scale-free network and a typical small-world network. The spatial heterogeneity of cargo flow distribution is very significant. The cargo flow network is flatter in topology, but the distribution of traffic volume is polarized. 2) The community structure of the cargo flow association network in Chongqing districts and counties presents the situation of ‘three-legged standing’ in the main city group, Wanzhou group, and Zhong-shi-feng group. The priority of distance is the first principle of node Top contact flow. The Top1 contact flow always points to the contact objects in the group. 3) The size of urban population, the secondary industry, the construction industry, and the fixed asset investment significantly contribute to the freight flow of the highway, while the size of the primary industry and the tertiary industry have a significant resistance to the freight flow of the highway effect.

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    Research on Space Production of Real-scene Performing Art: A Case Study on ‘The Peach Colony’
    Wang Chujun, Wang Yali, Xiang Xiaohui
    2021, 41 (2):  310-318.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.014
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    Real-scene performing art (RPA) refers to a typical model for the integration of culture and tourism. Scholars have demonstrated great concerns about cultural reconstruction and cultural change occurred with RPA. However, most of the investigations neglected spatial aspects of RPA despite the fact that the development of RPA indeed transforms space physically and socially. In the meanwhile, new space is created culturally. Besides, in the existing literature about tourism space production, increasing academic interests are being concentrated on the space production of tourism events. However, they rarely regard tourism events as performances which can be naturally divided into the front stage and back stage. In addition, in debates about tourism development mode, scholars are confronted with a dilemma over whether tourist destination should be designed into separate front stage and back stage. The present study brings tourism performance theory and space production theory together, and employs methods of in-depth interview and participant observation to analyze space production of RPA with an example of ‘The peach colony’. Conclusions can be summarized as follows: 1) Tourism management company and performance company remodeled and produced physical sightseeing space for the scenic spot and RPA of ‘The peach colony’. 2) Stage effects, including light, sound and smoke divide the sightseeing space at night into the front stages and back stages. In the front stages, actors arouse tourists’ emotions and deliver sense of value through bodily performance. Additionally, tourists and actors interact with each other through characters defined by performance script. In the back stages, performance company trains local residents into actors. Both the front stages and back stages are managed and supervised by the performance company. 3) Consequently, two spaces are produced respectively in the front stage and back stage. Cultural imaginary space based on ‘The peach colony’ and local social life space. These two spaces are interrelated and mutual-promoted in the light of ‘harmonious society’ revealed by Tao Yuanming. With this case study, this paper argues that the front stage and back stage are unavoidable in the discourse of modern tourism. In the meanwhile, we should consider how to promote positive interaction between them. Through focusing on the process and effect of space production in RPA and interplay between the front stages and the back stages, this study takes ‘harmonious society’ advocated in the essay of ‘The peach colony’ as a clue to present the mutual-support relationship between the front stages and back stages. Moreover, the current work also provides a reference to reasonable interrelation of the front stage and back stage in cultural tourism attractions, which also inspires the sustainable development of RPA and cultural tourism attractions.

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    Measurement of Accessibility and Market Potential of Ski Resorts in China
    Dou Wenkang, Wang Shijin, Han Tongtong, Xie Jia
    2021, 41 (2):  319-327.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.015
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    With the approach of the 2022 Winter Olympics, ski tourism has become a hot spot which is pursued by the general public. As the space carrier of ski tourism, ski resorts have increased exponentially in recent years. The ski resort can be used not only as a public service facilities and also as a tourist attractions in the city. Its planning and development will affect the residents’ life experience and employment in the surrounding areas, and it is also a manifestation of a city’s tourism competitiveness. Based on accessibility analysis and potential model, this article systematically analyzed the spatial distribution pattern and market potential of Chinese ski resorts, comprehensively recognized the advantages and disadvantages of ski resorts in terms of traffic accessibility, and put forward the corresponding development or improvement directions of ski resorts for different regions. The results showed that the average shortest travel time from ski resorts to the city center in China is 1.24 hours, the accessibility in the south is generally poor, and there are large differences within the same city in the north. The shortest time of each city to a ski resort is distributed in a circular pattern, with the best area in Henan and the worst area in Xinjiang. With their developed economy, large population and good accessibility, Beijing and Chongqing have become the cities with the greatest market potential for ski tourism, followed by Heilongjiang, Tianjin, Hebei and Shandong. The study can provide reference for tourists to choose ski tourism destinations, and also provide a theoretical basis for the planning and construction of ski resorts.

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    Landscape Value in Rural Community Based on PPGIS: A Case Study on Shuhe Old Town of Lijiang
    Liu Yang, Zhao Zhenbin, Li Xiaoyong
    2021, 41 (2):  328-339.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.016
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    Landscape value is human’s subjective perception and evaluation to environment. It reflects present landscape utilization modes in community that are inconsistent with locals’ anticipation to landscape. The changes of environment can lead to the changes of residents’ perception, as well as landscape values. Thus, many complicated issues are generated during development process especially in rural tourism community. To study the changes of landscape value is essential to enhance the understanding of some social phenomenon in tourism community and can also provide strategies for planning. However, this problem has not been researched comprehensively and systematically. In this article, we combine participatory mapping method and semi-structured interview to investigate local’s perception of landscape value before and after tourism development at Shuhe Old Town in Lijiang, with 293 sets of effective questionnaires and paper maps generated. Eventually, there are 658 geospatial points captured in total. Through a coding and inductive analysis to the interview text, 7 landscape value types are respectively generated before and after tourism development. Further, in order to explore the spatial construction changes of landscape value, spatial analysis is applied. Results show that: 1) The importance of landscape value has changed before and after tourism development and new landscape value emerged after tourism development. The dominant landscape value before tourism development is resource and environment value. However, recreation value becomes the most perceived landscape value after tourism development. 2) Landscape value has a clustered distribution spatially. The tourism development expands the distribution range of landscape value and some new concentration area existed, which is related to residents’ interaction with the landscape, their emotional connection to the place, and their functional dependence on the community. 3) From the view of spatial compound distribution, fundamental value space and main value space exist in the study area, which the tourism development has an influence on both of them. Under the development of tourism, space value has a change, including space substitution, culture space dissimilation, traditional value space disappearance and entertainment orientation in community. 4) The integration of PPGIS and qualitative analysis can contribute to express local people’s appeals technically. In addition, it can provide new ways to make clear of complicated discourse and social phenomenon.

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    Evaluation and Spatial Pattern of Farmers’ Livelihood Capital in Corridor-type Rural Tourism Areas: A Case Study of the Dabie Mountain National Landscape
    Li Long, Yang Xiaozhong
    2021, 41 (2):  340-349.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.017
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    Taking the Dabie Mountain National Landscape as an example, this article constructs an evaluation index system of farmers’ livelihood based on DFID sustainable livelihood analysis framework and case study, and analyzes the spatial distribution differences and influencing factors of farmers’ livelihood capital in corridor rural tourism. The results show that: 1) The visible livelihood capital, such as natural capital, has a higher weight in the tourism corridor of Dabie Mountains, while the intangible livelihood capital, such as social capital, has a lower weight. Five indicators of livelihood capital weights: Natural capital>financial capital> physical capital>human capital>social capital. The five comprehensive scores of livelihood capital: Natural capital>physical capital>financial capital>human capital>social capital. 2) Farmers’ livelihood capital in corridor-type rural tourism areas has obvious characteristics of unbalanced spatial distribution.The overall level of farmers’ livelihood capital: Jinzhai County > Huoshan County, the five livelihood capital show strong spatial differences. There are also obvious spatial differences in the total level of farmers’ livelihood capital and the five livelihood capital levels in the villages and townships. 3) The unbalanced spatial distribution of farmers’ livelihood capital is affected by core scenic spots, main roads, maturity of local industrial forms, government policies. The overall level of farmers’ livelihood capital is higher in the core scenic spots or near the main roads. Influenced by the diversity of industrial formats and the stage of tourism development, two tourism agglomeration zones have been formed around Tiantangzhai and Baimajian scenic spots. The effect of tourism agglomeration is obvious, but the radiation scope is limited, and the driving force of the impact on the surrounding areas is insufficient. The difference of government’s policies leads to the change of livelihood mode and livelihood capital of farmers in different rural communities.

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    Water Resources Security Pattern of the Weihe River Basin Based on Spatial Flow Model of Water Supply Service
    Zhang Cheng, Li Jing, Zhou Zixiang
    2021, 41 (2):  350-359.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.018
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    Water resource security assessment plays an important role in regional development. However, most studies only focus on the static water security status of the region, ignoring the mobility of ecosystem services. Only by integrating the flow model of ecosystem into the simulation of water security can we provide scientific reference for the protection and management of regional water resources and the formulation of active and effective ecological compensation. Based on VIC Model, this article quantifies the balance between supply and demand of water resources in the Weihe River Basin, constructs the flow model of water supply service, simulates the water resource security pattern in 2005, 2010 and 2015, and explores the main driving force of regional water resource security by using geographic detector. The results show that: 1) The contradiction between the supply and demand of water resources in the river basin is prominent. On average, 10.89% of the area reaches water security after upstream water resources supply. The increase of insufficient and unsupplied areas is not conducive to the sustainable development of the basin. 2) The water security index of the Weihe River Basin is the lowest in 2010, and the highest in 2005. The change of regional WSI is the result of the comprehensive effect of natural and human factors, and its leading factors are agricultural water consumption and population. 3) Agricultural water consumption and domestic water consumption have the strongest explanatory power for regional water security. Through research, it is found that the agricultural water use efficiency is too low in Weinan city and the per capita domestic water consumption is too high in Xianyang City. Administrator should advocate water-saving agriculture, control urban water quota, adjust water cost and raise residents’ awareness of water-saving so as to improve water security in the basin. This study provides a scientific reference for the sustainable development of regional water resources and the construction of ecological compensation mechanism.

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    From Individual to Multiply Air Pollution Management: Potential Perhaps and Realization Methods
    Cao Zi, Chen Hongbo, Zhu Shixin
    2021, 41 (2):  360-367.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.019
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    Multiply Air Pollution Management has become a new research filed in environmental management. In this paper, further with elaboration on the definition and significance of multi-level regulation on air pollution, Georgia, a state of the US, will be exemplified to introduce how the multi-level management on air pollution has been enforced across the developed countries around the world. In this study, the emphasis is placed on the importance attached to the application of information technology in the multi-level regulation on air pollution, and it is indicated that a precondition for the effective development of solution to pollution containment is to conduct an in-depth study on the health effect of multi-level pollution. Then, based on the currently available technology and regulatory regime, the priority areas are indicated where improvement can be made to the multi-level management on air pollution, for example, the formulation of pollution criteria, multi-discipline cooperation in research, scientific development of comprehensive solutions and so on. This research is still in its primary stage in China, and the significance of this study is that, an analysis is conducted of the advanced management experience acquired by those developed countries could provide valuable reference for further research to be conducted domestically in this field.

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