Table of Content

    10 May 2021, Volume 41 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Urban Spatial Expansion Mode Based on the Construction of Landscape Ecological Security Pattern: A Case of the Coastal Area of Jiangsu
    Yang Qingke, Wang Lei, Li Yongle, Qin Xianhong
    2021, 41 (5):  737-746.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.001
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    The importance of ecological security space has attracted more and more attention in the top-level design of urban spatial expansion in China. That’s very necessary to identify security issues and key ecological factors from regional scale, construct landscape ecological security pattern and analyze urban spatial expansion mode, which can provide policy reference for the upcoming territorial spatial planning. Taking the coastal areas of Jiangsu as an example, based on the theory of ‘process-pattern’ of landscape ecology, this article constructs four single ecological security patterns for the maintenance of basic ecosystem services such as landform, water conservation, biodiversity and recreational landscape. According to the ‘minimum-maximum constraint’ criterion, by overlapping mosaic operations, four different levels of comprehensive ecological security patterns are constructed, and the low security level zone that needs to be strictly protected, then the high security level that could be planned as a key development zone in future. Meanwhile, use MCR model, set up and compare the impact of different models on urban spatial expansion, such as ‘ecological security protection type’ ‘economic growth dominant type’ and ‘ecological and economic coordination type’. The results show that the coordinated model of ‘ecological protection and economic development’ can better balance the ‘ecological-social-economic’ benefits. This model can reasonably determine the space for urban construction and industrial development. It is the optimal model for the orderly and healthy development of cities and towns in the future, and also of great significance for optimizing the spatial layout of cities and towns and improving the comprehensive benefits of construction land development.

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    Spatio-temporal Variations of Internet Finance Enterprises’ Survival and Their Influence Factors in China: A Case Study of P2P Lending
    Wang Mingfeng, Zhao Yuping
    2021, 41 (5):  747-758.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.002
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    Internet finance industry has grown rapidly in China and as a result, this phenomenon has caught more and more attention from the government as well as the community. However, internet finance companies are gathered in specific cities, which can be related to the high survival risks these enterprises facing. In other words, the survival and the development of internet financial enterprises is restricted by spatio-temporal factors to a certain extent, in the form of agglomeration economies. This article studies the case of P2P online lending platforms to explore spatio-temporal survival variations of internet finance companies in China and their influencing factors. It firstly shows the graphs of cities where platforms enter and exit normally or abnormally from 2009 to 2017. Then, it applies the competing risk model to assess the normal and abnormal exit risks these platforms facing in terms of agglomeration economies. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Shenzhen, Shanghai, Beijing and their surrounding areas are hotspots of P2P platforms’ entry and exit, and the lifespans of platforms differ in different cities. 2) Urban economy and platform experience are conducive to platforms’ survival and compliance growth. Encouraging policies are conducive to compliance platforms’ survival but increase the possibility of abnormal exit, while late entry time will limit platforms’ survival. 3) Agglomeration economies are the main effects on the survival of P2P platforms. Their survival is closely related to the temporal and spatial choices of enterprises when they enter the market. By exploring the spatio-temporal variations of internet finance enterprises’ survival and their influence factors, this article provides a reference for relevant enterprises’ spatio-temporal decisions and the formulation of government policies.

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    Spatial-temporal Characteristics and Driving Mechanism of Logistic Pivotal Bears the Weight of City Freight Transport Network in China
    Jia Peng, Wu Jishi, Li Haijiang, Kuang Haibo
    2021, 41 (5):  759-767.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.003
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    The thesis selected 110 logistic pivotal bears the weight of cities as its research subject. For the whole thesis, it took a ‘point-line-network’ global perspective. In addition, the thesis made a description of freight network spatial-temporal features of Chinese logistic hub carrying cities from 2007 to 2016 by integrating Modified Gravity Model, Spatial Analyst Technology and Complex Network Model in depth. Based on the previous description of freight network spatial-temporal features, it made use of Spatial Panel Data Model to analyze the evolution driving mechanism. Previous analyses show that: 1) The development degree of logistic pivotal bears the weight of cities witnesses yearly increase. The ‘Multi-core-edge’ spatial pattern is vivid. The range of core areas witnesses gradual expansion to the western area. Due to such expansion, the expanded area gradually forms logistic hub carrying highlands like the North China logistic pivotal bears the weight of cities cluster with Beijing-Tianjin as the center, the Yangtze River Delta logistic pivotal bears the weight of cities cluster with Shanghai-Nanjing-Ningbo as the center, Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Dongguan as the center of the Pearl River Delta logistic pivotal bears the weight of cities cluster and Chongqing-Chengdu-Nanning as the center of the Southwest logistic pivotal bears the weight of cities cluster. 2) There is also rapid differentiation of freight transport links Freight transport links develop from ‘simplification and fragmentation’ to ‘complexity and integration’. The network complexity of middle and western areas sees gradual increase. Furthermore, spatial pattern is characterized by marked hierarchy. Among them, the first level network develops from ‘local area proximity’ to ‘partial radial’ structure. The second level network develops from the ‘belt shape’ of the eastern cities along the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea to the ‘diamond shape’ structure of the Yangtze River economic belt. The development of the third level network to the complex network. 3) Freight transport link network develops towards agglomeration with stable growth. Network structure is moving close to achieving stability and possessing weak scale-free network characteristics, the development trend of network balance and accessibility improvement. 4) The development of basic infrastructure, market environment and information technology has a positive driving effect on the formation of the urban freight network spatial pattern of pivotal bears the weight of cities.

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    Spatial-Temporal Patterns and Influencing Factors of Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Capacity in China
    Lyu Chengchao, Shao Changhua
    2021, 41 (5):  768-776.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.004
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    In October 2017, the report of the Nineteenth National Congress of the People’s Republic of China proposed that China has entered a new era. In the course of China’s development into a new era, the economic level has increased significantly and the process of urbanization has continued to advance. But the contradiction between the urban living garbage and the environmental protection is more and more prominent, it is difficult to maintain a balance between economic development and the environment, the harmless treatment of urban domestic garbage has become an urgent problem. Based on the data of 30 provinces in China from 2003 to 2017, this paper explores the spatial-temporal patterns of municipal solid waste disposal capacity in the country and in various regions, and construct a dynamic panel data model to empirically test the influencing factors of China’s municipal solid waste disposal capacity. The research results show that the spatial development of the municipal solid waste disposal capacity is unbalanced, the municipal solid waste disposal capacity in the eastern region is higher than other regions, followed by the central region and the northeast region. The municipal solid waste disposal capacity in the western region is the lowest. The municipal solid waste disposal capacity in Northeast China was at a relatively high level in the early stage of the survey, only lagging behind in the eastern region, but just higher than in the western region in the later stage of the survey. The Dagum Gini coefficient was further used to measure and decompose the spatial gap of municipal solid waste disposal capacity, and the results showed that the spatial gap of municipal solid waste disposal capacity in China generally showed a trend of ‘decreasing fluctuations’. If 2003 is the base period, in 2017 the spatial gap in China’s municipal solid waste disposal capacity has fallen by 9.05%, Among them, the eastern region’s Gini coefficient has the smallest average annual change rate, and the spatial gap between the western region and the northeast region has slightly increased. The eastern region has the largest intraregional gap. The interregional gap is the largest between the eastern region and the western region. And the hyper-density density is the main source of spatial disparity in municipal solid waste disposal capacity; In addition, systematic GMM regression model was found that the improvement of GDP per capita, patent authorization number, urbanization level and the number of harmless treatment plants will promote the disposal of municipal solid waste.

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    Technical Innovation and Its Spatial Disparity of Chinese Polluting Industries Under the Impact of Green Finance
    Zhu Xiangdong, Huang Yongyuan, Zhu Shengjun, Huang Haifeng
    2021, 41 (5):  777-787.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.005
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    Green finance is an essential innovation in financial system, which contributes to sustainable development by optimizing investment and financing. The concept of green finance is increasingly popular in China since it is in line with Chinese national strategies, namely, industrial upgrading and environmental protection. Therefore, many strong policies have been enacted in China and the scale of green finance has enjoyed rapid growth since 2015. This study takes green finance as a new type of environmental policy and tests its technical effects on different types of polluting industries through Chinese regions. Based on the data of 335 prefecture-level cities from 2015 to 2018, we apply panel data models to explore the technical effects of green finance and its interaction with environmental regulation and R&D investment. The results show that, consistent with the Porter Hypothesis, green finance can stimulate technical innovation of both heavy polluting industry and light polluting industry in different regions. Green finance and environmental regulation are complementary to each other. Such a synergy effect is more significant for the light polluting industry and more common in the central and western regions. By enhancing R&D investment, green finance can promote the technical innovation of light polluting industries in all regions. While for the heavy polluting industry, such a phenomenon can only be found in the western regions. This article suggests that green finance has a more substantial technical effect on the light polluting industry than heavy ones and performs better in the western regions than the eastern and the central regions. Regarding the reality of Chinese environmental governance and technical innovation, green finance may play an important role in promoting the effect of both environmental and technical policies in the future.

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    Telecommuting in the E-society: An Empirical Study of Full-day and Part-day Home-based Working Adoption and Influencing Factors
    Wang Bo, Zhen Feng, Xie Jinyan, Liu Jixiang
    2021, 41 (5):  788-796.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.006
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    In the e-society, the advancement of information and communication technology has lowered the spatiotemporal constraints of working activities and thereby influencing the spatio-temporal patterns of working activities. From the perspective of time use on working, this study proposes two types of home-based telecommuting, namely, full-day and part-day home-based working. Using a survey of 608 full-time paid employees who had e-working experience in Nanjing, this study aims to analyze the actual choice of full-day and part-day home-based working during the last two weeks and their influencing factors. The findings demonstrate that although around 56.1% of respondents claim that they are able to work at home, however, only 13.5% and 30.4% of them had full-day and part-day home-based working experience. The part-day home-based working is more common than its counterpart in the e-society. Besides, we find that personal and household socio-demographic context, Internet use, residential built environment, and attitudes towards working, although with different impacts, have influenced the participation of full-day and part-day home-based working. Geographically, respondents living further away from the workplace but close to shopping centers tend to have full-day and part-day home-based working. Driving cars and living close to metro stations are significantly associated with a high probability of part-day home-based e-working, while its relationship with full-day home-based e-working is insignificant. The differences of the actual choice and influencing factors between full-day and part-day home-based working reveal the necessity of differentiating the two types of telecommuting. Moreover, both full-day and part-day home-based e-working hold the potential of alleviating the serious traffic jams by reducing long-distance commuting or spreading the evening peak hour traffic flow. 4.0% and 71.1% of commuting trips in part-day home-based working experiences have changed their departure time in the morning and evening, respectively. It is increasingly necessary to highlight the time use analysis in urban activity space research given both spatial and temporal fragmentation of people’s daily activities.

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    A Scientometric Analysis on the Agent-based Modelling of Cities as Complex Systems
    Li Luqi, Kong Xiang
    2021, 41 (5):  797-803.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.007
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    Agent-based modelling is a method for simulating urban systems from the bottom up. It allows for the simulation of human behaviours in certain urban environments, as well as the change of the urban environment caused by these behaviours. In this context, it has been widely used to investigate various problems pertaining to urban systems, such as urban land development, socio-spatial differentiation, and new town construction. A few literature reviews can be found, but they focus more on the principles, techniques, and deficiencies of ABM in studying urban systems, rather than a detailed and quantitative description of the research trajectories. Consequently, the application prospects of this method in urban systems are difficult to be further revealed. Against this backdrop, this study uses scientometric methods such as main path analysis and alluvial diagram analysis, as well as the data of literature citation network and keyword co-occurrence network to depict the research trajectories of agent-based modelling of urban systems. The result shows that land use is the primary focus of these studies. This research field consists of three stages: preliminary simulation of land use, the detailed simulation of the land market mechanism, and diversified applications. In the first stage, scholars began to use agent-based modelling to analyse urban land use, but the modelling approach was diverse and the rules for the agents’ behaviours were relatively simple. At the same time, they have yet not focused on the mechanism behind the land market. In the second stage, researchers focused more on the in-depth analysis and detailed simulation of the mechanism of the land markets. In the third stage, the studies have been becoming diversified again, focusing on the simulation of the land market, the reflection of agent-based modelling and the development of simulation systems for planners and the public. As for the research fields of agent-based modelling, recent literature from 2016 to 2019 focuses primarily on the following categories: Planning and industries, land use and urban growth, complexity and transportation, cellular automate and residential space, disaster and network, and others. These research fields are by no means fixed. Rather, they are highly flexible, intersecting with each other and having been undergoing continuous reconstruction. Among them, segregation and land use have received attention in early studies; urban growth, planning, transportation and disaster were studied in subsequent research; creative industries, accessibility, etc. are emerging research fields that received attention in recent years. In terms of the methods that have been combined with agent-based modelling, cellular automata, GIS and network analysis were combined with agent-based modelling in earlier studies. Besides, genetic algorithms, reinforcement learning models, and big data have also been used in agent-based simulation recently. In future research, studies on problems such as resilience city and the shrinking city can be integrated with agent-based modelling; some phenomenon specific to China, such as development zones and urban villages, can also be studied using this method. At the same time, future research can further focus on the combination of agent-based modelling with various artificial intelligence algorithms and traditional methods from pertinent subjects.

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    Spatial Distribution and Location Selection of Architectural Design Industry in Beijing
    Xu Zhen, Li Guoping, Xi Qiangmin, Lyu Shuang
    2021, 41 (5):  804-814.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.008
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    With the increasingly urgent demand for the adjustment of the urban spatial structure of megacities, the research on the spatial distribution and location selection of specific industries in cities becomes more and more important. This paper takes Beijing as an example and analyzes the location of enterprises from a micro perspective to understand their distribution rules, which provides important theoretical support for optimizing the urban spatial structure. This paper uses the kernel density estimation method, Ripley’s K(d) function, and the negative binomial model to analyze the spatial distribution of enterprises and the influencing factors of location selection. We found that: 1) From the perspective of spatial distribution, service-oriented architectural design enterprises are concentrated within the fifth ring road (central area). Construction-oriented enterprises appear in the suburban area. 2) The agglomeration scale of service-oriented architectural design enterprises is larger than that of engineering enterprises, and the agglomeration scale of engineering architectural design enterprises in sub-sector industries is different. 3)Architectural design enterprises are affected by policies, service facilities, operating costs, information accessibility and industrial base when they choose the location. And different types of enterprises have different preference. Compared with large-scale enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises are more affected by the cost factors. And the Engineering architectural design enterprises are greatly affected by policies than the service-oriented firms. 4) Architectural design enterprises located in the central city are more sensitive to service facilities and information accessibility, while suburban enterprises are mainly affected by cost factors and transportation infrastructure.

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    Evolution Characteristics and Mechanism of Rural Multifunctionality in South Anhui Tourism Area Based on Major Function-oriented Zones
    Zhu Yue, Yang Xingzhu, Yang Zhou, Zheng Yigang, Yang Wanming, Gu Hanyue
    2021, 41 (5):  815-823.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.009
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    Taking the tourism area of southern Anhui Province as the research object, adopting multi-index comprehensive evaluation, hot spot analysis, the geographic detector model comparative analyzes the differences in features and influencing factors of rural multifunctional evolution in different main functional areas by constructing a multi-functional research framework for countryside of the tourist destination on a county scale and its indicator system. Then, the multi-functional pattern of rural areas is identified and the promotion path is proposed. The results showed that: 1) From 2006 to 2017, different functional structures have obvious differences in various major function oriented zones, the proportion of tourism and leisure function gradually increased in various major function oriented zones, while agricultural production and ecological service function continued to decline. 2) The multi-functional development in rural areas gradually decreased from key development zones to key ecological function zones and agricultural production areas with the continual wider gap. But the multi-functional diffusion convergence and functional intensity of rural areas in different major function oriented zones are basically matched. 3) The rural multi-functional evolution of key development zones is urban-driven, which is mainly affected by urban radiation, industrial structure, and population agglomeration; the rural multi-functional evolution of agricultural production areas is modernized by agriculture, which is mainly controlled by natural conditions, policies and technology application; the rural multi-functional evolution of key ecological function areas has evolved into tourism development, which is mainly affected by tourism, ecological resources, and market demands. 4) Based on the results of the multi-functional measurement in the rural areas, seven types of polar development and four types of dominant development counties are identified, and the path of improvement is proposed from the perspective of urban-rural integration in the major function oriented zones.

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    Influence of Industrial Agglomeration on the Industrial Resilience of the Yellow River Basin
    Hu Zhiqiang, Miao Changhong, Xiong Xuelei, Li Ruiyang, Feng Lihui
    2021, 41 (5):  824-831.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.010
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    Economic resilience is a hotspot in the field of economic geography, and regional industrial structure is considered to be the most important factor affecting economic resilience. At present, the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin has become a national strategy. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to scientifically evaluate the industrial toughness of the Yellow River Basin and to investigate the impact of industrial agglomeration on the industrial resilience. In this article, 90 cities in the Yellow River Basin are taken as research areas. The industrial resilience level of the region is measured from two levels of resistance and recoverability. An econometric model is constructed to examine the impact of different cluster types of industrial clusters, such as specialization, diversity, related diversity, and unrelated diversity, on the industrial resilience of the region. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The industrial resilience level of the Yellow River Basin is relatively high as a whole. Most cities have strong resistance to external shocks and strong resilience after external disturbances recedes. 2) There are significant spatial differences in industrial resilience in the Yellow River Basin. The areas with high recoverability level are mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolia, Shandong and some cities of Qinghai, while the resilience of Gansu and Qinghai is relatively low. The spatial distribution of resistance level is higher in the west and lower in the east. 3) Industrial development in a single industrial structure area is easier to recover from the impact of external disturbances. A high concentration of a certain industry will increase the risk of regional industry being subjected to external shocks. Diversified and related industrial structures are more conducive to improving the resistance of regional industry to adverse disturbances, and also to achieving faster regional recovery from the impact of the crisis. 4) In order to improve the industrial resilience of the Yellow River Basin, we should avoid over-specialization and concentration of an industry. While promoting the diversification of industries, we should also pay attention to improving the forward-backward linkages and linkages between industries.

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    Regional Differences, Dynamic Evolution and Influencing Factors of the Quality of Tourism Economy in Northeast China
    Sun Xiao, Liu Ligang, Chen Jin
    2021, 41 (5):  832-841.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.011
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    SBM model, Dagum Gini coefficient and decomposition method, and kernel density estimation method are used to study the regional differences and dynamic evolution of the quality of tourism economic growth in 36 cities of Northeast China. The results show that: 1) The overall level of the quality of tourism economic growth in the three northeastern provinces is not high, and there are obvious regional differences; 2) From the perspective of the sources of differences and their contributions, The over variable density in 2007-2010 is the main source of regional differences, and 2011-2018 is the main source of regional differences; 3) The overall core density curve of tourism economic quality of the Three Northeastern Provinces is gradually moving to the right, the level of tourism economic quality is constantly improving, and the regional tourism economic differences are gradually decreasing; 4) Tourism resource endowment, ecological environment and social and economic development level have an impact on tourism economic quality .

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    Spatial Distribution and Optimized Reconstructing Mode of Rural Settlement at the Village Scale of Jilin Province
    Li Jing, Zhang Pingyu, Guo Meng
    2021, 41 (5):  842-850.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.012
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    The spatial optimization and reconstruction of rural settlements is an important means to enhance the utilization efficiency of land resources, to improve rural production and living conditions and to promote the sustainable development of rural areas. Taking Jilin Province in Northeast China as an example, we analyzed the spatial characteristics of rural settlements using kernel density estimation method and landscape shape index, estimated vacancy rate of rural housing land in different regions based on peasant household survey data and piloted a new optimization and reconstruction mode of “Reclaiming small to fill large” at a village scale driven by the increasingly prominent rural hollowing and long-standing fragmented layout. Results indicated that rural settlements were generally smaller and had a relatively sparse distribution in Jilin Province especially in central Jilin, which had a high density of small settlements with irregular morphologies, and thus had a high potential for consolidation. Second, The average vacancy rate of rural housing land was 18.32% and vacancy rate in the western Jilin was high (24.48%), followed by the eastern Jilin (18.47%) and central Jilin (12.02%). Third, our approach can decrease the number of total rural settlements by 44.6%. Moreover, it will increase the effective amount of arable land by a total of 1046.66 km2. This study put forward with spatial optimization and reconstruction idea and mode of regional characteristics at the village scale. And it is an important way to increase cultivated land and enhance the intensive use level of construction land, provide feasible scientific guidance for rural land consolidation plan, coordinate rural man-land relationship and promote rural sustainable development.

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    The Response Mechanism of Tourism Spatial Model to the Evolution of Transport Corridor in the Wuling Moutain Area
    Wang Hua, Sun Gennian, Wang Yali, Wu Yunchao, Tian Xiaohui
    2021, 41 (5):  851-862.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.013
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    With the help of analyzing the classification methods of existing transportation corridors, combines with the characteristics of tour transportation corridor, from the corridor of the transportation capacity, technology and equipment level and the service level three aspects to identify the complete type tour transportation corridor, developing type tour transportation corridor and lagging type tour transportation corridor. Analyzing the evolution trend of typical tour-transportation corridors based on the statistical analysis of collected data of travel agency’s itinerary. The paper makes an empirical analysis of the influences of tourism transportation corridor evolution on regional tourism spatial pattern, from the tourism transportation corridor of scenic spots appear, travel route choice concentration, coefficient of travel repeat four aspects, travel spatial pattern, with Wuling Moutain Area as an example. The results show that: 1) improving tourism transportation-corridor technology and equipment level and the service level can increase the tourist attraction rate. 2) Regional tourism distribution centers will move with the improvement of tourism transportation network, usually from the cities where the core tourist attractions are located to the regional economic center cities; the improvement of the development level of corridors will promote the concentration of the corresponding tourism routes, while the improvement of other corridors in the region will inhibit its growth to a certain extent. 3) tourism transportation corridor development degree and repeated coefficient consistent tourist route. 4) the change of the transportation modes in tourism transportation corridor that makes the transportation service level of the transportation corridor changed, thus affect travel spatial pattern. 5) Improve the impact. Once the tourist transport channel is connected to the two core scenic spots, the tourist traffic flow will increase rapidly, even in the festival ‘blowou’ phenomenon.

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    Impact of Land Finance and Land Market Development on Urban Housing Price
    Fan Jianshuang, Zhou Lin, Yu Xiaofen
    2021, 41 (5):  863-871.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.014
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    The purpose of this article is to empirically test the impact of land finance, land market development and the interaction between the two on urban housing prices. In addition, this article also investigates the heterogeneous effects of the eastern, central, and western regions. The research method is to first analyze the impact of land finance, land market development and the interaction of the two on urban housing prices, and propose the research hypotheses. Secondly, we use the Dynamic Spatial Dubin Model to test the hypothesis based on the panel data of 282 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2017. The results suggest that: There is a spatial spillover effect on urban housing prices; The direct impact and space spillover effects of land finance and land market development on housing prices are both significantly positive; The land market development plays a regulating role in the impact of land finance on housing prices, and strengthens the impact of land finance on housing prices; However, from the perspective of spatial spillover effects, the development of the land market has a negative regulatory effect on space, which has restrained the rise in housing prices; There are differences in the impact of land finance and land market development on housing prices in eastern, central, and western regions. In conclusion, the real estate market reform requires the cooperation of local fiscal system reform and land market reform.

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    Regional Geography Edited by Zhang Qiyun and Its Geographical Contribution
    He Peidong
    2021, 41 (5):  872-879.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.015
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    Zhang Qiyun is one of the founders of modern geography in China. He has made outstanding contributions to the development of regional geography in modern China. He introduced western regional geography works to China in the early days and translated the word ‘regional geography’ into ‘local gazetteers’. From 1928 to 1936, Zhang Qiyun taught in the Department of ‘Geography of the Central University’, which was the most active period of Zhang Qiyun’s geographical thought. Zhang Qiyun founded the journal Regional Geography in this period. As the editor-in-chief of Regional Geography, Zhang Qiyun greatly influenced the naming and editing characteristics of Regional Geography with his geographical thoughts. The journal focused on regional geography, the use of maps and photos, the translation and introduction of foreign geographical works, and the study of geographical history, all of which were the embodiment of Zhang Qiyun’s geographical thoughts. The publication of Regional Geography mainly relies on teachers, students, and other resources of the Central University, which also limited its better development. However, Regional Geography was already the major periodical for teachers and students of the Department of Geography of the Central University to publish papers. It published important early geographical works of scholars of the ‘School of History and Geography’ and provided useful guidance for the development of modern Chinese geography, especially regional geography.

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    Shrinking Cities Distribution Pattern and Influencing Factors in Northeast China Based on Random Forest Model
    Yan Guanghua, Chen Xi, Zhang Yun
    2021, 41 (5):  880-889.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.016
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    Based on the demographic data of four periods (2005-2009, 2010-2014, 2015-2019 and 2005-2019), shrinking cities were identified in Northeast China, and their spatial distribution patterns were analyzed. We further compared the multiple linear regression (MLR) and the random forest regression (RFR) to explore the influencing factors and mechanisms of shrinking cities in Northeast China. The results showed that: 1) Spatially, the shrinking cities in Northeast China were mainly distributed in the "land-edge" regions represented by the Changbai Mountains, the Sanjiang Plain, Lesser and the Da Hinggan Mountains. Temporally, the shrinkage center showed an obvious northward trend, while the expansion center showed a southward trend. In addition, the shrinking cities were further clustered. 2) The results of both MLR and RFR indicated that socio-economic factors play a major role in the formation of shrinking cities. 3) The accuracy of RFR was higher than that of MLR. The results of RFR showed that GDP per capita has the greatest influence on the shrinkage intensity, followed by unemployment rate, expenses of science and education, and average wage of employed workers. There four influencing factors, except unemployment rate, the remaining three influencing factors restrict the formation of shrinking cities to varying degrees.

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    Spatial Differentiation of Supporting Service Value of Coastal Wetland Ecosystem in the Caofeidian District of Tangshan in Hebei Province
    Wei Qiang, Xi Zenglei, Su Hanyun, Miao Yahui, Cao Yiran
    2021, 41 (5):  890-899.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.017
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    In this article, conditional value method and conditional logit model are applied to assess the supporting service value of coastal wetland ecosystem in Caofeidian District, and log-linear and exponential distance decay models are applied to analyzing the supporting value spatial evolution path and regional difference. The results show that wetland vegetation restoration has the greatest influence on the protection behavior choice of supporting service, followed by the effect of wetland area restoration and biodiversity protection. Two supporting service protection plans are obtained according to the regression results. The first one combines the options of ‘small-scale wetland area restoration, small-scale wetland vegetation restoration and small-scale biodiversity protection’ and generates a value of 44.54 Yuan per person per year. The second one combines the options of ‘small-scale wetland area restoration, large-scale wetland vegetation restoration and small-scale biodiversity protection’ and generates a value of 46.57 Yuan per person per year. The values are regard as the source value of the coastal wetland ecosystem supporting service and they gradually decay as the spatial distance from the investigation site increase. The decay processes of the supporting service value at different spatial scales are significantly different, the smaller the spatial scale is, the faster the decay rate is. Supporting service constructs economic jurisdictions according to the value decay processes. The economic jurisdictions do not coincide with the administrative boundaries. The supporting service value in the same administrative region also shows significant differences. Supporting service protection is considered well-being enhancing for the whole society, there exist some other factors affecting the value spatial differencing process besides the distance, such as the economic development level, the wetland resource endowment and the local natural conditions. Nevertheless, the results obtained in this article can provide meaningful reference for future coastal wetland ecosystem management and prove useful as an input to the ongoing debate concerning the future regional sustainable development and ecological civilization construction.

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    Transformation and Driving Forces of Cultivated Land Utilization Function from a Multi-scale Perspective in Gansu Province
    Zhang Wenbin, Zhang Zhibin, Dong Jianhong, Zhang Huailin, Gao Fawen, Gong Weimin
    2021, 41 (5):  900-910.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.018
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    Based on the theory of induced production substitution, a theoretical analysis framework of cultivated land use function transformation was constructed, and the characteristics and rules of cultivated land use function transformation in Gansu were revealed by using the comprehensive analysis method of cultivated land use function transformation at the provincial, regional and county scales. The results showed that: 1) The function of cultivated land use in Gansu Province was in the transition period from economic society type to eco-economic type. The cultivated land use function of the five regions had been transformed and presented two states. The results of the transformation of cultivated land use function in 86 counties showed four states with great differences, but the spatial distribution had certain regularity. 2) The results of functional transition of cultivated land use were significantly different at different scales, showing obvious spatial scale effect, and the smaller the scale, the more complex the differences were. 3) The driving force of cultivated land use function transformation was mainly reflected in the urbanization rate and economic level, social development and technological progress, etc. It is possible to increase income, consumption levels and improve diet structure by increasing the urbanization rate and economic development level. At the same time, rely on technological progress and policy adjustments to ensure the rational transformation of the function of cultivated land use. Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions on the transformation management of cultivated land use function from two aspects of benefit allocation and evaluation.

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    Spatial-temporal Variations of Heat Waves in the Huaihe River Basin from 1961 to 2018
    Wang Wen, Hu Yanjun, Xu Chuanyi
    2021, 41 (5):  911-921.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.019
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    Using the daily gridded temperature data during 1961 to 2018, the temporal and spatial characteristics of the annual heat wave severity, frequency, intensity and the longest heatwave duration in the Huaihe River Basin were analyzed with the improved method of heatwave identification based on both absolute and relative thresholds. Results show that the multi-year average magnitude of the absolute heat waves is 10.27℃, severity 1.82℃, and frequency 1.3; While the multi-year average magnitude of the relative heat waves is 2.27 (in terms of HWMId), severity 0.63 (in terms of HWMId), and frequency 1.0. Absolute heat waves have a similar spatial distribution as the maximum daily temperature during June to September, occurring more in the west parts of the basin (especially over the major tributary, Shaying River) except the mountains at the edges, whereas relative heat waves occur more in the southwest parts (especially over the middle to upper Huaihe River). Overall, there is less absolute and relative heat waves in northeastern hilly areas and southeast coast regions. Both absolute and relative heat waves in the Huaihe River Basin showed a significant break of temporal trend, decreasing from the early 1960s to the early 1980s (1982-1985) and increasing from the early 1980s to the end of the 2010s.

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