10 April 2020, Volume 40 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
Cross-regional Travel and Regional System of Rural China
Zhao Pengjun, Yu Zhao, Jia Yutian
2020, 40 (4):  498-508.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.001
Abstract ( 219 )   HTML ( 31 )   PDF (1087KB) ( 174 )  

This article examines the cross-regional travel characteristics and the determinants of township and rural residents in 119 rural towns of China, employing 2016 National Town Research Data. A multilevel mixed-effects ordered logistic regression model was applied to examine the effects of individual socioeconomic factors, public facilities provision level of townships, location and traffic conditions on the frequency of traveling afield of rural residents. It concludes that: Firstly, a ‘county-township-village’ rural-urban area system has formed with main connection between villages and townships, while the ‘county-to-village’ and ‘county-to-town’ linkages could not be neglected. Secondly, county-level services and goods are playing an important role in rural residents’ life. Thirdly, there are differences of travel frequency of rural residents within different regions and topographic areas: rural people travels more frequently in the east coast regions and the metropolitan areas in the west of China than that in the midland, and the townships and villages in the plain and hilly area show stronger rural-urban linkages than that in the mountainous regions. Fourthly, disadvantage group such as the elderly, women, low-income earners, non-car owners and poorly educated group, show their travel disadvantage in term of cross-regional travel frequencies. Fifthly, with the basic accessibility of ‘road to every village’, location and transport infrastructure conditions are not the main factors, while multi-purpose travel demands of rural residents, the availability of traffic vehicles (both public and private) and higher income encourage rural and township residents to travel afield towards higher-order centres. It suggests that the emphasis of rural transport policies should shift from rural road improvement toward higher quality of public transport in terms of services and accessible site layouts, and higher availability of modernized traffic vehicles in rural area. Finally, on the other hand, higher provision level of commercial and public facilities within townships significantly urges rural people to travel locally, and ensures rural people access basic demands with limited travel time and less cross-regional travel burdens. This paper aims at further recognition of rural-urban regional system by identify the residents-based rural-urban travel linkages, as a basis for making specific urban-rural traffic policies and implementing people-oriented and demand-oriented urban-rural planning.

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The Theoretical Cognition of Rural Settlements Spatial Restructuring
Tu Shuangshuang, Long Hualou
2020, 40 (4):  509-517.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.002
Abstract ( 191 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (812KB) ( 109 )  

During the process of rapid urbanization, the space of traditional rural settlements in China is facing severe differentiation and reorganization. Based on elaborating the concept and connotation, this paper constructed the analytical framework of the mechanism of rural settlements spatial restructuring at both macro and micro levels as well as object and subject systems, and probed the enlightenment of rural settlements spatial restructuring to promote rural vitalization. The major contents and results were summed up as follows: 1) Rural settlements spatial restructuring is a process of coordinating the man-land interrelation through adjusting rural settlements spatial hierarchy and allocating land resource in the village by the economic, technological and policy means at the background of the changes of urban and rural development factors. It has the characteristics of multi-dimensionality of restructuring content, diversity of restructuring objectives and complexity of restructuring process. 2) Rural settlements spatial restructuring reflects the changes of macro-environment such as the mode of production, economic structure, social structure, institutional evolution and technological development in modern society, and is rooted in the constrained framework of the natural-economic-social object system in rural territory, which condenses the game, confrontation, competition and cooperation among the stakeholders. 3) During the process of restructuring rural settlements space, we should correctly handle the population-land-industry relationship, pay full attention to the cultural and ecological value of rural settlements, and give full play to the supporting role of planning technology and policy system to promote the overall vitalization of rural territory in the new era.

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Rural Architecture Tectonics: Construction of Identity
Lin Geng, Wang Nian, Chan Siyou
2020, 40 (4):  518-527.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.003
Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1473KB) ( 66 )  

The typical regionalism and diversity of rural architecture are closely related to rural identity and place identity. From the pre-modern era to modern society, with the economic development, institutional change, population mobility, gentrification, and consumerization of space in rural areas, both rural architecture and rural identity have been experiencing the reproduction and reconstruction. In the process of construction of rural architecture, the power will and vanward idea represented by elites usually interweave with the spontaneous and anonymous behavior conducted by people at the grass-root level. The architectural field which deeply influences by regionalism, modernism-postmodernism, and critical regionalism directly or indirectly influences the construction of rural identity. It has positive significance to rural cultural geography to hackle and demonstrates this context. Through literature review and the qualitative research methods such as non-participating observation and in-depth interviews, this paper analyzes the construction of identity in different development periods of rural architecture. The findings show that under the framework of multi-cultural identity in different historical periods, the tectonics of rural architecture shows the constructive functions of political power, life practice, modernization, innovation experiment and so forth. When regionalism was prevailing, rural architecture which is deeply influenced by the natural geographical environment shows a clear regional difference, but the construction of politics and mainstream culture such as the etiquette system still exist, the tectonics of architecture reflected national identity. In the time that modernism and postmodernism have a mixed influence on rural architecture, the villagers and the inhabitants who move from city to rural area construct fragmented identity by pursuing a modernistic and personalized architecture form. In the practice of critical regionalism architecture, the architects and villagers reconstruct the new rural identity that they accept each other by negotiating the form and function of rural architecture. It can be found that rural cultural identity is ever-changing and constantly mixing, there is no binary analytical framework between tradition and modernity. In this complex process, the construction of rural architecture gradually transferred from the stage dominated by identity, the inheritance of local tradition and common understanding of man-land relationship to the stage dominated by modernity, and continued to the stage in which modernities and traditions co-shaping a new placeness.

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Towards Rural-urban Integration: Key Issues and Trends on Linking New-type Urbanization to Rural Revitalization
Ye Chao, Yu Jie
2020, 40 (4):  528-534.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.004
Abstract ( 191 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (425KB) ( 109 )  

It is the key to achieving the aim of rural-urban integration that combine the two national strategies of new-type urbanization and rural revitalization, and carry out collaborative governance of urban and rural areas. By analyzing the progresses of the studies on the new-type urbanization and rural revitalization, it is pointed out that the coupling of new-type urbanization and rural revitalization strategy should clarify the symbiosis effect of two strategies, and scientifically evaluate the coupling degree of urban and rural areas, then discover the spatio-temporal pattern of rural-urban integration. In order to realize rural-urban integration, it is necessary to explore the combination and spatio-temporal differences of new-type urbanization and rural revitalization strategies. According to conducting interdisciplinary methods to study the relations among the urban and rural administrative management system, the land system, the household registration system as well as the social security system, this article advocates multidimensional system reform from three perspectives of space, economy and society. Reconstructing the theory of rural-urban integration will be based on a whole analysis from the national, provincial, city to community scales. Community-centered governance is significant for rural-urban integration.

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Logical Cognition and Mathematical Expression of Evolution of Rural Production Space System
Wang Cheng, Long Zhuoqi
2020, 40 (4):  535-543.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.005
Abstract ( 111 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (626KB) ( 73 )  

The operation of rural production space system in a healthy and orderly manner provides material basis and carrier for the implement of rural revitalization, enterprise development and the building of harmonious co-existence between human and nature, with precise control system from as the key to orderly development from low level to advanced one. Based on theories of sociology, philosophy, systems, geography and other disciplines, this study constructs a logical cognitive conceptual model of the evolution of rural production space systems, and conducts qualitative research on the logical starting point (human-land relationship), logical sequence (time, space and flow three-dimensional analysis) and flow-driven mechanism of evolution to explore the intrinsic essence of the evolution of rural production space system. Combining dissipative structure and entropy change, entropy change model for the evolution of rural production space system and relative explanation are also made in this study to explore a new way for the research on the evolution of human-land relationship system, thus enrich and expand the theory of rural geography.

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The Main Theoretical Evolution and Enlightenment of Western Rural Geography Since 1990s
Yang Ren, Chen Yanchun, Zhang Jing, Xu Qian
2020, 40 (4):  544-555.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.006
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Using bibliometrics and literature summarization methods assisted by Citespace5.3 tools, this study summarized major theoretical research progress of the western rural geography areas since the 1990s. Under the influence of globalization, market liberalization and counter-urbanization, western rural areas have undergone a sharp transformation and differentiation, and the research hotspots and major theoretical progress of western rural geography can be divided into three stages. Since the 1990s, the stage focuses on the process of agricultural decentralization and the phenomenon of counter-urbanization in western rural areas. At this stage, there are the regulatory theories centering on agricultural economy that continue the political economy paradigm of the 1980s, the rural idyll theory rooted in the romantic movement of the last century, and the other study under the social and cultural turn influenced by the postmodernism trend. In the 21st century, with the network perspective, the second stage focus more on the global scale of rural differentiation as well as the comprehensive research of its internal mechanism, which includes various theories such as the global countryside, rural reconstruction, rural differentiation, multifunctional agriculture, amenities migration and innovation theory. Since 2008, under the influence of global climate change and food crisis, rural geography has turned to global ecological research and sought for the sustainable development of rural areas, and developed concepts and theory related to natural ecology, such as sustainable livelihood, community resilience, vulnerability, ecological economy and biological economy. Chinese rural geography theory and method research urgently need a integrated multidisciplinary fusion between Chinese and western rural study, based on the theory of territorial system of human-environment interaction, comprehensively deepen from the system perspective of element, structure and function to analyze rural production, living, ecological, economic, social, cultural and other multidimensional space process about differentiation, reconstruction and governance as well as its motivation and control mechanism for developing rural theory of territorial system of human-environment interaction.

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Rural Settlements Research from the Perspective of Resilience Theory
Li Hongbo
2020, 40 (4):  556-562.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.007
Abstract ( 139 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (480KB) ( 99 )  

With the rapid progress of urbanization, rural development in China is facing increased vulnerability and instability. Under the policy guidance of rural revitalization and urban-rural integration, rural settlements are gradually showing a transformation trend of diversification and differentiation. It is an important task for rural geography to explore how different types of rural settlements deal with the disturbance of internal and external environment and reveal the multiple paths of rural settlements transformation. The notion of resilience is rapidly gaining ground as both a targeted process of societal development and as a research topic. Since the early 2000s, the concepts of resilience and vulnerability have begun to provide an important conceptual framework to understand how communities respond and adapt to environmental and societal changes. The resilience theory provides a new perspective for the study of rural settlement geography, and is of great significance for exploring and improving the ability of rural settlement systems to resist and resolve internal and external disturbances and sustainable development. Based on the resilience theory, this paper expounds the concept and theory of resilience, proposes to explore the multi-functional transformation of rural settlements from the perspective of resilience theory, to carry out systematic research on the resilience of rural settlements, and to analyze the measure of rural settlement resilience from the scale correlation and interaction mechanism of resilience. On this basis, this article proposed a resilience theory framework focused on the rural settlement. It will also try to seek an adaptive transformation path coupled with disturbance and impact for rural development, put forward the resilience strategy of the rural settlements development in China to provide theoretical guidance for the rural sustainable development, and rich rural geography theoretical research.

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Theoretical Analysis on the State Rural Policy Evolution, Rural Locality Reconstitution and Its Uncertainty in China in the Context of Globalization
Chen Cheng
2020, 40 (4):  563-571.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.008
Abstract ( 113 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (553KB) ( 64 )  

Globalization is the key dynamic powering the restructuring process of rural locality. However, the state policy deeply affects the rural locality's engagement with globalization, and alters the rural locality's evolution trajectory and the restructuring landscape. Following the current literature, this study focuses on the interlinkages between globalization, state policy and rural locality reconstitution in China. Through reviewing the literature on the interactions between globalization and the state rural policy evolution in China and the implementation of state policy in local areas, this paper presents the characteristic types of rural locality’s transformation towards industrialization, agricultural modernization and rural tourism and amenity, and discusses the potential uncertainty in the near future. Collectively, coupling the tremendous urbanization process closely related to the globalization, the earlier reforms in rural areas eradicated the extreme poverty and promoted the de-involution in most rural areas, and stimulated the industrialization enforce the rural development resilience and in some rural places. Motivated by the recent rural reforms and revevant new policies, advanced technologies and elements have been introduced widely and agriculture modernization in some rural locality, which promoted the specialized and scale operation in agricultural sector, and led to the gradual engagement with the international agriculture product trade and agriculture production elements exchange. Meanwhile, the current prosperity of rural tourism in some rural localities that are rich in amenity resources played an important role in realizing the rural rejuvenation and attracting the international elements improving the rural human capital. However, to enforce the rural development resilience and achieve the strategic aims of rural revitalization in China. much attention should be paid to keeping the continuous increasing of farmers' income, encouraging the old farmers to retire orderly and creating enough employment opportunities in new industrial sectors in rural areas.

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Transition of Rural Settlements: Concept, Feature, Mechanism and Path
Qu Yanbo
2020, 40 (4):  572-580.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.009
Abstract ( 118 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (680KB) ( 86 )  

In the new era, China's rural areas are experiencing a process from recession to development. As an important structural component of the rural system, rural settlements are undergoing drastic restructuring and transition, which has triggered a series of impacts and effects. It is a new proposition to comprehensively grasp the transition law of rural settlements and scientifically select the transition path of rural settlements in order to promote the sustainable development of rural areas and respond to the strategy of rural revitalization. Based on the theories of human settlements, regional system of human-land relationship and land use transition, the article explains the concept connotation and characterization elements of rural settlements transition from the perspective of material-social space coupling, reveals the basic characteristics of rural settlement space in different historical stages from homogeneous isomorphism to heterogeneous heterogeneity, analyses the driving mechanism of rural settlement transition under the combined effects of external pulling force, endogenous thrust force and system sudden change force. Finally, the path system of rural settlement transition zoning, classification and sub-model is designed under the goal of rural revitalization. The study holds that the rural settlement is a combination of material space and social space,which can be characterized by life, production, ecology and family, neighbors, villages and other elements. In the process of rural settlement transition, there are various spatial elements lag and volatility and lead to the multiple types and multiple paths of rural settlements development. Usually,the rural settlement transition is formed by the external environment such as industrialization, urbanization, policy and technological innovation, and internal artificial society and system mutation factors, but the different ways and degrees of different dynamics are different. Rural settlements transition is a process of benign development and an important fulcrum for rural revitalization,it should adjust the coordinated evolution of material space and social space, enhance the endogenous motive force of rural settlements and the ability to resist, adapt and transform to external interference, and promote the diversified development of rural settlements in a classified and orderly manner and drive the rural revitalization.

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A New Perspective of China Rural Governance Based on Modernity and Identity
Yao Huasong, Shao Xiaowen
2020, 40 (4):  581-589.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.010
Abstract ( 105 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (575KB) ( 40 )  

Rural development and rural revitalization rely on good rural governance. To understand rural governance in essence, we need to consider it in the context of China's development. At present, the problems of rural development and the disorder of governance in China are, in some sense, the inevitable response of traditional Chinese villages after encountering various "discomforts" in the process of rapid modernization. From a theoretical viewpoint of the interaction between modernity and identity, the article firstly discuss the encounters when modernity enters the country. Secondly, we highly focus the impact of modernity process on every types of rural governance bodies and mechanism, which include: 1) the village cadre's role identity change from "head" to "agent" in the process of rural governance; 2) as the main body of "capital goes to the countryside", it is difficult for returning entrepreneurs to promote rural governance from the standpoint of villagers; 3) outside workers are ineffective in rural governance for their lacking of integration and cohesion of thoughts; 4) left-behind people play a limited role in the process of rural governance because of the change of the standard of "able person". Finally, this article analyze how villagers face and debug modernity from the perspective of their own identity, and put forward the main approaches to optimize the governance of rural areas in contemporary China, mainly from the aspects of cultural identity, governance subjectivity and external supporting conditions.

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The Research Trend and Enlightenment of Rural Landscape in the UK After World War II
Fan Jianhong, Liang Zhaohong, Steven B Emery
2020, 40 (4):  590-598.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.011
Abstract ( 96 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (929KB) ( 44 )  

The rural landscape is a complex human-nature-society ecosystem. It is also a comprehensive projection of the production landscape, ecological landscape, and living landscape on the physical space. After the Second World War, industry, culture, and technology have profoundly reshaped the rural landscape in the United Kingdom, making it a model of the construction and development of the rural landscape in the world and a hotspot of rural landscape research in the academic circles. Thus, a systematic review of the literature on rural landscape in the United Kingdom would provide theoretical significances for rural landscape research and practical implications for the rural revitalization strategy in China. From the perspective of geography, ecology, and planning, This article first analyzes the evolution of the rural landscape in the United Kingdom. We find that the development of the UK rural landscape has experienced three stages: productivism-oriented, consumerism-oriented, and people-oriented—That are consistent with the rural economic, social, demographic, and political changes. This article then reviews the research process of rural landscape in the United Kingdom. We argue that the focus of rural landscape research in the United Kingdom has shifted from the natural landscape and ecological protection to the rural living landscape, reflecting the “humanistic turn” of rural landscape research. We further discuss the trends in rural landscape research, including de-agriculture strategy and the versatility of rural landscapes, the de-community strategy and the development of “people” and equality in rural communities, and rural revitalization and sustainable development of rural landscapes. Finally, the enlightenments and implications of rural landscape research in China are provided.

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Spatial Pattern and Association of Production-Living-Ecological Function and Life Quality on the Village Scale: A Case of Yangzhong City, Jiangsu Province
Li Xin, Fang Bin, Yin Rumeng, Xu Xin, Chen Tianyue
2020, 40 (4):  599-607.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.012
Abstract ( 134 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (1032KB) ( 90 )  

In order to find out the inherent logical relationship between the functional level of "production-living-ecological" and the quality of life, taking Yangzhong City, Jiangsu Province, an economically developed area as an example, based on land use change survey and farmer sample survey data, using factor analysis, GIS spatial analysis, standarded viation ellipse and other methods to quantitatively measure and correlate the quality of life of residents and the spatial pattern of “production-living-ecological” function level. The results showed that: 1) The functional level of “production-living-ecological” in the study area was low overall, the high value area was scattered, and the low value area was clustered around the Yangtze River and around the built-up area. The functional levels of each single space was different, and the spatial patterns were significantly different. 2) The subjective perception of residents' quality of life in Yangzhong City was generally moderate, and the quality of life percep tion had “proximity effect”. The high value area was concentrated in Sanmao Street and Wuyi Village, Fengle Village, Neighbourhood Village, etc. 3) The overall spatial correlation between the “production-living-ecological” function and the subjective perception of quality of life was high. The local differences were due to region al differences and differences in public infrastructure and environmental conditions. In the future, it is still necessary to strengthen management according to local conditions and coordinate regional production-life-ecological function relations.The results of the study are expected to reflect the relationship between the functional level of “production-living-ecological” space and the perception of life quality, and provide a reference for the formulation of policies to coordinate regional development and improve people's quality of life.

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Risks of Poverty of Farmers in Contiguous Poverty-stricken Areas in Hainan Province
Zhang Jinping, Song Wei, Lin Dan, Yu Zhenxin, Li Tingyun, Luo Qiuge, Cheng Yeqing
2020, 40 (4):  608-616.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.013
Abstract ( 114 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (460KB) ( 65 )  

Rural poverty and poverty alleviation are world-wide problems, which are also major livelihood issues that Chinese governments at all levels attach great importance to and focus on. Hainan Province is one of the key areas for poverty alleviation and development in China where has 5 national poverty counties and 6 provincial-level poverty alleviation and development work centers. Different from the deep poverty areas in northwestern and central and western China where have poor living conditions, lack of resources, and frequent natural disasters, Hainan Province is rich in natural resources and good in ecological environment. It is an important producing area for winter vegetable, tropical fruits and tropical economic crops in China. Although the total number of poor people in this region is small, the incidence of poverty is high, and the family characteristics of farmers and the mechanism of poverty show obvious regional differences. Based on the concept of poverty and risk, this study explains the risk and impact factors of farmers' poverty. Furthermore, a binary logistic regression model for farmers' risk analysis of poverty is constructed from 3 dimensions: location, society and labor. Based on the questionnaire survey data of 484 households, this article analyzes the poverty risk of farmers in contiguous poverty-stricken areas in Hainan Province, and proposes effective poverty alleviation and sustainable development strategies in the area. Study found that, primarily, the contiguous poverty-stricken areas in Hainan have such general characteristics of a good ecological environment but a high incidence of poverty, a relatively abundant family labor force but a low level of education, a heavy burden on children's education expenditure, a high proportion of poverty due to illness, a large female working population and the lack of development motivation of farmers themselves to get rid of poverty and get rich. Secondly, households living below 200 m above sea level, having male heads of households, disabilities or sick members, low proportion of migrant workers, high ratio of female migrant workers to total migrant workers, and high student labor ratios are at greater risk of poverty. The study hasn’t found that households with female heads of households, low-educated household heads, minority families, and large-scale families have higher risk of poverty. Factors such as ratio of female member and dependency ratio have less impact on farmers' poverty. It is an important way to achieve the goal of poverty alleviation by stimulating the endogenous motivation of farmers, vigorously developing characteristic and large-scale agriculture, increasing employment opportunities for farmers, and strengthening the social security for migrant workers, female migrant workers and sick and disabled groups.

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The Formation, Evolution and Innovative Development of Agricultural Clusters in China: Case of the Cluster Nature of "Shouguang Mode"
Li Erling
2020, 40 (4):  617-627.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.014
Abstract ( 117 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (559KB) ( 99 )  

As a new tool of global agricultural transformation, agricultural cluster has become an important strategy for developing countries to revitalize rural areas and integrate into agricultural global value chain. China has also been promoting the construction of the industrial clusters with advantages. However, the existing literature is not enough to discuss the theory of agricultural industrial cluster with Chinese characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis of agricultural cluster, taking the vegetable cluster in Shouguang, Shandong as an example, this article discusses the "four-stage model" of the formation and evolution and the sustainable innovative mechanism of Chinese agricultural industrial cluster. The conclusion shows that: 1) The formation and innovative development of agricultural cluster starts from agricultural agglomeration, specialized village to the industrial cluster and then to the rural innovation pole; 2) It is the first step for the formation of agricultural cluster and its innovation system to promote the transformation of farmers into enterprises. The establishment of industrial network is a necessary step for agricultural industry agglomeration and the upgrading of specialized village to agricultural industry cluster. The formation of agricultural innovation system marks the maturity of agricultural cluster; 3) The formation and evolution of Shouguang vegetable cluster in Shandong has also gone through 4 stages. The knowledge growth and knowledge flow within the cluster improve the endogenous ability and external contractual relationship of enterprises or farmers, promote the collaborative evolution of enterprises (farmers), industry (network), technology, system and space, and realize collaborative innovation in five dimensions, which is the internal mechanism of sustainable innovative development of clusters.

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The Space-time Coupling Between Rural Revitalization Strategy and Rural Tourism Development in Shandong Province
Dong Wenjing, Wang Changsen, Zhang Zhen
2020, 40 (4):  628-636.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.015
Abstract ( 152 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (849KB) ( 125 )  

By analyzing the mechanism of the coupling and coordinated development of rural revitalization and rural tourism, the coupling index system and the coupling and coordinating model of Rural Revitalization and rural tourism are constructed. The method of entropy weighting and comprehensive evaluation is used. With the aid of the coupling and coordinating model, rural revitalization and rural tourism in Shandong Province from 2008 to 2018 and in 16 cities of Shandong Province in 2017 are studied. The comprehensive development evaluation function and the coupling coordination level are empirically analyzed. The results show that: 1) There is an interactive coupling relationship between rural revitalization and rural tourism, and the comprehensive development level of both shows a continuous upward trend. When the value of the comprehensive evaluation function of rural revitalization and rural tourism is low, the degree of coupling and coordination of the two is on the whole low and in a state of imbalance. With the full implementation of the strategy of rural revitalization and the sustainable development of rural tourism, the interactive coupling relationship between them has gradually strengthened, and the degree of coupling coordination has also been upgraded to the primary coordination state; 2) From the time series curve of the level of rural revitalization and comprehensive development of rural tourism in Shandong Province, the level of rural revitalization construction is continuously higher than that of rural tourism development water. The contribution of rural revitalization to rural tourism is greater than that of the latter, which belongs to the coupling and coordination of rural revitalization. From the spatial pattern of rural revitalization and comprehensive development of rural tourism in Shandong Province, due to the difference of resource endowment and the role of comparative advantage, the comprehensive development level of the two systems presents regional development; 3) In terms of time sequence, the coupling development of rural revitalization and rural tourism in Shandong Province shows stages and fluctuations. The degree of coupling coordination of the two systems has experienced serious imbalance, imbalance on the verge of imbalance to reluctant coordination and primary coordination, and the interaction between the two systems has been strengthened gradually, from the stage of serious imbalance to the stage of barely coordination and primary coordination. The transition from low-coupling coordination to moderate-coupling coordination has begun to develop in a healthy and orderly way, but it has not yet evolved to a good level of coupling coordination; 4) As far as spatial heterogeneity is concerned, the coupling development of rural revitalization and rural tourism in Shandong Province shows differences and regionality, and the coupling coordination degree of 16 cities in Shandong Province is divided into primary coordination. There are three types: Reluctant coordination and imbalance on the verge of imbalance, which are in the middle and lower level. There are certain spatial correspondence between the coupling coordination and combination of cities and their economic level, historical basis, resource endowment and location conditions. The phenomenon of unbalanced development and spatial heterogeneity between rural revitalization and rural tourism is obvious.

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Social Construction of Local Agriculture from the Perspective of Agro-food Geography: A Case Study of Hani Rice Terraces System
Tao Wei, Cai Haohui, Liao Jianhao
2020, 40 (4):  637-645.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.016
Abstract ( 108 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (471KB) ( 55 )  

The rapid process of urbanization has brought great challenges to rural development, especially the local agriculture, and agricultural degradation has become increasingly serious. Agriculture is the foundation of the national economy and the transformation of its development mode is an important task under the Rural Revitalization strategy. At the same time, food security, such as the stability of food supply and the grain quality, has become an important part of national security strategy. As an important perspective to study man-land relationship, agro-food geography is a hot topic of international rural issues. The analysis of the food network from production to consumption is not only the main research method of agro-food studies, but also a new perspective for scholars to study the urban-rural relationship. In this paper, we select Hani Rice Terraces System as the research object. Based on the production-consumption network theory of agro-food geography, we investigate the methods and behaviors of multi-subjects local agriculture and interpret the phenomenon of social construction through one-mouth in-depth interview and text analysis. The study finds that the characteristics of multi-participation in the field of agricultural production are significant and different actors both use and transform the natural elements. The selection of high-quality rice seeds, the variety of breeding species and the promotion of land transfer are strategies for government, villagers and foreign companies to jointly negotiate for their respective interests. In the field of consumption of agricultural products, the government and enterprises gradually undertake the follow-up process of commodification of red rice. State-owned capital completes the acquisition, processing and packaging of agricultural products, and commercial capital is responsible for constructing the quality of goods. The demand of the target consumers is met, which leads to the completion of the construction of the red rice production-consumption network. This paper analyzes the agricultural product network of the case, tries to spy on the corner of China's contemporary complex urban-rural relationship, and provides case reference and development path reference for the rural revitalization in rural areas mainly relying on agriculture.

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Spatial Evolution Process, Motivation and Restructuring of "Production Living-Ecology" in Industrial Town: A Case Study on Qugou Town in Henan Province
Yu Zhengsong, Cheng Yeqing, Li Xiaojian, Sun Dongqi
2020, 40 (4):  646-656.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.017
Abstract ( 140 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (849KB) ( 77 )  

It is of great practical significance to explore the evolution of the pattern of land use in industrial towns and the motivations for guiding the coordinated development of their “production-living-ecology” space. Based on multi-phase high definition remote sensing image sensing imagery, questionnaire interviews, and a large amount of second-hand data from Qugou Town, a comprehensive analysis of the research area's use of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), spatial analysis of GIS, and transfer matrix of land use was conducted to analyze the rural space restructuring and transformation development in 1991-2017. The study found that: During the period of research, construction land with industrial and mining lands was significantly increased, showing a rapid development, local agglomeration and diversification in total; The production space changed from agriculture to agriculture and industry co-exist, production space of industry is embedded into the agricultural production space to form a “mosaic” pattern; The evolution of living space presents the trend of both spatial expansion and quality improvement coexistence; The change of ecological space has two characteristics of area reduction and quality decline; The evolution process of “production-living-ecology” space is the result of the combined effects of internal and external factors such as the driving of rural talents, the evolution of industrial structure, the accumulation of path dependence, the macro-control of the government, and the constraints of physical and geographical conditions. Industrial town is the typical mode of rural urbanization in China, as a lower level node in urban network, it has the characteristics of large quantity, variety of types, emphasis on development and less planning. The land uses has many challenges, such as extensive, inefficient and inadequate environmental protection, and these problems has already become the barrier to it’s development. The spatial evolution process, pattern and motivation of "production-living-ecology space" in town area revealed by multi-method comprehensive integration, not only can provide direct spatial pattern expression for relevant departments, it can provide guidance for its optimization of industrial distribution and scientific utilization of land resources. Then it can also provides some reference value for guiding the restructuring and sustainable development of rural space in industrial towns.

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Spatial Distribution and Industrial Agglomeration Characteristics of Development Zones in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
Tang Chengli, Chen Weiyang, Wu Jiamin, Zhou Guohua, Wang Meixia, Guo Xiashuang
2020, 40 (4):  657-664.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.018
Abstract ( 159 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (3231KB) ( 101 )  

Development zone is the spatial carrier and the growth pole of regional industrial agglomeration and development. Studying the spatial pattern and industrial agglomeration characteristics of the development zone is of vital importance to the layout optimization of the development zone, the industrial division and cooperation, and the high-quality development of the regional economy. In this article, the nearest neighbor index, Ripley's L function and kernel density estimation were adopted to analyze the spatial distribution and industrial agglomeration characteristics of development zones in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The results show that: 1) On the whole, the development zones of the Yangtze River Economic Belt show a distribution characteristic of remarkable agglomeration, which is characterized by ‘sparse in the east and dense in the west, the east strong west weak and differentiation in the east, the middle and the western region’; 2) The spatial distribution of various industry-oriented development zones is agglomeration, while its agglomeration intensity and scale are significantly different, showing the principle of ‘increased firstly and decreased later’; the cluster forms are different, mainly including three types: ‘single core’‘dual core’ and ‘multi-core’; 3) The eastern part of the Yangtze River Economic Belt mainly focuses on capital and technology-intensive industries such as equipment manufacturing, communication electronics, automobile manufacturing, new materials, biomedicine, while the central and western regions concentrate capital and labor intensive industries such as chemical industry, metal processing, food manufacturing, textile and clothing. 4) Great efforts are in need to strengthen the multi-dimensional and benign interaction between the mid- and lower-stream development zones in the economic belt, promote green development, innovation development and structural optimization, and further enhance its leading and supporting role in the high-quality development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

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The Spatial Variation and Location Influencing Factors of Cultural Firms in Dalian City, China
Zhang Li, Han Zenglin
2020, 40 (4):  665-673.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.04.019
Abstract ( 128 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (4748KB) ( 95 )  

How to rationally lay out cultural firms has become an important way to analyze the development of urban cultural industry from a micro perspective. This paper explores the spatial distribution changes and location factors of cultural firms in Dalian based on the data of cultural firms in 2000, 2008 and 2016, taking the sub-district as a spatial scale and using global autocorrelation, hotspot analysis and negative binomial regression model, etc. The results show: 1) The spatial distribution of cultural firms presents the ‘city center’ preference, although the spatial diffusion phenomenon of the cultural firms from 2000 to 2016 is obvious, but the degree of agglomeration in urban core areas is constantly increasing, finally the spatial distribution of cultural firms in Dalian presents a pattern of ‘two centers and one belt’. 2) The southern part of Dalian has always been a hot spot for cultural firms in the city, showing obvious circle characteristics. During the study period, the area of the hot spot decreased, but the location of the hot spot center did not change, still centered on the traditional core city and the new district. 3) The spatial distribution of production-oriented cultural firms presents the ‘city center’ preference, However, consumer-oriented cultural enterprises spread to the edge of the main city and formed a multi-center pattern. 4) At the street space scale, location elements and agglomeration elements have a significant impact on the location choice of cultural firms, but the impact of policy elementsis not significant. Compared with consumption-oriented culture firms, production-oriented cultural firms are more sensitive to factors such as agglomeration benefits, cultural resources and economic environment.

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