10 November 2019, Volume 39 Issue 11 Previous Issue   
Development of Cross-border Integration of Beijing and Shanghai Based on Symbiosis Theory
Wang Shaobo, Luo Xiaolong, Tang Mi, Liu Junfeng
2019, 39 (11):  1681-1690.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.001
Abstract ( 88 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (613KB) ( 86 )  

The symbiosis of cross-border areas is the basic condition for realizing the integrated development of urban agglomerations. Based on the theory of symbiosis, this article takes Shanghai and Beijing as examples, Logistic symbiosis function is used to identify the symbiotic relationship between Beijing and Shanghai with their own neighboring cities. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of symbiotic relationship is discussed based on the spatial differentiation of symbiotic environment and interface. Study found: 1) Compared with Beijing, Shanghai has a more coordinated development with its neighboring cities, and they have a mutualism and parasitism relationship with their surrounding cities. 2) Compared with Shanghai, Beijing has certain political specialties; the political rights between Beijing and its neighboring cities is unequal; Beijing’s market environment is mostly one-way interactive mode, which makes some limits for Beijing to form a good symbiotic relationship with its surrounding areas. However, Shanghai has a relatively equal communication environment with its neighboring cities; its police and market environment is mostly two-way interactive mode, which promoted its symbiotic relationship with surrounding cities. 3) Factor space contact structures of symbiotic interface between Shanghai and Beijing with their surrounding areas have obvious pattern of "traffic corridor" features. Compared with their cities, the elemental flow and symbiotic degree of Beijing and Shanghai and important traffic corridor nodes or cities along the route are higher.

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Pattern Language of the Spatial Arrangement of Traditional Villages: A Case Study of Zhangguying Village
Li Bohua, Zheng Shinian, Liu Peilin, Dou Yindi
2019, 39 (11):  1691-1701.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.002
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The spatial form and combination characteristics of traditional villages contain strong regional cultural genes which make the typical and modal spatial layout, and form unique spatial pattern language. Based on the basic theory of pattern language and landscape genes, taking Zhangguying Village as the research object, this article carries on the spatial element recognition and the landscape gene extraction to the traditional village, and then constructs the pattern language system of the spatial layout of Zhangguying village. This article studies the splicing, transformation and nesting of horizontal and vertical dimensions, and explores the nested structure, process mechanisms and logical context of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village which provides a new theoretical method and research idea for the protection and sustainable development of traditional villages in China. The results show that: 1) Through analyzing the spatial deconstruction and landscape genes of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village, the spatial layout can be divided into living space, connecting space, subsidiary space and compound space. By generating and extracting 86 kinds of spatial design vocabulary, a graphic prototype database for spatial layout of Zhangguying Village has been established. Each type of spatial design vocabulary has its own characteristics and connected with each other. 2) By spatial nesting the schema vocabulary of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village, teasing out the spatial lexicon, spatial syntax and spatial grammar followed in the nesting process, this paper established the pattern language system of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village. This system has integrated graphic language logic, and its development pattern and space order always followed the patriarchal etiquette system and traditional ethics. 3) The spatial layout pattern language of Zhangguying Village has complete and stable design syntax and grammar. The space design language is rich in vocabulary, and the combination types of syntax are multiplex, but the grammatical structure is relatively single. The overall space is mostly formed by continuous "copying" and "pasting" the same or similar basic space elements which follow a fixed pattern. Special spatial relationship forms the village spatial layout with partly complex & changeable and the whole relatively single. And a lot of rhetorical devices have been used in the layout of village space. 4) The spatial layout of Zhangguying Village is influenced by the geographical environment greatly. The village space construction elements and design ideas have strong regional color. The vocabulary and space law of pattern language also have distinctive local characteristics.

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Spatial Pattern and Influencing Mechanism of Interprovincial Migration’s Hukou Transfer Intention in China
Gu Hengyu, Liu Ziliang, Shen Tiyan
2019, 39 (11):  1702-1710.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.003
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Based on data from migration dynamic micro survey 2016, this article first construct the network of interprovincial Hukou transfer intention in China. Then, with the use of some spatial analysis methods, including global Moran’s I coefficient and hot spot, we explore the spatial pattern of such network. Considering network autocorrelation in our data, Eigenvector Spatial Filtering Gravity Model (ESFGM) is applied for analyzing the driving factors. Main results reveal that: 1) The network shows a concentrating spatial pattern, and migrating flows with high ranks are mainly from the undeveloped areas to developed regions. That is to say, the willingness of transferring Hukou differs from regions to regions, showing heterogeneity. 2) Although there exists a random spatial pattern of Hukou attractiveness, such pattern of out-migration is concentrating. Furthermore, provinces in the west and northwest are the hot spot areas of Hukou emigration intention, while the cold spot areas are the mid-east regions in China. 3) From the macro perspective, population of destination shows a negative impact on Hukou transfer intention, while the size of population in an origin is not highly correlated; per capita GDP of both origin and destination, as well as export of foreign-invested firms, influence the intention positively and notably. But among all macro factors, the average wage of employees in urban areas leads to relatively higher impact. 4) From the micro perspective, generally speaking, migrants’ individual and family factors have strong ties with their Hukou transfer intention. A migrant, with higher education level, smaller age and larger scale of family in the destination, tends to transfer his (or her) Hukou to the immigration place. In the meantime, impacts of house condition and migration reason cannot be ignored: a migrant with lower intention of buying a local house or migrating for business, is likely to have a lower intention of transferring Hukou.

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The Evolution of the Network Structure of Talent Mobility in Countries or Regions Along the “Belt and Road”
Hou Chunguang, Du Debin, Duan Dezhong, Gui Qinchang, Jiao Meiqi
2019, 39 (11):  1711-1718.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.004
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High-quality talents are reshaping the world economic landscape by transcending geographic flows and driving global innovative activities. Under the background of globalization and profound changes in international geopolitics, the ‘Belt and Road’ has become the general program of China’s opening up and foreign cooperation. Talents are the key to advancing the strategy of ‘Belt and Road’. The number of international student mobility along the ‘Belt and Road (B&R)’ has increased rapidly from 13.2×10 4 persons in 2000 to 104×10 4 persons in 2015. The significant increase of flows means a broader and more complex network of political and economic relationships. The concept of ‘talent’ is relatively broad, including scientists, scholars, engineers, artists, entrepreneurs, college students and so on. The ‘talent’ mentioned in this article are international students receiving international higher education. In the era of knowledge economy, studying abroad has become an important part of international talent flow and a necessary process for countries to cultivate international talents. Compared with international students, other types of talents have smaller international mobility and lack of formal statistical data. Based on the data of international students mobility in universities published by UNESCO, this article uses the complex network method to construct a weighted directed network, combining with GIS spatial analysis methods to study the evolution of the network structure of talent flows in B&R countries or regions from 2000 to 2015. Limited to data collection, the data of China do not include the data of Taiwan. The results show that: 1) The average weighted degree of talent flow networks in B&R countries or regions increases rapidly from 2 001 to 15 338. And the number of paths increases from 674 to 1 860, which indicates that not only does the number of mobile talents in the network continues to increase, but also does the number of talent paths. Meanwhile, the network scale expands rapidly as well. 2) The geospatial pattern of the network of talent flows in B&R countries or regions is ‘from middle to west, from south to north’. Students in central Asia mainly flow westward to Russia, Ukraine, while students in Southeast and South Asia mainly flow northward to China. As a result, the network center gradually shifts from West to East. 3) The network of talent flows in B&R countries or regions has prominent community structure characteristics. The characteristics can be divided into 5 associations: The CIS Association, the China ASEAN Association, the West Asian North African Association, the Middle East European Association and the South Asian Association. 4) The network of talent flows in B&R countries or regions has a significant core-edge structure characteristics, China and Russia are at the core position, and some countries in southeast, Western and Eastern Europe are in the edge position. This article proposes suggestions for B&R talent training from perspective of the core countries, formulating regional talent exchange strategies, improving the quality of higher education, and implementing the international talent training mechanism of ‘internal and external circulation’.

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County-level Logistics Spatial Linkage and Network Structure Under the Electronic Commerce Environment in Zhejiang Province
Liu Chengjun, Zhou Jianping, Jiang Jianhua, Chu Jinchao
2019, 39 (11):  1719-1728.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.005
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With the development of internet and mobile Internet, both e-commerce and the spatial structure of county logistics have evolved rapidly. Based on the perspective of spatial linkage, this article combined methods of the gravity model and social network analysis to describe the spatial linkage characteristics and network structure of county logistics in Zhejiang Province. Conclusions are drawn as following: 1) The maximum gravitational line pattern of county-level logistics in Zhejiang Province is stable, but the overall gravitational line pattern in the core area has changed little, forming a logistics development pattern in which the core area is stable and the marginal area is still changing. The distribution of county logistics linkage networks in Zhejiang Province is relatively uneven in space. The logistics network of northeastern, eastern, southeastern and central counties in Zhejiang Province is more complex than that in southern Zhejiang and western Zhejiang. In the early stage, the county logistics space linkage network was only with simple structure, and it gradually developed into a network with a mature shape, which means the network complexity trend is increasingly prominent. Besides, if a county has a high level of e-commerce development, its county logistics level is also relatively high. 2) In the evolution process of potential energy of logistics spatial linkage, the potential energy value of logistics space in most counties has increased, which is affected by the level of economic development and transportation capacity. The potential energy value of most counties in northern Zhejiang and central Zhejiang is higher than that in western Zhejiang and southern Zhejiang. In addition, the spatial distribution of potential energy of logistics spatial linkage is gradually gathering from south to north, fitting the development level of e-commerce well. 3) It is clear that the county of Zhejiang Province is roughly divided into four subgroups, and the core members in the subgroup are roughly unchanged. The core counties in the first and second subgroups are more and more closely connected, while some counties are marginalized and gradually shift to the third and fourth subgroups. Moreover, due to the limitation of location and economic level, links between the third and fourth subgroups are relatively loose, lacking of the development kinetic energy and cohesion. The multi-center structure of the logistics network has been evolving stably and evenly. The municipal districts occupy a key position in the county logistics spatial linkage network, gradually forming four major logistics circles dominated by Hangzhou, Ningbo, Yiwu and Wenzhou.

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The Spatial Sprawl and Driving Mechanism of the Floating Population in Beijing Metropolitan Areas
Zhao Meifeng, Wang Dengen
2019, 39 (11):  1729-1738.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.006
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Based on the population census data at the subdistrict/town scale, taking Beijing Metropolitan area as the study area, employing the population density model, Getis-Ord G index and spatial econometrics model, this article analyzes the spatial sprawl pattern of the floating population from the four aspects: size, proportion, density and clustering. Then this article explores the driving forces and their influencing mechanism for the spatial sprawl pattern of the floating population. The results show that: firstly, the size and density of the floating population showed a clear growth trend of up to 18% in Beijing Metropolitan Area in 2000-2010; however, the proportion and the clustering degree of the floating populating showed an obviously declining trend. Secondly, the floating population experienced 'core-periphery sprawl' pattern in 2000-2010. The implication is that the floating population was relocating from the urban core areas to the urban periphery areas during the decade. The size, density, proportion and clustering degree of the floating population was continuously declining in the urban core areas; meanwhile, the size, density, proportion and clustering degree of the floating population was increasingly inclining in the urban periphery areas. Thirdly, the result of the spatial ecometrics model shows that the 'core-periphery sprawl' pattern of the floating population was the aggregated outcomes of the economic factor (represented by the housing cost and the employment opportunity), the urban construction factor (represented by the proportion of rural housing land) , the transportation factor (represented by the distance to the nearest subway station and the density of bus stations) and the institutional factor (represented by the percent of the registered agricultural population). The direct driving force was that the housing affordability of the floating population cannot keep up with the pace of the increase of the housing rent. The indirect driving force was the demolition of low-income floating population residing communities including the 'villages in the city' and the squatter settlements. The hard attractiveness force was the huge improvement of the public transportation accessibility in the urban periphery areas. The soft attractiveness force was the special urban-rural dualism in China.

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Hierarchical Network Structures and Regional Differentiations of Tourist Source Destinations of Nanjing Based on Cellular Signaling Data
Gu Qiushi, Zhang Haiping, Chen Min, Xie Yi
2019, 39 (11):  1739-1748.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.007
Abstract ( 48 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (5928KB) ( 32 )  

This paper studies the network hierarchy and regional differentiation patterns of the source market from a city level. Based on the big data of tourist number monitored in Nanjing, 5short-period festivals are selected including New Year's Day, Qingming Festival, Labor′s Day, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid-Autumn Festival of China. The methods of overall trend analysis based on spatial variables, social space network clustering analysis and spatial regional division model are adopted. Among them, the first method can be used to determine the overall spatial distribution trend of tourist flow intensity. The second one can realize the hierarchical division of the source network nodes, so as to simultaneously examine the hierarchical structure and spatial distribution structure of the network nodes. The division model based on machine learning can be used to distinguish the tourist volume and tourist flow intensity in the source market from the city level. The results are as follows: 1) The intensity of tourist flow shows significant spatial hierarchy characteristics. The high-ranking nodes are mainly located in the most adjacent and sub-adjacent areas of Nanjing, and the exogenous network effect is also obvious. 2) Overall, the source network nodes in five different short-period national holidays show similar hierarchical structures and distribution patterns while the regional differences are apparent. 3) Although there are many differences in the spatial distribution patterns of the high level city nodes among the five short-period national holidays, the basic spatial pattern could be generalized as: the most adjacent area of ??Nanjing as the first cluster, the sub-adjacent area of Nanjing as the second cluster and the adjacent area closed to Beijing and Guangzhou as the third and fourth clusters. Those four clusters constitute the most critical tourist generating areas to Nanjing. 4) The regionalized tourist volume division is characterized by a north-south differentiation pattern, while the regionalized tourist flow intensity division exhibits an east-west differentiation pattern. The analytical results of this paper have important practical implication for deepening the zoning of tourist source in Nanjing and provide references to other destinations. It also could help to conduct accurate marketing strategy in tourism marketing and optimizing the configuration of tourism supporting facilities.

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Spatio-temporal Evolution and Driving Mechanism of Land Administrative Review Cases in China
Song Yang, Zhu Daolin, Zhang Lixin, Du Ting, Zhang Hui
2019, 39 (11):  1749-1756.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.008
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Based on summarizing the policy path and theory basis of land resources administrative reconsideration, this paper summarized the macro reasons for the phenomenon of land administrative reconsideration, and explored its spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, evolutionary trends and main influencing factors by global trend analysis and grey correlation analysis model in China from 2000 to 2015 additionally, combining the investigation and analysis of relevant land administrative reconsideration cases. Results of this study showed that: the number of annual land administrative reconsideration cases in China increased continuously, while the review success rate of administrative counterparts has experienced a gradual rise after a decline in the past 16 years from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution of the land administrative reconsideration cases is basically matched with China’s macro-population-economic pattern, decreasing from southeast to northwest. Its spatial evolution process of was started from the center of main provinces in central region, and then spread to eastern coastal areas, southeast and northwest area. The spatio-temporal evolution of the number of land administrative reconsideration cases in China is driven by several factors, including economic development level, urbanization level, upgrading of industrial structure, urban built-up area, land fiscal revenue, land marketization and location conditions.

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Spatial and Temporal Effects of Urban Renewal on Real Estate Market: Empirical Research Based on Hangzhou City
Huang Zhonghua, Xu Weili, Du Xuejun
2019, 39 (11):  1757-1762.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.009
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China's urban development has entered into a period of large-scale urban renewal. Urban renewal can not only improve land use efficiency, but also improve neighborhood amenities and environmental quality. Urban renewal can bring capitalization effect into neighboring housing prices, and affect the development of real estate market. This study takes Hangzhou as a case and employs the difference-in-differences method to investigate the spatial and temporal effects of urban renewal on the real estate market. The results indicate that: 1) Urban renewal has a significant positive impact on the surrounding housing prices, but the degree of impact is different at the different periods of renewal. The surrounding housing prices will increase by 28.6% and 32% during the construction and operation periods of urban renewal projects. 2) Urban renewal has spatial different impact on the surrounding housing prices, and urban renewal would increase the housing prices 23% more in the urban fringe area than that in the urban core area. 3) The impact of urban renewal on the surrounding housing prices decreases with the distance. The urban renewal's impact on the surround housing price are 41.9% and 24.9%, respectively, at the distances of less 2.0 km and 2.0-3.5 km to city center. This study provides references for government better managing urban renewal and real estate market by revealing the significant spatial and temporal effects of urban renewal on surrounding housing prices.

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Mapping Urban Network Through Inter-firm Investment Relationship: A Case Study of Yangtze River Delta
Li Zherui, Zhen Feng, Fu Xingxing
2019, 39 (11):  1763-1770.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.010
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (904KB) ( 10 )  

Currently, existing articles about urban network from the perspective of firm relationship mainly use frims’ spatial and organizational structure to quantify intra-firm linkages, and then to study connections between cities. However, such research method neglects inter-firm linkages, especially those linkages among different-industry firms, resulting in thelack of authenticity in establishing urban network. Investment linkages between enterprises often bring the flow of institutions, knowledge and talents, which opens a new window for the study of inter-firm linkages. Therefore, this study uses investment data of all-industry enterprises published by ‘Tian Yan Cha’ website to propose an alternative way for establishing urban network. The data of ‘Tian Yan Cha’ website are authorized by the State Administration of Industry and Commerce, and have been widely used in business investigation and economic research. Through digging out all possible investment linkage routes between each two firms from massive data, this study chooses the Yangtze River Delta as the empirical strudy area in order to discover some new characteristics of urban network in node hierarchy and link under the support of real enterprises’ investment behavior. The study results show that in directed urban network, Shanghai, Hangzhou and Hefei are regional capital distribution centers. Among these cities, Shanghai is the linkage hub of the whole region, while Hangzhou and Hefei dominate their provincial cities respectively. One interesting phenomenon is that Shanghai produces strong effects on cities of Jiangsu Province, which indirectly weakens Nanjing’s network status. Nanjing's disadvantaged status is also related to its insufficient amount of data involved in the analysis, which implies that Nanjing’s firms prefer investing outside the Yangtze River Delta. In undirected urban network, cities’ intermediary effect vary dramatically, the strength of Shanghai and Hangzhou becomes more obvious. At the same time, the network status of some peripheral cities including Huaibei and Quzhou has been significantly promoted, and the former city has an energy tycoon firm producing large amount of investment linkages and the latter city is famous for its ‘family firms’. As the intermediary hub, Shanghai stimulates the integration process of the Yangtze River Delta while Hangzhou and Hefei mainly play the role of ‘bridge’ in connecting their provincial cities and Shanghai. There are nearly none prominent intermediary nodes in Jiangsu Province, which demonstrates that there is great room for Nanjing to improve its network status. There are 3 research topics deserve further attention. The first is the investment amount is more accurate in quantifying urban linkages than investment frequency. Secondly is study on single-industry firm investment may explain why gap exists between some city’s network status and their economic status. The last is that the massive firm investment data inevitably lead to magnitude differences, how to eliminate the influence of data quantity on the basis of guaranteeing network characteristics remains to be explored.

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Spatial Supply-demand Evaluation and Layout Optimization for Urban Green Space: A Case Study of Xuzhou Central District
Li Xin, Ma Xiaodong, Xue Xiaotong, Khuong Manh Ha
2019, 39 (11):  1771-1779.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.011
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Since urban green space (UGS) can provide significant ecological and social benefits, it is considered to have important impacts on urban environment and inhabitants’ quality of life. Thus, UGS allocation has become the focus of urban planning and the main avenues for low-carbon city and sponge city building. However, the population and green space data used by existing studies for UGS allocation were not adequately accurate, and the results were course with limited referential value. In addition, existing studies rarely go further step to study layout optimization of the newly increased green space. The main work of this research is to evaluate the supply and demand for UGS at community level, then proposing an optimization approach to promote the level of the green deficit communities to get a more equal green space layout. Firstly, Google image with resolution of 0.25 m was used to get different green land distributions, and Web Crawling method was employed to obtain population of communities from the real estate transaction websites such as Anjuke, Fang.com and Tencent's property. Secondly, the UGS supply of 520 communities was evaluated with the two-step floating catchment area method, and then the supply-demand match and its spatial variation were analyzed according to relevant demand standards. Lastly, in order to minimize the number of green deficit communities, a spatial heuristic model was established. With this model, the inefficient industrial parcels with proper quantity and location were selected to be converted into green space to generate optimized green space layout. The results are as follows: 39% communities has a green space supply less than the planning standard (20.1 m 2). Thus, the supply-demand correspondence of green space in central urban area of Xuzhou is not equal. While a large proportion of supply saturated communities are located in Yunlong Lake and Quanshan Park districts, most supply deficit communities are located at old urban areas and along Huaihai Road down to Jinshanqiao district. Since the green space distribution should be consistent with the population spatial distribution, it is necessary to configure large and medium-sized green parks in high-rise residential cluster areas rather than allocating most of the land to commercial and residential uses for “land finance” purpose. As a result of the UGS layout optimization with spatial heuristic algorithm, green space supply deficit communities decreased by 37 with the cost of 431 hm 2 inefficiency industrial plots being converted into green land. This study can provide scientific reference and technical support for UGS allocation during urban planning. It can also provide reference for the choices of residential communities for home buyers from the perspective of accessible UGS quantity.

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Mediation, Body and Emotion: Mobility Experiences in Road Travel on Sichuan-Tibet Highway
Wang Xueji, Sun Jiuxia, Huang Xiubo
2019, 39 (11):  1780-1786.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.012
Abstract ( 35 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (458KB) ( 34 )  

Under the new mobility paradigm, the mobility experience attached with traffic is no longer only a channel for tourists to arrive at their destinations, but instead becomes a unique experience deeply embedded in the geospatial space of tourism channels. The tourist experience is no longer bounded by relatively static destination space. The study is based on the perspective of mobility, focusing on road travel and mobility experience on the Sichuan-Tibet Highway. Interviews and observations were conducted to collect data when the researchers and the participants were moving together in order to explore the diverse experience of travelers in the mobility process within road space. The study finds that the mobility experience constitutes the core of the travel experience of the Sichuan-Tibet Highway travelers, which involves the integration and interaction of mediations, body and emotions. First, material mediations such as bicycles and motorcycles shape the intermediation experience of road travelers. Mediations not only result in 'connections' but also 'disconnections', which in turn affects the physical experience of travelers when they interact with the place. Secondly, the mobility process shapes the traveler's physical experience ranging from the visual to the multi-sensory, which is a combination of the negative experience such as the feeling of danger and pain and the positive experience such as excitement and flowing of body and mind. Finally, the intermediary and the body experience form a projection of emotion, and the transition of the mobility state leads to the various emotional experience, also the environment of road space has an impact on the emotional experience of the travelers.

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The Impact of Kinship Network on Peasants′ Tourism Entrepreneurial Intention Based on a Sample of Pujiang County, Zhejiang Province
Zhang Huanzhou, Li Qiucheng, Huang Zuhui
2019, 39 (11):  1787-1795.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.013
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The tourism industry has been acknowledged worldwide as an effective driver of rural development. Thus, central and local government of China has long been supporting rural tourism as an effective way to implement the Rural Revitalization Strategy. An important phenomenon is that small hospitality businesses such as 'rural inn' and 'happy homestay' established and operated by local residents are a predominant type of business in rural tourism of China. In addition, it has been widely acknowledged that these small-sized and family-run businesses can ensure that local residents benefit directly from development of tourism industry, provide differentiated 'authentic' products, services and experiences to the visitors, and promote the development of local economy, society and environment of the host community. Therefore, these tourism-related small and micro enterprises have been considered as a critical 'economic engine' of sustainable development of rural destinations. Consequently, investigating the establishment and growth of small rural hospitality businesses has attracted considerable attention from both scholars and practitioners. Examining the critical driving forces of tourism entrepreneurial intention serves as the basis of subsequent measures to facilitate the start-up of such businesses. In this field, previous researches have mostly focused on the effects of individual traits and outer socio-economic environment on peasants' entrepreneurial decisions. Although some has noted the important roles of social networks in facilitating entrepreneurship, few researches have addressed the peasants' kinship network and how this network would impact individual peasant's intention to start-up a tourism-related small business. The kinship network, consisting of one's family members and relatives, is a basic type of individual social network in rural areas of China. With emphasis on this social network inclusive of family members and relatives, the present study elaborates on the impact of kinship network on peasants' entrepreneurial intentions in the tourism industry, as well as the mediating roles that perceived risk and entrepreneurship alertness play in this effect. An empirical analysis based on a sample of 240 peasant households from Pujiang County of Zhejiang verified the hypotheses postulated in this study. The results are obtained as follows: 1) All of the three dimensions of kinship network, namely, network structure, network relationship and network cognition exert significant and positive effect on peasants' intention to establish tourism-related small enterprises; 2) Perceived risk has partial mediating effect on the association between kinship network relationship and peasants' entrepreneurial intentions, and the association between kinship network cognition and peasants' entrepreneurial intentions; 3) Entrepreneurship alertness plays a partial mediating role in the association between kinship network relationship and peasants' entrepreneurial intentions, and a full mediating role in the association between kinship network cognition and peasants' entrepreneurial intentions. Findings of this study revealed the importance and value of peasants' kinship network for entrepreneurship in rural community. Accordingly, by mobilizing kinship network elements, local government and industry agencies can promote the emergence of small tourism enterprises more efficiently, thus facilitating the endogenous and sustainable development of rural tourism.

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Rural Travel Behavior Intention Model Construction and Impact Based on Place Emotion
Zhang Yuangang, Yu Xiangyang, Cheng Jingjing, Yu Runzhe
2019, 39 (11):  1796-1805.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.014
Abstract ( 21 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (563KB) ( 17 )  

Place emotion is an important factor in studying the tourists′ recreational behavioral intention. This paper takes Xidi, Hongcun of Anhui Province and Wuyuan village of Jiangxi Province as research cases and uses SEM as the dada analysis method to reconstruct the tourists′ behavioral intention of travelling in rural areas though expanding and reshaping TPB, TSR and MGB models. The results indicate that the index of intentional interpretation and prediction of tourists′ rural recreational behavioral intention is good, and the model has stability of reviewing effect. The place emotional identity has the most significant effect on the tourists′ recreational behavioral intention, followed by attitude, subjective norm and perceptual behavior control, and tourists have different influences trend on the overall effect of selecting rural tourism destinations; after reshaping the attitude factor, the explanation and predictive ability of the collation model is improved; adding a desire factor, it is equivalent to place emotion, perception behavioral control and subjective norms inducing desire with emotional motives through attitudes, which plays a role in catalyzing desires, and thus generates recreational behavioral intention. In addition to satisfying the sufficiency of the TPB, TSR and MGB models, the reconstructed tourists′ rural recreational behavioral intention model also improves the interpretation and predictability of tourists′ behavioral intention. The comparison among the reconstructed model with the TPB, TSR and MGB models shows that the reconstructed model is superior to the other models in this study. With place emotion factor in this reconstruction model, it can significantly enhance the explanatory and predictive ability, moreover it is suitable for empirical research in rural tourism destinations. The extended variables provide insights for other researchers besides verifying the constructed model in this study. The classical model constructed by scholars gives a path for researchers, but practical study needs to be considered in the further research.

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Spatial Distribution and Influencing Factors of Leisure Agriculture: A Case from Hebei Province
Xiang Yan, Chen Yinjun, Hou Yanlin, Qu Baoxiang
2019, 39 (11):  1806-1813.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.015
Abstract ( 36 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (2300KB) ( 31 )  

To investigate the developments of leisure agriculture, a sample of 436 leisure agriculture brands in Hebei, China was selected. This paper seeks to estimate the spatial distribution type, spatial structure evolution and spatial distribution characteristics of leisure agriculture brands in Hebei by using nearest neighbor analysis, kernel density estimation, proximity distance measurements, and identifies determinants that influence the spatial distribution of leisure agriculture by using Geodetector method. Results indicated that: 1) The spatial distribution of leisure agricultural in Hebei province has a remarkable spatial distribution of aggregation type, and gradually evolves into a high-density spatial distribution pattern of aggregation in the south, surroundings Beijing and Tianjin in the north, and local clustering; 2) The spatial distribution characteristics of leisure agriculture are as follows: 89.22% of leisure agriculture brands are distributed within 3 km from the main roads, indicating that leisure agriculture brands have the spatial characteristics of “along the road” distribution. Meanwhile, 90.60% of them are distributed within a distance of 5 km from the main river system, the distribution characteristics of “near water” is obvious. To some degree, it is also distributed near scenic spots, with 59.86% of the total brands are in 15 km away from 3A and above scenic spots. As for the distribution characteristics of the distance from the market, it reveals that around 20-60 km distance to city central downtown and 5-15 km distance to county downtown are the most concentrated area. At the same time, the results show that the spatial distribution of leisure agriculture brands are relevant to distinctive agriculture product distribution; 3) The tourism market conditions are the primary determinants influencing the spatial distribution of leisure agriculture, according to the Geodetector, the distance to central downtown, to county town, and to 3A and above scenic spots play the leading role. In addition to the above primary determinants, traffic conditions and natural resource are proved to have important impact on spatial distribution, which the distance to the main roads and water system, traffic accessibility and altitude are the main factors to strongly influence their spatial distribution. The paper also verifies impact of the social and economic development factors, agricultural development factors on spatial distribution of leisure agriculture, but they all belong to the subordinate effect factors, their influence on the spatial distribution of leisure agriculture are small. Finally, according to the results of the study, some suggestions are put forward for the development of leisure agriculture in Hebei province.

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A Relative Deprivation Analysis on the Host Resistance Towards Tourism in Rural Destinations: Case from Wuyuan, China
Wang Wenhui, Bai Bing, Zhang Yin
2019, 39 (11):  1814-1821.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.016
Abstract ( 29 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (458KB) ( 25 )  

In recent years, China's rural tourism has developed rapidly, but in the meanwhile many rural destinations have experienced some serious social conflicts in a way that host residents have heavily resisted tourism development to the extent that such development is hampered or even stopped. It is thus deemed important to examine the antecedents of resistance by host community towards tourism development. Currently, the studies on residents' negative behavior have predominantly employed the theoretical framework of social exchange theory, which has a few evident limitations. There have been thus increasing calls for new theories that can offer a new and complementary understanding of host resistance. In response to such appeal, this study introduces relative deprivation theory-a classic social psychology theory which has been argued to have certain advantages in examining people's deviant and resisting behavior but has rarely documented in tourism literature - to investigate the causes and ways in which host community develops negative attitudes towards and thus resist tourism development. The conceptual framework of relative deprivation theory-the latitudinal, longitudinal, and value-based comparison as well as the distinction between individual relative deprivation and group relative deprivation-was presented and discussed as it relates to tourism research. A necessity of empirical research verifying the distinctiveness of the theory in studying the social issues associated with the uneven development in destination communities was noticed. An empirical study was thus conducted on Wuyuan, a famous rural destination of China, which has experienced a rapid development of tourism but serious social conflicts in the past decades. Specifically, Likeng and Sixi were selected as case villages given their well-recognized reputation in terms of tourism development and their critical situation of community issues. With the guidance of the theoretical framework of relative deprivation theory, a qualitative analysis was performed to examine the causes and forms of residents’ negative tourism behaviors on the basis of in-depth interviews, field observations and document analysis. Different from the traditional research findings based on social exchange theory, this study notes that the negative behavior of residents in Likeng and Sixi has no explicit relation to the longitudinal perception of the negative impacts of tourism, but mainly relevant to the latitudinal deprivation caused by tourism development. Value-based deprivation was reported by a few interviewees but has no explicit relation to residents resisting behavior either. It was also found to be a confusing notion and can be integrated into the latitudinal and longitudinal dimensions. Besides, residents’ perceptions of individual relative deprivation and group relative deprivation may individually or jointly affect their resisting behavior towards tourism. The findings show that the relative deprivation theory can be a unique and novel construct to investigate host resistance towards tourism, and has great potential for advancing the knowledge of the field. Based on the findings, several practical suggestions are given in regard to preventing and managing the social conflicts emerged in rural destinations. A few future research directions are provided regarding enhancing the application of the theory into examining the complex tourism sphere.

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Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Coordinated Development Between Tourism Economy and Transportation: A Case of International Culture and Tourism Demonstration Area in South Anhui Province
Wu Lei, Jiao Huafu, Ye Lei
2019, 39 (11):  1822-1829.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.017
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (593KB) ( 16 )  

By constructing tourism economy and transportation integrated evolution index system, coordinated development degree model was employed to analyze the coordinated development between tourism economy and transportation system of International Culture and Tourism Demonstration Area in South Anhui Province. The results showed that: 1) the integrated development level of tourism economy-transportation system from 2000-2014 both rose steadily with similar development rate; 2) the temporal variation of coupling degree between 2 systems kept on high levels with slight fluctuation, indicating that transportation development effectively promoted the development of tourism economy; the whole coupling coordinative degree was in moderate imbalance class and indicated that the coordinated development between the systems remained low; 3) Coupling coordinative degrees of all 7 prefecture-level cities upgraded steadily and were at the same level in the same year; the development levels of the systems shifted from fluctuations to transportation development lagging behind the tourism economy. Finally, we proposed several approaches for the high-quality coordinated development of tourism economy-transportation system from aspects of tourism spatial structure, internal and external transportation, comprehensive tourism and smart tourism.

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Spatial Distribution of Different Scale Flatland in Guizhou Province, China
Li Yangbing, Chen Hui, Luo Guangjie
2019, 39 (11):  1830-1840.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.018
Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (23107KB) ( 42 )  

Due to the special topography, geomorphology and geological characteristics, there is a land resource characteristic with obvious more mountains and less flatlands in Guizhou Province. It is of important significance for the sustainable utilization of land resources and the land use transformation layout to reveal systematically the quantity characteristics and spatial distribution pattern of different size flatland in Guizhou Province. This paper aims to investigate the quantity structure and spatial distribution characteristics of different scale flatlands in Guizhou Province. The high-resolution ALOS remote sensing images (with a spatial resolution of 10 m and 2.5 m) in 2010 and the topographic map (1∶50 000) are chosen as main data sources to study systematically the spatial distribution of flatlands with area of ≥1 hm 2 in Guizhou Province. The results show that the total area of flatland with an area of ≥1 hm 2 accounts for only 3.99% of the total land area of Guizhou Province, lowering than the traditional understanding that the total area of flatlands distributed in mountains accounts for 7.51% of the total area of Guizhou Province. The number of faltland with area in 10-20 hm 2is the highest among all flatlands. With the increase of flatland area, the proportion of number of corresponding flatland gradually also reduces. The flatlands are concentrated in the central part of Guizhou Province, along the northeast to the southwest. The hierarchical structure of flatland systems in Guizhou Province is relatively loose, with a great difference among different grade and scale flatlands. Each grade of flatland system presents a cluster distribution patterns. The research results can provide reference for the optimal utilization of land resources in Guizhou Province.

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