10 November 2021, Volume 41 Issue 11 Previous Issue   
The Spatial Model and Spatial Mechanism of the Global Geo-economic Cooperation: An Empirical Research Based on the Scale of Commodity Trade
Yang Wenlong, Shi Wentian, Du Debin
2021, 41 (11):  1875-1883.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.001
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Using the global commodity trade data from 1996 to 2016, this study employed exploratory spatial data analysis to reveal the spatial model of the global geo-economic cooperation, and further explained the spatial mechanism of the global geo-economic cooperation by constructing the SARAR model. Results are: Firstly, the global geo-economic cooperation has showed positive spatial correlation and formed a core-periphery pattern, showing the trend of multi-polarization and modularization. Secondly, the spatial dependency of the global geo-economic cooperation has been transmitted and driven by the flow of production factors and the international division of labor. The scale of nation has acted as the foundation, the endowment of the production factors as the endogenous incentive, innovation as the engine, and the political fragility as the important barrier of the geo-economic cooperation. The transnational flow of innovative factors has weakened the spatial dependency of the geo-economic cooperation. Thirdly, China should progressively distribute the geo-economic resources, following the three-ring principle of ‘neighboring countries- Eurasian region- whole world’. China should take advantage of its scale and factor endowment, enhance its international competitiveness in scientific and technological innovation, and formulate the geo-economic policies in the light of different countries. Strategically, China should maximize the geo-economic leverage effect by stimulating the penetration of geo-economy into geo-politics.

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Characteristics and Impact of Population Spatial Structure on Economic Performance in China Based on Spatial Identification of Physical Cities
Sun Bindong, Zhang Zhifan, Li Wan
2021, 41 (11):  1884-1896.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.002
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Based on the global population data from LandScan and land use data released by the European Space Agency, this paper identifies physical urban areas and extracts their populations. On this basis, we constructed a database of the population’s spatial structure of China’s provinces for 2000-2015 and analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of provincial population spatial structure. Further, this paper uses fixed panel, two-stage least square method and difference GMM method to investigate the effect of population spatial structure on provincial economic performance, and how this effect varies across different sizes. We also probe the underlying mechanisms from the perspective of the agglomeration (dis) economy of the provincial capital. The following findings were reached. First, during the period 2000-2015, the population size of all provincial capitals in China has increased significantly. In terms of the spatial structure index, the temporal evolution of China’s provincial population spatial structure is relatively modest, with a tendency towards monocentricity; in the central and western regions, the provincial population spatial structure is relatively monocentric, while in the eastern coastal regions the population spatial structure tends to be polycentric. Second, for all provinces, especially those with relatively small populations, a monocentric population spatial structure facilitates economic efficiency throughout the province. Third, judging from the economic development of the provincial capital cities themselves, China’s capital cities have entered the stage of agglomeration diseconomy, while considering the economic development of the whole province, the provincial capital cities have a clear boosting effect.

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Rural Development About Urban-Scenic Dual-Drive Village: Path Choice and Dynamic Evolution Process
Liu Lu, Wu Bihu
2021, 41 (11):  1897-1906.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.003
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The urban overflow and scenic transformation are important forces for rural development. There have been few studies on the development path of ‘city-scenic’ dual-driven rural development in the surrounding areas of cities and scenic spots. In this paper, four administrative villages in the ‘Great Wall International Cultural Villages’ in the Huairou District in Beijing were selected as the sites for the case study, including Mutianyu Village, Tianxianyu Village, Beigou Village, and Xinying Village. to explore the path selection and dynamic evolution process of rural development under the dual advantages of cities and scenic spots. The results are as fellows: first, the multiple forces of cities, scenic spots and villages jointly drive the development and evolution of rural development path, presenting a non-linear and diverse characteristic. The development of these villages within the same area differentiates into different dynamic transformation process. It also forms a development path of regional differentiation. Secondly, urban-scenic dual-drive rural development paths are roughly classified into four modes: urban-led development path, scenic-led development path, dual-led development path, and marginal development path. Urban-rural relationship and industrial structure under different paths show significant differences. Third, the competitive path of ‘city-scenic’ dual-drive rural development has led to changes in the rural industrial structure and the evolution of regional spatial patterns along with the differentiated agglomeration of urban, rural, and scenic rural elements. The study helps to reveal the multi-path system of ‘city-scenic’ dual-driven rural development, and provides strategic plans for optimizing the path practice of rural development.

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Spatial Distribution Law and Its Structure Graph Spectra of China’s Central City Tourism Travel
Wang Haijiang, Su Jingxuan, Miao Changhong, Yuan Zhanliang
2021, 41 (11):  1907-1916.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.004
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In this article, “location space” and “flow space” information were mined from travel big data of 338 central cities in China by using OD connection model and Gephi network analysis method. The law of travel space and travel structure of China’s central cities was revealed. The results showed that the form of tourists’ travel space in China’s central cities was diamond-shaped, which was response of new pattern of national strategy to tourist travel. Chinese tourists travelled with a “core-edge” network structure, and central cities and urban agglomerations had a powerful radiation-driven role. According to the index of tourism travel intensity, combined with factors of geographical location, spatial connection and functional orientation, the central cities were classified into 5 kinds of national comprehensive center, national portal center, regional center, provincial center and local center. Big data showed that the reasonable travel distance is 600-2 000 km, the optimal travel distance is 1 200 km and the average travel distance is 1 060 km. Travel of tourists in different levels of central cities was characterized by distance decay. At a regional scale of 500 km, 4 contact networks of tourism associations with Beijing-Tianjin, Shanghai-Hangzhou, Guangzhou-Shenzhen and Chengdu-Chongqing as the core have been formed nationwide, regional tourism travel is characterized by “fragmented”. In the space of 500-1 000 km, the community structure of tourism contact network is not obvious, it’s difficult to distinguish the regional communities. In national scale of more than 1 000 km, the tourist travel network has gradually changed into a multi-core network with the whole country.

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The Spatial Pattern and Distribution Dynamic Evolution of Carbon Emissions in China: Empirical Study Based on County Carbon Emission Data
Liu Huajun, Shao Mingji, Ji Yuanmeng
2021, 41 (11):  1917-1924.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.005
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Clarifying the spatial distribution, spatial differences and evolutionary trends of China’s carbon emissions has important reference value for grasping the basic situation of China’s carbon emissions and formulating a carbon peak action plan before 2030. Based on the carbon emission data of 2725 counties in China from 1997 to 2017, this paper uses standard deviation ellipse, three-stage nested inequality decomposition by Theil index and Kernel density estimation methods to comprehensively investigate the spatial pattern and dynamic evolution of China’s carbon emissions. The study found that: 1) China’s carbon emissions increased from 3.097 billion tons in 1997 to 9.308 billion tons in 2012, with an average annual growth rate of 7.86%, and then fluctuated around 9.3 billion tons, without a turning point in decline. 2) In terms of spatial distribution, China’s carbon emissions present a pattern of high in the east and low in the west, showing a trend of centripetal accumulation in the northeast-southwest direction and spatial divergence in the northwest-southeast direction. 3) In terms of spatial differences, the three-stage decomposition results of Theil index show that the overall difference in carbon emissions in China is on a downward trend, and the contribution rate of differences within prefecture-level administrative units has increased from 43% in 1997 to 49% in 2017. The main source of overall differences in China’s carbon emissions. 4) In terms of the dynamic evolution of the distribution, the carbon emissions of China’s county-level units have a spatial convergence pattern, with significant spatial positive correlation, indicating that the interaction between regions affects the future spatial distribution of China’s carbon emissions. Based on research findings, this article proposes to adjust the energy industry structure, promote the development of low-carbon industries, formulate reasonable regional joint prevention and control policies for carbon emission reduction, and establish a sound carbon trading market.

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Migration Research Turn Under the New Characteristics of Transnational Mobilities: The Proposal, Development and Application of the Concept of Migration Industry
Chen Hui, Zhu Hong, Liu Yungang
2021, 41 (11):  1925-1934.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.006
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Along with the intensification of mobility, international migration is becoming increasingly diversified, complex and commercialized. More and more countries have reinforced border control and strengthened immigration policies. Classical theories and models fail to explain the current complicated phenomenon of migration. In this context, scholars have put forward a series of pertinent concepts. One particularly useful thread revolves around migration industry. Based on the new characteristics of transnational migration flows, this paper systematically reviewed the formation, development and application of the concept of migration industry. The concept of migration industry is characterized as meso-structured, involving the analysis of multiple agents, and thus showing advantages in explaining the mechanism of different stages of transnational migration. Migration industry has been widely introduced and applied in the research of transnational migration in different disciplines, such as geography, sociology and anthropology, and has been enriched and refined. Based on the research review, we put forward the research prospect of the application of migration industry in transnational migration research, migration control and migration policies.

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Strategic Thinking of Northeast China Revitalization During the “14th Five-Year Plan” Based on the Macro Situation and Regional Advantages
Wang Shijun, Ma Li
2021, 41 (11):  1935-1946.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.007
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Faced with achievements and remaining problems of Northeast China revitalization in the past 20 years, when the world economic pattern is reconstructing and industrial development is diversifying, it is necessary to rethink the revitalization based on the basic conditions, situation changes, and stock advantages of Northeast China in the environments of national economic transformation and social productivity change. The direction is both to continue the existing successful policies, size up current situation and adjust thinking. In development layout, constructing a pattern of cooperation based on labor division of Northeast China and a pattern of network linkage between 3 main functional zones of urban, agriculture and ecology. In institution, it should promote system and mechanism reform steadily and moderate. In industry, based on agriculture, supporting light industry, optimizing heavy industry and then restructuring the regional industrial system. In development path, changing the traditional revitalization road with emphasis on urban and heavy industry, taking the priority development of agriculture and rural areas as the new path and another focus by improving diversification and quality of rural related industries, accelerating elements flow between urban and rural areas and balancing the development of urban and rural areas. In concept, we must recognize the protracted and cyclical nature of Northeast China development, looking at it in a more long-term perspective, viewing its achievements and decline objectively and avoiding the pursuit of the rapid rise of economic benefits in short-term overly; adapting to the downward trend and paying attention to endogenous development capacity building. By combining the regional background of lucid water, lush mountains and black soil, ice-snow covered land and characteristics of east of Shanhaiguan, enriching the connotation and extension of Northeast China revitalization, turning the “Northeast China revitalization” to “Northeast China transformation development”, we should change the understanding of Northeast China and its revitalization fundamentally, creating an image and public opinion that are more conducive to the development of Northeast China.

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Coupling and Coordinated Development of New Urbanization and Food Security in Main Agricultural Production Regions in Central China: A Case Study of Henan Province
Zhu Yuanyuan, Wang Ziwei, Luo Jing, Cui Jiaxing
2021, 41 (11):  1947-1958.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.008
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Based on the theory of human-earth areal system, in-depth discussion of the coordinated development of new urbanization and food security in agricultural areas is the key to promoting high-quality social and economic development in agricultural areas and improving the country’s ability to resist food security risks. Taking 17 prefectures in Henan Province as the research unit, the coupling coordination model and geographic detector analysis method were used to measure the level of coupling coordination, and the specific type characteristics between new urbanization and food security in various cities in Henan Province from 2006 to 2018. And quantitatively detected the correlation between the coordinated development of new urbanization and food security. The results showed that: 1) From 2006 to 2018, the coordinated development of new urbanization and food security systems in Henan Province changed from the near disorder type to the moderate coordination type. The degree of coupling coordination showed an upward trend, showing a “North high South low, Central high, East and West low”. 2) The coupling characteristics of new urbanization and food security in Henan Province are distinctly different. Long-term food production lagging cities accounted for 29%, and long-term urbanization development lagging cities accounted for 53%. 3) The core related elements of the coordinated development of new urbanization and food security are gradually concentrated on land and labor resources, and the sensitivity of external economic changed to their coordinated development continues to decrease, and technological progress has always been the driving force for the development of the two systems. The purpose of this study is to provide reference for Henan Province to take the political responsibility for national food security and completing the mission of ensuring national food security supply in the process of new urbanization.

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Heterogeneity Analysis of Environmental Regulation Efficiency Based on SFA
Xu Weixiang, Xu Zhixiong, Liu Chengjun
2021, 41 (11):  1959-1968.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.009
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With the green GDP as the output variable, the total number of environmental protection system personnel and the environmental pollution control investment capital stock as the input factors, this article constructs a stochastic frontier analysis model to examine the environmental regulation efficiency and its influencing factors nationwide from 2003 to 2017; nuclear density estimation method and convergence model are also used to explore the spatial differences and regional convergence of environmental regulation efficiency. The results show that: 1) The elasticity coefficient of labor factor in the national, central, western regions is significantly larger than that in the capital, while the eastern region is the opposite, which is closely related to the professional demographic dividend and the type of pollutant discharge; 2) Technological innovation, industrial structure and opening up contribute to the improvement of environmental regulation efficiency, human capital, energy consumption, population density have an inhibitory effect on it; 3) The steady increase of efficiency values in each region is accompanied by a trend of increasing dispersion and obvious signs of polarization, meanwhile, the spatial distribution of its hotpots and coldpots is always on the pattern of “hot in the east and cold in the west”; 4) There exits σ convergence in the mainland of China and western regions, while the internal difference of environmental regulation efficiency in both central and eastern regions will widen to some extent. All of the regions show the significant absolute βconvergence and conditional β convergence, meaning that the differences can gradually convergence to their own steady state.

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Measurement and Coupling Mechanism of the Coupling and Coordinated Development of New Infrastructure Construction and Strategic Emerging Industries
Wu Xianfu, Huang Xiao, Zhong Peng
2021, 41 (11):  1969-1979.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.010
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Using the data of 30 provinces in China (Excluding Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) from 2013 to 2018, the coupling coordination model was used to measure the development level of ‘new infrastructure’ and the coupling coordination degree between ‘new infrastructure’ and strategic emerging industries. The results showed that the development level of ‘new infrastructure’ and its three subsystems was relatively low, and the development level of innovative infrastructure was relatively the lowest. In general, the development of ‘new infrastructure’ and strategic emerging industries in various provinces has not yet reached a benign coupling state, and the risk of imbalance tends to expand. There was a lock-in effect of ‘the high was always high, the low was always low’ about the coupled and coordinated development of various provinces over the years, and the number distribution showed an ‘olive’ structure with fewer provinces at the two ends and more provinces in the middle, and then the ‘new infrastructure’ of most provinces leaded the development of their strategic emerging industries. From a molecular system perspective, the locking effect of the coupled development of ‘information infrastructure’ and strategic emerging industries was the strongest. The coupled development of ‘integrated infrastructure’ and strategic emerging industries had broken through the ‘olive’ structure, and the level of coupling and coordination of industries on ‘innovative infrastructure’ and strategic emerging industries was relatively lowest, while the three types of coupling and coordinated development of strong economic and social provinces in the eastern region all had radiation leading effects. Through further empirical testing, the article found that in addition to the driving effects of its own factors, economic agglomeration, human capital, fixed asset investment, industrial structure, R&D investment, and degree of marketization could promote the coupling and coordinated development of ‘new infrastructure’ and strategic emerging industries to varying degrees.

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Rethinking Human-Animal Relationships: The Progress of Western Animal Geographies
Liao Jianhao, Cai Haohui, Tao Wei
2021, 41 (11):  1980-1991.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.011
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Animals, as the key member of the Nature, have been making history with our humans together. Along with the ‘animal turn’ in social science, western human geographers began to ‘bring the animals back’ in 1995, which have made animals become more focused in this discipline since then. Animal Geographies have provided lots of new perspectives for understanding the relationships between man and land, nature and society, human and animal. We select totally of 585 papers about Animal Geographies, which are published in the Core Collection of Web of Science from 1995 onwards, as the analytic case to introduce the basic and current research topics of Animal Geographies into China. Through the analysis of the theoretical origin and research topics of Animal Geographies, we found that there are 2 main periods of animal geographies’ development: the embryonic stage in 1995-2005 and the vigorous stage 2005 onwards. What’s more, UK is the center of Animal Geographies research. Current research in Animal Geographies can be classified into 2 parts based on their theoretical perspectives—‘animals space’ and ‘beastly place’. The former focuses more on human society and covers the issues of human inequality, animals as capital and biopower and biopolitics. Based on the new ontology and methodology, the core topics of ‘animal places’ include animals’ subjectivity and agency, new animal ethics and the practice of human-animal companion. To sum up, Animal Geographies have become a popular research cluster in western Human Geography, covering the fields of economy, politics, culture, ethics and ecology. The research methods of Animal Geographies tend to combine the methodologies in both natural sciences and social sciences. On this basis, we call for Chinese human geographers to pay more attention to animals and human-animal relations, making more contributes for international Animal Geographies.

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The Rank-size Distribution and Influencing Factors of Tourist Flow: A Case Study of 204 Scenic Spots in Jiangsu Province
Liu Peixue, Zhang Jie, Zhang Jianxin, Zhang Jinyue, Zhang Yingying
2021, 41 (11):  1992-2001.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.012
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This study takes 204 scenic spots of 4A and 5A levels within the provincial destination as an example. Using the big data of tourist flow from mobile signaling roaming monitoring, based on the Zifp rule to show the order-scale characteristics of the annual tourist flow in Jiangsu scenic area. Taking the Gini coefficient, the Tyre coefficient and the seasonal ratio to analyze the seasonal differences and characteristics of the tourist flow scale in the provincial scenic spot. The optimal scale regression was used to study the influencing factors of the tourist flow scale in the scenic spot. Results shows that: 1) The size of the tourist flow scale in the internal scenic spot of the provincial destination is obvious, and the distribution of the tourist flow outside the province is larger than that in the province, which is more consistent with the distribution of the law of the primate city; 2) The seasonality of the overall tourist flow in Jiangsu Province is not obvious, while seasonal is strong in different scenic spots, there is a certain regional differentiation difference in this region; 3) Tourist flow is significantly affected by many factors such as scenic spot level, downtown distance, and economic development level of the city. There are significant differences in the degree of influence on tourist flow inside and outside the province. Combined with the background of all-area tourism-based development, this paper puts forward suggestions for optimizing the hierarchical system of tourist flow scale and the spatial structure of the destination area.

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Measurement and Spatio-temporal Patterns of Urbanization Quality in Northeast China
Shen Qingxi, Li Chenggu, Hu Shuju, Tong Yao
2021, 41 (11):  2002-2010.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.013
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With high-quality development as the starting point, the entropy method is used to determine the weights, and the exploratory spatial data analysis method is used to measure the urbanization quality of 34 cities at the prefecture level and above in Northeast China from 2008 to 2018 and analyze the characteristics of their temporal and spatial patterns. The results showed that: From the overalltrendof change, the urbanization quality of Northeast China showed a significant improvement trend, but the growth curved from 2015 to 2018 showed a ‘U’-shaped fluctuation, and the index scores of ‘urban vitality’ in the criterion-level showed a significant decline trend.From the characteristics of spatial and temporal patterns, the spatial and temporal differentiation of urbanization quality distribution in Northeast China was obvious. Under the overall significant improvement environment, some prefecture-level cities experienced a ‘staged’ decline. Through the analysis of the LISA cluster, it was found that the ‘high-value’ agglomeration areas of urbanization quality were mainly distributed in the ‘Harbin-Changchun’ rban agglomeration and ‘central and southern Liaoning’ urban agglomeration, and the ‘low-value’ agglomeration areas were mainly distributed in the northern of Heilongjiang Province. On the whole, the scores of various cities in northern Heilongjiang appear ‘low level’ agglomeration, and the scores of the ‘Harbin-Changchun’ urban agglomeration andmid-southern Liaoning urban agglomeration appear ‘high’ agglomeration.

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Study on the Settlement Evolution in Tongliao Region Between 1635-2019
Suduer , Nashundalai , Dong Fangjie, Subudenggerile , Su Lide, Suyalaqiqige , Ma Shangqian
2021, 41 (11):  2011-2020.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.014
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In this study, Tongliao region was taken as the research area, in which 3 943 settlements were calculated as vector point data. Then GIS spatial analysis and spatial statistical analysis were applied to research the evolution of spatial distribution patterns and distribution structures of these settlements over the past 300 years. Results show that the growth rate of settlements in Tongliao region has been accelerating since 1795. On the whole, a random distribution pattern gradually become a significant concentrated distribution from 1723. It has clearly shown that the distribution patterns have regionally transformed from clustering and discrete disequilibrium between 1635 and 1723 to significant clustering in 1795. Moreover, it has found that the geometric center of the settlements has altered from the southwest to the northeast in 1635, and then to the Liaohe River basin in the northwest after 1840. The results of Kernel density analysis revealed that the settlement point was discretely distributed in the south in 1635, and the density of the distribution was the highest in the south from 1723 to 1840. While, from 1840 to 1912, a large number of settlements appeared in the central region, in which the density became the highest . From 1947 to now, there was a large increase of density in the southwest and the central region, thus the highest density point once again moved to these areas. Finally, the study further explored that the evolution of the spatial patterns of settlements is the result of the interaction of the rules of human-earth relations and the human factors at the macro and micro levels. In natural conditions, factors such as topography, hydrology and climate directly or indirectly affect human production and residence, thus affect the distribution of settlements.The humanistic and social factors mainly included the land policy and administrative division adjustment of the Qing court, the Beiyang government, the puppet Manchukuo and the People’s Republic of China, as well as the population migration and upheaval since the Qing Dynasty.

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Study on the Evolution of Ecological Security in Karst Area Based on the Threshold of Ecosystem Services
He Xiang
2021, 41 (11):  2021-2030.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.015
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In this paper, we build the evaluation model of supply security threshold and ecological security degree based on ecosystem service value, and study the spatial and temporal evolution of ecological security in Guizhou Province. The results showed that from 2005 to 2018: 1) The total value of ecosystem services in Guizhou Province increased from 787.538 billion yuan to 1807.289 billion yuan, with an average annual growth of 6.60%. The high value areas of ecosystem service value agglomeration were mainly distributed in Qiandongnan Prefecture, Qiannan Prefecture, Qianxinan Prefecture and Anshun City. 2) The supply value of ecosystem services in Guiyang city was lower than the supply security threshold, indicating that the service value provided by the ecosystem has been unable to meet people's minimum food demand. In other areas, the value of ecosystem services was only slightly higher than the supply security threshold, and showed a narrowing change. 3) The ecological security index of Guiyang city was less than 1, and the ecosystem was in an unsafe state. In other areas, the ecological security index and ecological security degree decreased. 4) There was a significant negative correlation between human activity intensity index, ecological security index and per capita ecosystem service value. It is the first time to put forward the concept of security threshold of ecosystem service supply, which provides a new index for the evaluation of ecosystem security degree evolution, and has scientific significance for promoting the application of ecosystem service value theory in ecological management practice.

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Evaluation of Ecological Disturbance Coupling Land Use Pattern and Process Change: Taking the Yangtze River Delta as an Example
Kong Xuesong, Chen Junli, Wang Jing, Zhao Xiaodong
2021, 41 (11):  2031-2041.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.016
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This study analyzed the characteristics of spatio-temporalchanges in agricultural land, construction land, and ecological land based on the three phases of land use data in the Yangtze River Delta in 2000, 2010, and 2018. Coupled with the spatial pattern change of ecological patch, habitat area and ecological fragmentation change process, the ecological disturbance pattern index and ecological disturbance process index were put forward to quantitatively evaluate the ecological disturbance in the process of land use change. The results showed that: 1) From 2000 to 2018, with the increase of human activities and the rapid expansion of construction land, the area of agricultural land and ecological land gradually decreased, and the intensity of land use showed a trend of slowdown increase. 2) The spatio-temporal differences of ecological disturbance pattern index and ecological disturbance process index are obvious. Areas with higher level of economic development and urbanization are more prone to negative ecological disturbance, and the degree of ecological disturbance tends to increase. 3) Although the net area of ecological land in some regions has increased, the actual ecological disturbance process has not been reduced, or even shows a negative development trend. The study contributes to an in-depth understanding of the habitat quantity, quality and spatial relationship contained in the process of ecological land use change, and can provide a decision-making basis for the construction and governance of ecological civilization in rapid urbanization areas.

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Morphology and Sedimentary Characteristics of Vitex Trifolia Nebkhas in the Houtian Sandy Land of Nanchang City
Li Xiangjie, Li Zhiwen, Du Jianhui, Zhang Huijuan, Zhan Jiangzhen, Du Lan, Sun Li, Hou Chu
2021, 41 (11):  2042-2051.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.017
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In order to explore the morphology and sedimentary characteristics of the nebkhas developed around the rivers and lakes in the subtropical humid areas, the Houtian sandy land in Nanchang was used as the research area to conduct field investigations on the nebkhas formed by the dominant species Vitex trifolia, sampling and analysis of sediments to study the morphology and sedimentary characteristics of nebkhas and their relationship with vegetation characteristics. The results show that: The Vitex trifolia nebkhas in the Houtian sandy land are mostly shield-shaped, with large horizontal scale, low height, and gentle slope. The sediments of the nebkhas are mainly medium sand, with poor sorting, a coarse skewness and narrow kurtosis distribution, sediments all originate from nearby flat sandy land and inter-dune land, which are near-source deposits. The average particle size is a tendency of finer first and then coarser from the bottom of the windward slope to the leeward slope, reflecting the wind-breaking and sand-fixing function and the re-sorting of sand particles of the nebkhas. All morphological parameters of shrubs and nebkhas have high correlations (except for the height of the shrubs) (P<0.01), indicating that the morphological parameters develop in a coordinated manner during the development of nebkhas. Due to the influence of vegetation types and regional environment, different from the ellipsoid or cone-shaped nebkhas formed by upright shrubs with few branches in arid-semi-arid areas, theVitex trifolia with creeping and low height often forms low and wide range nebkhas. The subtropical humid areas are not rich in wind resources and the sand sources in Houtian sandy land are insufficient, so the sediments are all from nearby flat sandy land and inter-dune land, but the deposition law of different slope positions is similar to the arid-semi-arid areas.

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Spatial and Temporal Variation of Extreme Temperature and Grain Yield Response in Liaoning Province from 1984 to 2020
Gao Yanpeng, Chen Wenjun
2021, 41 (11):  2052-2062.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.018
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The article selects the extreme temperature index to analyze the spatial and temporal changes of extreme temperature in Liaoning Province from 1984 to 2020. It is concluded that the temporal variation of the extreme temperature index is consistent in the past 37 years. This is reflected in an increase in the warmth index (TXx, TX90p and TX10p) and a decrease in the coldness index (TNn, TN90p and TN10p). The abrupt changes are mainly concentrated in 1995-2005 and are due to the urbanization process. Regional extreme temperature indices have spatial differences. This is reflected by the small variation of extreme temperature differences in cities with high urbanization and the relatively small variation of relative indices in coastal areas. Combining grain data and natural disaster data from Liaoning Province, it is found that actual and trend grain yields generally show a fluctuating upward trend. The trend of relative yields was consistent with meteorological yield. In the last 37 years, there were 10 good years and 7 bad years, and the rest were normal years. Meteorological yield is greatly affected by extreme high temperature and extreme low temperature. Hail and freezing have become key meteorological disasters affecting grain production.

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