The evaluation on agricultural production space based on resources and environmental carrying capacity is a necessary basis for scientifically delineating agricultural space and permanent basic farmland, which of great significance for national food security and ecological security. In this regard, this article puts forward an efficient and reliable method for delineating agricultural space and assessing the production capacity, which integrates the technical frame of resources and environmental carrying capacity evaluation with the model of suitability assessment for agricultural production, taking Fujian Province as a case study. The results indicate that: 1) the evaluation method should include four crucial elements: land resources, water resources, environment, and natural disasters, which are respectively indicated by cultivation condition, water supply condition, environmental condition, meteorological hazards. 2) Based on the results of carrying capacity grading, suitability for agricultural production needs to consider the spatial form, location conditions, and production conditions. 3) The proportion of spaces with high, sub-high, medium, sub-low, and low grades of resources and environmental carrying capacity in Fujian are 29.9%, 16.3%, 12.0%, 18.9% and 22.9%, respectively. The spaces with high and sub-high grade are distributed in coastal plains, terraces, and gentle hillside, as well as valleys and basins in inland areas. 4) The proportion of agricultural production suitable zone, general suitable zone and unsuitable zone are 36.4%, 26.8%, and 36.9%, respectively. The suitable zone has comprehensive resources and environmental conditions for agricultural production activities, with excellent structural integrity and cultivation convenience. 5) As suggested by this study, the method of delineating agricultural production space based on resources and environmental carrying capacity evaluation, can meet the needs of agricultural production space zoning and planning, which has been applied in the national territorial spatial planning. According to the results of the “double evaluations” on carrying capacity and suitability, the layout optimization and land consolidation of agricultural production can be implemented, targeting at types of reserved type, remediation type, withdrawal type, etc.