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    Development Causes of the Qingyijiang River on the Northern Piedmont of the Huangshan Mountain and Its Relationship with the Channelization of the Yangtze River
    Hu Chunsheng, Tian Jingmei, He Chengbang, Zhou Yingqiu, Xu Guanglai
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (10): 1862-1872.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.10.018
    Abstract2241)   HTML54)    PDF (2045KB)(218)      

    The Qingyijiang River which rises on the Huangshan Mountain, flows northward through the northern piedmont of the Huangshan Mountain and eventually discharges into the Yangtze River at Wuhu City, Anhui Province, the eastern China. As the longest right-bank tributary of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Qingyijiang River is a typical representative of the small and medium rivers in the Eastern monsoon area of China, providing a typical case for studying the developmental history of the small and middle rivers. Based on the results of previous studies and the analyses of external environmental factors, the development causes of the Qingyijiang River and its relationship with the channelization of the Yangtze River were emphatically analyzed and discussed. The research results showed that: 1) The Kunlun-Huanghe Movement might affect the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and result in the activations of regional faults and larger regional block uplift movements on the northern piedmont of the Huangshan Mountain. This regional uplift further provided the downcutting driving force and thus drove the development of the Qingyijiang River. Therefore, the regional tectonic responses to the Kunlun-Huanghe Movement might drive the development of the Qingyijiang River; 2) The East Asian summer monsoon experienced two significant stepwise weakening events at approximately 1.3 Ma and approximately 0.9 Ma which led to the remarkable increase of regional precipitation within the study area. This increase of regional rainfall further provided the incision media and sustained water, and finally initiated the development of the Qingyijiang River. Therefore, the stepwise weakening events of the East Asian summer monsoon might control the development age of the Qingyijiang River; 3) Both the development of the Qingyijiang River and the channelization of the Yangtze River might be a combined result of the regional tectonic responses to the Kunlun-Huanghe movement and the stepwise weakening events of the East Asian summer monsoon intensity. In addition, a new local base level of erosion served by the Yangtze River after its channelization might also promote the development of the Qingyijiang River. Therefore, the development age of the Qingyijiang River which could reflect the channelization age of the Yangtze River to a certain degree supported the viewpoint that the Yangtze River had been established during the period from the late Early Pleistocene to the early Middle Pleistocene. This study provides a case and reference for the studies of the small and medium river development in the Eastern monsoon area of China.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution and Spatial Effect Mechanism of Carbon Emission at County Level in the Yellow River Basin
    Mo Huibin, Wang Shaojian
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (8): 1324-1335.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.003
    Abstract1007)   HTML216)    PDF (2661KB)(583)      

    Carbon emission control is the main problem and measure of ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. Carbon emission at county level research can provide more accurate theoretical support for collaborative governance and sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. Spatial panel model, spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial Markov chain with regional background and nearest neighbor as spatial lags were used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern and spatial effect of carbon emissions in counties of the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2017, the results showed that: 1) the carbon emission in the Yellow River basin has increased dramatically since 2000; the high carbon emissions areas, Shandong province and the boundary between Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia, expands to the outer circle layer and the axial direction, forming the spatial pattern of high in the east and low in the west; 2) there is a phenomenon of “club convergence”; the high carbon emission counties converge in Shandong province and the boundary between Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia; the low carbon emission counties converge in the southwest; the comparison between 2000 and 2017 shows that county carbon emission type has strong stability; counties which tranfered from higher carbon emission type to lower carbon emission type are concentrated in the southeast region, while counties that change in the opposite direction are concentrated in Inner Mongolia. 3) high carbon spillover effect and low carbon locking effect are important forces to shape the spatiotemporal pattern and the former is stronger; the regional background enhances “club convergence” and the convergence of surrounded outliers and its acting force was stronger than the nearest neighbor; the probability of carbon emission type transition in insignificant regions increased; 4) the spatial panel model shows that increase of carbon emissions and its spatial effect are promoted by young population structure, large economy, industrial structure dominated by the secondary industry, high living standard and high public expenditure; economy and industrial structure are important driving factors.

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    Spatial-temporal Pattern and Obstacle Factors of Urban Residents' Quality of Life in the Yellow River Basin Under the Background of High-quality Development
    Zhao Hongbo, Yue Li, Liu Yaxin, Dong Guanpeng, Miao Changhong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (8): 1303-1313.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.001
    Abstract970)   HTML240)    PDF (1438KB)(591)      

    Improving urban residents’ quality of life is an important goal and concrete embodiment of achieving high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin.This article constructs an evaluation index system of urban residents of quality of life from 4 aspects (residents’ life, infrastructure, public service and ecological environment), and measures the level of urban residents’ quality of life in the Yellow River Basin in 2004-2018. The kernel density estimation, ESDA and Dagum Gini coefficient are used to analyze the spatial and temporal pattern of residents’quality of life and measured the spatial difference. The obstacle factor diagnosis model is used to analyse the obstacle factors of residents’ quality of life. The conclusions are as follows: 1) From 2004 to 2018, the areas with high quality of life of urban residents in the Yellow River basin gradually transferred from the lower reaches to the middle and upper reaches; 2) The H-H agglomeration areas of urban residents’quality of life in the Yellow River Basin are mainly in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the L-L agglomeration areas are mainly in Henan Province, Shandong Province and Shanxi Province; 3) The spatial difference of the quality of life of urban residents in the Yellow River Basin is mainly the contribution of the net value difference between regions from the upper, middle and lower scales, and the contribution of the regional difference from the left and right bank scales; 4) The obstacles to urban residents’ quality of life in the Yellow River Basin are mainly the amount of water resources per capita, the number of mobile phone users at the end of the year, the area of parks and green space per 10 000 persons, the proportion of education expenditure in fiscal expenditure, the road area per 10 000 persons, and the per capita disposable income, etc. Therefore, we must pay attention to the ecological environment protection, especially the rational utilization of water resources, improvement of urban infrastructure and public service levels in the future high-quality development.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution of Wind Erosion Climatic Erosivity in the Alxa Plateau During 1960-2017
    Ma Xixi, Xiao Jianhua, Yao Zhengyi, Wei Mingnian, Wu Qingrui, Hong Xuefeng
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 1096-1104.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.019
    Abstract930)   HTML57)    PDF (6430KB)(364)      

    Based on the meteorological data from 8 weather stations in the Alxa Plateau, the wind erosion climatic factor index (C factor) was calculated using the function given by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and the spatio-temporal variation of wind erosion climatic erosivity was analyzed. The results showed that the C factor of Alxa Plateau ranged from 15.0 to 160.0 and the average was 67.7. On the spatial, C factor decreased from Guaizi Lake to Southeast and southwest respectively; the C-factor, at Guaizi Lake station was 156, while the C factor, on the southern edge of Tengger Desert in the southeast of Alxa Plateau was 20-30 and that of Heli Mountain in the southwest was 30-35. The seasonal variation of C factor was distinct. On the whole, the largest value was in spring, the second in summer and the smallest in autumn. The sum of C factor in spring and summer accounted for 62.6% of the whole year. Mann Kendall (M-K) test showed that the wind erosion climatic erosivity had abrupt change in 1990. The annual C factor of Guaizi Lake station increased markedly, while other stations decreased significantly. Wind speed was the decisive factor of wind erosion climate erosivity in the Alxa Plateau.

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    Spatio-temporal Variation of Cold-season Snowfall in the South and North of the Qinling Mountains During 1970-2018
    Li Shuangshuang, Duan Keqin, Wang Ting, He Jinping, Yan Junping
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 163-173.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2022.01.016
    Abstract859)   HTML51)    PDF (29900KB)(443)      

    Snowfall in China has significant uncertainty and spatial differences, and its response to climate change is complex. Therefore, it is of great scientific significance to analyze the characteristics of snowfall along the north-south transition zone of the Qinling Mountains. Based on the daily meteorological data of 72 stations, we analyzed the type of snowfall (rain, snow, and sleet) along the northern and southern boundaries of the Qinling Mountains in the cold season (occurred from November to the following May) during 1970/1971-2018/2019. The study focuses on the spatiotemporal variation of snowfall, and the response relationship between snowfall, air temperature and wet bulb temperature was analyzed. According to the continuous change characteristics of the sea surface temperature anomaly in summer, autumn and winter Niño 3.4, we further identified the 4 types ofdifferent development El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events to reveal that the relationships between different developing ENSO events and snowfall anomalies. The results showed that 1) Snowfall in the north and south of the Qinling Mountains showed a fluctuating deceasing trend in winter. Compared with the average snowfall in 1970-2000, there was a trend that in the south slope of the Qinling Mountains (warm temperate zone) decreased by 3.1 mm in recent 29 years, which was basically equal to the snowfall in the Guanzhong Plain (17.1 mm). 2) Considering the isoline of 1000 m as the dividing boundary, the snowfall in the low-altitude valley (<1000 m) did not show an obvious changing trend, while the snowfall in the high-altitude mountain area (>1000 m) showed a significant decrease. 3) As for the response relationship between snowfall and temperature, the air temperature or wet bulb temperature increased by 1.0℃ from November to March of the second year, and the snowfall in alpine area of the Qinling Mountains decreased by 23.1 mm and 24.3 mm respectively. However, the air temperature or wet bulb temperature increases by 1.0℃ from north to south, the snowfall decrease by 3.0 mm and 2.8 mm in zonality, respectively. 4) The analysis showed that from the perspective of disaster-forming factors, the types of ENSO events affecting the snow anomaly to the north and south of the Qinling Mountains are mainly successive El Niño events. When the successive El Niño/La Niña events occurred, anomalously more snowfall in Guanzhong Plain. When the developing La Niña events occurred, anomalously less snowfall in the Qinling and Dabashan Moutains. When the developing El Niño events occurred, the below normal snowfall in eastern of region and Guanzhong Plain.

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    Characteristics of Danxia Landform in the Northern Shaanxi and A Comparison with Other Danxia Areas in and Outside China
    Pan Zhixin, Ren Fang, Chen Liuqin, Wu Hao, Zhan Yiyong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 1069-1078.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.016
    Abstract806)   HTML29)    PDF (12598KB)(370)      

    The northern Shaanxi is a key region for the distribution of red beds and Danxia landform in China, it has significant differences with Danxia landform in southeast China and abroad. However, few research was concerned with this issue. Based on field investigation and analysis of geologic literature and rock samples, this study focuses on the development of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi from the aspects of geologic background, lithologic characteristics, geomorphic features, and evolution process. Then, a comparison with Danxia landform in the humid southeast China and foreign countries was conducted to summarize their commonalities and differences. It reveals that Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is developed in a large inland depression basin, the Ordos Basin. The dominant red beds for the development of Danxia landform is Luohe Formation, which is mainly composed of medium to fine-grained sandstone and was deposited in an arid desert during Early Cretaceous, and featured by large cross-bedding. Experimental analysis shows that the Luohe sandstones are well-sorted and well-rounded but poorly cemented, typical features of aeolian sandstone such as disc-shaped impact craters are found on surfaces of quartz particles. The most remarkable geomorphic feature of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is that there is a Quaternary loess cap on the top, forming a type of covered Danxia. In terms of landform evolution, Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi is generally in young stage, featured by a combination of plateau and canyons, with closely spaced gullies and continuous Danxia cliffs developed, but there are few isolated individual landforms. The developmental process of Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi could be divided into four stages: 1) Red beds deposition during Early Cretaceous; 2) Tectonic uplift and the development of paleo-Danxia landform during Late Cretaceous; 3) Intermittent uplift since Paleogene and covered by loess in Quaternary. As for comparison with Danxia landform in other regions at home and abroad, Danxia landform in the northern Shaanxi has many differences with those in the humid Southeast China, but it has more similarities with Danxia landform in the western United States. The current theories based on Danxia landform in the humid southeast China cannot well reflect these regional differences, more further comparative research on Danxia landform in and outside China should be conducted, so as to improve our understanding on Danxia landform.

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    The Differences of Urban-rural Population Change and the Underlying Mechanism in the Populaaation Shrinking Counties in China
    Liu Zhen, Qi Wei, Liu Shenghe
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (7): 1116-1128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.002
    Abstract677)   HTML163)    PDF (1753KB)(407)      

    In recent years, the continuous decline of the total population at the regional scale has become increasingly obvious. Considering that most regions have still been experiencing the rapid urbanization processes, it is necessary to analyze the differences of urban and rural population changes and its underlying driving forces in the population shrinking areas. Based on the population census data in 2000 and 2010, this article has analyzed the difference characteristics of urban-rural population change in the population shrinking counties by identifying several urban-rural differentiation types, and then we have established a theoretical framework to investigate the underlying drivers. The main findings are as follows: 1) 38.6% of the research samples have experienced population shrinkage in the period from 2000 to 2010, but most of them have been characterized by “urban population increasing and rural population declining” (or “urban growth and rural decline” for short), and these units account for 89.5% of all the shrinking samples, and the proportion of urban-rural population both shrinking type (or “urban and rural both decline” for short) has a relatively low percentage. 2) In the central region, the type of “urban growth and rural decline A”, which means a high urban growth rate, occupies the main part, and Northeast China has a high percentage of the type of “urban and rural both decline”, and there are obvious spatial differentiations in the eastern and western China. 3) The factors of urbanization level and economic development level have the most significant impacts on the differentiation of urban-rural population change among the population shrinking areas: the population shrinking areas with higher urbanization level and lower economic development level will be more likely to experience slow urban population growth and even urban population decline. 4) The growth rate of economic development, the level of natural population growth, and the quality of public services also have certain impacts on the differentiation of urban-rural population change among the population shrinking areas. Based on these findings, we argue that the perspective of urban-rural differentiation can deepen understanding of population shrinkage in China, and it can also contribute to the relevant theories of population shrinkage in a developing context.

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    Spatial-temporal Characteristics and Impacting Factors of Carsharing in Beijing
    Cao Kexin, Deng Yu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (10): 1792-1801.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.10.011
    Abstract637)   HTML54)    PDF (10911KB)(343)      

    Taking carsharing in Beijing city as an example, we describe temporal characteristics through the coefficient of variation, characterize the spatial pattern using Moran’s I index and Getis G index, and reflect the temporal and spatial evolution through standard deviation ellipse and nuclear density analysis. On this basis, from the two dimensions of supply and demand, we selected five factors: Parking lot number, market evaluation, residence, employment activities, leisure and recreational activities, a total of 14 proxy variables, and detected the formation mechanism of space-time pattern of carsharing. The results show that: First, the distribution of carsharing has significant spatial-temporal heterogeneity, and the agglomeration centers can be divided into three types: Morning and evening gathering, daytime gathering, and even gathering. Second, the main factor of carsharing distribution is travel demand, among which leisure and entertainment places are the most important. Therefore, the government should improve the strategic position of carsharing, encourage the expansion of its scale, and distribute resources in daytime aggregation centers, leisure and entertainment places and residential areas, so as to promote the healthy development of shared transportation and provide new impetus for urban development.

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    The Spatial Distribution and Its Influencing Factors of China’s National Study Travel Base
    Wu Rulian, Li Hongyi, Tian Fengjun
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (7): 1139-1148.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.004
    Abstract609)   HTML135)    PDF (1195KB)(350)      

    In recent years, with the continuous deepening of the integration of tourism and education, study travel in China has developed with a high speed, and has been widely concerned by researches. Study travel bases (STBs) are important space carrier to the development of study travel activities. However, few scholars focused on the spatial distribution of STBs and its influencing factors from the perspective of geography. Thus, 581 national STBs for primary and middle school students published by the Ministry of Education of China in 2017-2018 were selected as the research sample. With the adoption of ArcGIS software, this paper aimed to analyze the type structure, spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of 581 national STBs by using average nearest neighbor index, the kernel density estimation, geographic concentration index, disequilibrium index, spatial autocorrelation analysis and geographical linkage coefficient. Results indicated that: 1) National STBs of China can be roughly divided into ten types, followed as popular science education base, cultural sites, scientific research institutions, museum, national defense and military, ancient villages and towns, nationality arts, red tourism, comprehensive practice base, youth activity center. The main categories are popular science education, museum, and red tourism, accounting for 30.63%, 20.83% and 12.91%, respectively. The spatial distribution of types of STBs in China is unbalanced as different types of STBs have obvious differentiation in space structure characteristics. 2) The spatial distribution of STBs shows the agglomeration and disequilibrium characteristics of ‘more in the east and less in the west’. North China and East China have a large number of STBs, accounting for 21.86% and 25.13%. In terms of the number of each province, Beijing with 75 STBs is far ahead of other provinces. 3) The spatial distribution density of STBs is uneven, including one high density core area, one secondary high density core area and several high agglomeration areas. It shows obviously a core-edge structure and the distribution density decreases gradually from the eastern coastal area to the western inland area. The distribution density around provincial capitals, 5A scenic spots and traffic arteries is relatively higher. 4) There is a significant autocorrelation in the overall space of STBs in China. The cold and hot spots analysis of STBs show the gradient differentiation pattern of ‘hot spots-sub-hot spots-sub-cold spots-cold spots’ and ‘hot-spots-sub-hot spots-cold spots’ from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to the north and south. 5) Policy and institutional environment, economic development foundation, location and transportation conditions, tourism resource endowment and education development level are the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of research and study travel bases. Finally, according to the results of the study, some suggestions are put forward for the development of the STBs. This study can provide a basis for the optimization of space layout and the integration and utilization of research resources of research travel bases in China, and has certain reference value for the formulation of research travel policies at the national level and in different regions.

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    Multi-scale Spatial Pattern of Urban Land Economic Density and Its Influencing Factors in the Yellow River Basin
    Liang Liutao, Yang Ningxi, Ou Zhiyuan, Wang Sen, Shi Yinyin, Chen Xiao, Sun Yufan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (8): 1336-1344.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.004
    Abstract562)   HTML170)    PDF (1077KB)(305)      

    With the accelerating process of urbanization and industrialization in China, the coexistence of excessive non-agricultural farmland and low efficiency of urban land use is becoming increasingly serious. So taking the Yellow River Basin as the research object, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to analyze the spatial pattern of urban land economic density in the Yellow River Basin from the provincial, municipal and county level. Taking 8 provinces and regions (Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shandong) in the Yellow River Basin as the research objects, based on the multi-temporal and high-resolution global urban boundary interpretation data in 2018, the urban land economic density of the Yellow River Basin was calculated from the provincial, municipal and county-level scales. The spatial pattern of urban land economic density in the Yellow River Basin was discussed by using the methods of Theil index, global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis. With the help of geographical detector, the influencing factors of urban land economic density were analyzed. The results show that: 1) The economic density of urban land in the Yellow River Basin is generally not high. At the county scale, 68.3% of the counties are lower than the average level; At the municipal level, 57.5% of cities are below the average. 2) There is a significant spatial positive correlation of urban land economic density in the Yellow River Basin. The high value agglomeration areas (HH) are concentrated in the Central Plains urban agglomeration and Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration, the low value agglomeration areas (LL) are concentrated in the western China such as Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia. And the low-quality heterogeneous area is inlaid around the Central Plains urban agglomeration and Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration. 3) In the whole Yellow River Basin, per capita GDP, population size, local financial investment in science, technology and education, labor density of secondary and tertiary industries and location quality index have a great impact on the economic density of urban land. There are some differences in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. Generally speaking, capital investment intensity, per capita GDP and location quality index have high explanatory powers for the economic density of urban land in the upper, middle and lower reaches.

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    The Development Mode of ‘Garden within Garden’ in Overseas Economic and Trade Cooperation Zones and Case Studies
    Liang Yutian, Zhou Keyang, Zhang Jiaxi, Zeng Jiaqi
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 980-988.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.007
    Abstract556)   HTML17)    PDF (1427KB)(166)      

    With the deepening of ‘the Belt and Road’ and the accelerating pace of Chinese enterprises going global, the Overseas Economic and Trade Cooperation Zones (OETCZs) had become an important platform to undertake the overseas investment of Chinese enterprises and the production capacity cooperation between countries. At present, the case analysis of OETCZs were gradually enriched, but less attention is paid to the ‘Garden within Garden’ development mode of OETCZs. How to overcome the risks brought by the heterogeneity of the host country’s institutional and cultural environment, and how to improve their competitiveness in the context of inclusive globalization are the key issues that need to be solved in the development process of OETCZs by constructing the development mode of ‘Garden within Garden’. This paper takes the successful China-Indonesia Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone as an example to discuss the successful development experience of China’s OETCZs and the development mode of ‘Garden within Garden’ under the background of ‘the Belt and Road’. As one of the first batch of state-level OETCZs set up by Chinese enterprises in Indonesia, the China-Indonesia Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone is a typical ‘Garden within Garden’ development mode. Through on-the-spot investigation and interview method, this paper constructs the framework to analyze the ‘Garden within Garden’ development mode, focuses on the analysis of the development process and characteristics of China-Indonesia Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone from the three dimensions of building the cooperation network among multiple actors, embedding in the local institutional and cultural environment, and providing high-quality environment of the park. On this basis, the analysis framework of the ‘Garden within Garden’ development mode which is helpful to summarize the successful experience of OETCZs from the theoretical aspect, and provide case study and theoretical reference for the construction of OETCZs in the future.

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    The Impact of Technological Innovation on Urban Green Development in the Yellow River Basin
    Zeng Gang, Hu Senlin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (8): 1314-1323.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.08.002
    Abstract554)   HTML170)    PDF (1304KB)(318)      

    Innovation is one of the important ways to promote the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Using the panel data of 79 cities above prefecture level in the Yellow River Basin from 2006 to 2018, this article first constructs an index system to analyze the level of technological innovation and green development of each city, and then deeply explores the mechanism of technological innovation on regional green development through panel econometric model. The results are as follows: 1) From 2006 to 2018, the level of urban technological innovation and green development in the Yellow River Basin has been greatly improved, but the spatial difference is significant, and the overall trend is “downstream > midstream > upstream”. 2) On the whole, technological innovation has no influence on urban green development in the Yellow River Basin, but after adding the quadratic term of technological innovation, there is a obvious positive “U-shaped” nonlinear relationship between them, which also shows the existence of “rebound effect”. 3) The impact of technological innovation on urban green development in the Yellow River basin can be reflected by both direct and indirect effects, but the two effects are just the opposite. That is to say, the promotion of a city’s technological innovation level has a significant “U-shaped” relationship with the urban green development, but it has an inverted “U-shaped” relationship with its neighboring cities. According to the research conclusions, this article puts forward the corresponding policy implications from the direct and indirect effects of urban technological innovation on green development. First of all, it is particularly important for the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River basin to enhance the ability of technological innovation and strengthen the innovation-driven effect on urban green development; Then, cities in the Yellow River Basin should break the “beggar thy neighbor” phenomenon, so as to strengthen the coordinated development in the Yellow River Basin and give play to the positive spillover effect among cities.

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    Theoretical Basis and Methods of City Health Examination Evaluation in China
    Zhang Wenzhong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (10): 1687-1696.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.10.001
    Abstract507)   HTML50)    PDF (1759KB)(272)      

    Under the new stage of urban development in China, city health examination evaluation is an important innovation in urban planning, construction and management. Not only is it an important way to promote the systematic, accurate and scientific construction of urban living environment, but also it’s an important starting point to build a healthier, safer and more livable city and provide high-quality living environment for the people. This article analyzes the theoretical basis of city health examination evaluation from the perspectives of the systematic thinking of geography, the scale economy of economics, the matching of density and space in urban planning, and the livability of cities, and puts forward the basic guidelines of city health examination evaluation. On this basis, the index design, data collection, evaluation and analysis methods and the overall technical process of city health examination evaluation are systematically constructed. And taking the dimension of convenient transportation as an example, this article makes a brief analysis of 36 pilot cities. In order to promote the high-quality development of human settlements in China, it is necessary to establish a theoretical framework and method system, and form a comprehensive and systematic evaluation system, scientific data collection means, analysis and simulation methods, diagnosis and feedback mechanism.

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    Impact of Human Capital Stock and Population Concentration on Innovative Output in China
    Liu Ye, Xu Xuanfang, Ma Haitao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 923-932.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.001
    Abstract453)   HTML56)    PDF (808KB)(327)      

    This article aims to investigate the impact of human capital stock on innovation output in China, particularly focusing on its regional heterogeneity, using the panel data of patent application and innovation input among 287 prefecture-level cities from 2007 to 2012 (excluding the data of Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan). In particular, we use two indicators, the percentage of highly educated talents and the average year of schooling, to capture the level of human capital accumulation. We use the number of patent applications as a proxy for innovation output and population density as a proxy for the level of population concentration. We use fixed-effect models to estimate the linkage between human capital stock and innovation output at the prefecture level and panel quantile regressions to capture the regional heterogeneity. Finding from regressions show that, on average, increased stock of human capital is associated with more innovation outputs, and population concentration is not significantly directly linked to innovation output. The effect of human capital accumulation on innovation output varies from one city to another, and this effect is stronger in cities that situate in the lower rung of innovation hierarchy. The concentration of population is found to strengthen the positive impact of human capital accumulation on innovation, and the increase in urban size is found to promote knowledge spillovers. The moderating effect of population concentration on the relationship between human capital stock and innovation output occurs when the innovation capacity of a city reaches a certain threshold. This moderating effect becomes stronger with an increase in a city’s innovation capacity. Therefore, policymakers are advised to formulate and implement appropriate policies to attract and cultivate talents and to encourage movement of talents, considering the innovation capacity and urban size .

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    A Quantitative Study on the Spatio-temporal Changes of China’s Economic Centers of Gravity for the Past 2000 Years: A Proxy Analysis Based on Population and City Data
    Gong Shengsheng, Xiao Kemei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (9): 1587-1597.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.09.010
    Abstract444)   HTML36)    PDF (4868KB)(318)      

    Based on the data of population and city, this article studies the distribution and change of China’s economic center of gravity in the past 2 000 years (A.D.2-2015) by using historical temporal section method and GIS spatial analysis method. The results show that: 1) Over the past 2 000 years, China’s economic center of gravity has generally moved toward the southeast, but before the Tang Dynasty, it mainly moved to the southwest. After the Song Dynasty, it mainly moved to the southeast. It means that the spatial pattern of China's economy has shifted from North-South differences to East-West differences. And the economic development process and pattern of the southeastern half of “Shenyang-Lanzhou-Xishuangbanna Arc” in China, can represents the national economic development to a certain extent. 2) The “centers of gravity distribution area”, formed by the population, city and economic centers of gravity, which are closely related, is roughly the so-called “Central Plains” area in history. These centers of gravity are always in the east of China’s geometric center, which illustrates that the economic gradient difference among the East and the West of China has a long history and is quite stable. 3) The change of China’s economic center of gravity is constrained by the changes of population pattern and city pattern. As time goes by, economic equivalent of per a person tends to decrease, and the economic equivalent of per a city tends to increase, which indicates that the impact of city economic development on the overall economic pattern is increasingly significant.

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    Spatial and Temporal Changes and Driving Factors of Cultivated Land in Heilongjiang Province
    Li Dan, Zhou Jia, Zhan Daqing
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (7): 1266-1275.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.017
    Abstract444)   HTML46)    PDF (3688KB)(508)      

    It is of great practical significance for protecting cultivated land and guaranteeing national food security to thoroughly explore the spatio-temporal variation characteristics and driving factors of cultivated land. Based on the land use data of Heilongjiang Province in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015, this article determined the spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics and main driving factors of cultivated land change in Heilongjiang Province in the four periods from 1980 to 2015 by using GIS and geographical detector model. The results show that from 1980 to 2015, the cultivated land quantity in Heilongjiang Province increased, and the increased cultivated land mainly came from forest land, grassland and unused land. The variation of cultivated land quantity in each period was obviously different, with the largest variation from 1990 to 2000. The spatial difference of cultivated land change in each period was obvious. From 1980 to 2015, the dynamic degree of cultivated land use in Heilongjiang Province showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and the regions with active dynamic degree of cultivated land use were concentrated in the Sanjiang Plain and the Songnen Plain. The explanatory ability of drivers factors are different in each period. Population size, policy factors, GDP and urbanization level are the driving factors with strong explanatory ability. The influence of driving factors on the spatiotemporal change of cultivated land is realized through the interaction of various factors, which is manifested as double factor enhancement and nonlinear enhancement.

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    Eco-environmental Effects and Its Spatial Heterogeneity of ‘Ecological-production-living’ Land Use Transformation in the Yellow River Delta
    Han Mei, Kong Xianglun, Li Yunlong, Wei Fan, Kong Fanbiao, Huang Shuping
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 1009-1018.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.010
    Abstract436)   HTML35)    PDF (3652KB)(215)      

    The eco-environmental effects and spatial heterogeneity characteristics of land use transformation of ‘ecological-productive-living’ is an important basis for guiding regional territorial spatial development and eco-environmental protection. This study used remote sensing land use data for 1998, 2008 and 2018 to construct a land classification system of ‘ecological-productive-living’ in the Yellow River Delta (YRD), China. The characteristics of land use transformation of ‘ecological-productive-living’, the eco-environmental effects and the main influencing factors were quantitatively analyzed by the transition Tupu, eco-environmental quality index, the gravity center migration model and the Geodetector statistical method. The results show that: 1) Land use transformation in the YRD was mainly manifested as a substantial increase in the proportion of productive land (+13.50%), a decrease in the proportion of ecological land (?17.19%) and small increase in the proportion of living land (+3.69%). From 1998 to 2008, main types of transformation are the conversion from ecological land to productive land. From 2008 to 2018, there is no absolute advantage types of land use transformation, and the transformation process is complicated. 2) The eco-environmental quality index for the YRD increased from 0.390 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2018, with the spatial distribution of the index mainly showing areas of higher quality. The eco-environmental qualities of the central part and the estuary of the YRD showed continuous increases, whereas those of the southeast and northeast coastal areas decreased. 3) The main factors affecting the pattern of eco-environmental quality in the YRD was shown to be vegetation coverage, micro-geomorphic types and soil types, with the contribution rates of location factors and socio-economic factors becoming weaker with an improvement in eco-environmental quality. The results of this study showed a rising contribution rates of ecological protection efforts to the pattern of eco-environmental quality in the YRD.

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    The Processes of Prehistoric Human Activities in the Tibetan Plateau: Occupation, Adaptation and Permanent Settlement
    Chen Fahu, Xia Huan, Gao Yu, Zhang Dongju, Yang Xiaoyang, Dong Guanghui
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2022.01.001
    Abstract398)   HTML59)    PDF (2098KB)(402)      

    The history of human activities on the Tibetan Plateau is crucial for understanding human adaptation to the extreme environment of cold and hypoxia. This paper systematically reviews the archaeological discoveries and studies in recent years, and provides an overview of five development stages of prehistoric human colonization of the Tibetan Plateau from the known of the earliest occupation until permanent settlement. 1) The Denisovan mandible and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) found in Baishiya Karst Cave (BKC), 3 280 m above sea level ( a.s.l.), on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, indicate that the ArchaicHomo sapiens, such as Xiahe Denisovan, may have adapted to the plateau at least 190 thousand years ago (ka) during the late Middle Pleistocene and long-term existed in and around the BKC until the last Glacial period; 2) The Initial Upper Paleolithic assemblages, from excavations at Nwya Devu site (4 600 m a.s.l.), reveal that modern humans began to explore the interior region of the Tibetan Plateau as early as 40-30 ka; 3) The relatively rich microlithic sites on the plateau from last deglaciation to early-mid Holocene, show the frequent activities of microlithic hunt-gatherers during this period, especially during 0.9-0.6 ka, perhaps the results of climate warming; 4) According to the evidence of plant remains from the Neolithic sites, millet farmers have entered low-elevation regions (< 2 500 m a.s.l.) on eastern Tibetan Plateau at least 5.2 ka, and permanently settled in regions at elevation above 3 000 m a.s.l. on eastern Tibetan Plateau since 4.8 ka; 5) After 3.5 ka, the introduction and development of wheat and pastoral economy facilitated permanent human occupation in the high-altitude regions (> 3000 m a.s.l.) of the Tibetan Plateau, which is a consequence of cultural exchange in prehistoric Eurasia. These reflect the long-term physiological and cultural adaptation of prehistoric humans in the process of spreading and settling on the plateau. However, our understanding of prehistoric human activities on the plateau is still limited by the number of archaeological sites and excavated materials. Therefore, we suggest that future work should be focused on seeking more prehistoric sites, conducting the systematic study, and solving the following issues: the spatial and temporal distribution of prehistoric hunter-gatherers, farmers and herders on the plateau, their biological and behavioural adaptation to high-altitude environment and connection with prehistoric low-altitude population and modern Tibetans, and the formation and universality of alpine civilization. We expect that new discoveries and multidisciplinary endeavours will promote the understanding of these issues in the future.

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    Classification and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Tourist Attractions in Shanxi Province Based on POI Data
    Guo Yanping, Liu Min
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (7): 1246-1255.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.015
    Abstract395)   HTML52)    PDF (6249KB)(236)      

    By combining big data with traditional geographic information system and taking Point of Interest (POI) data of Shanxi tourist attractions as the research object, we firstly classified the data, and then analyzed their overall spatial distribution pattern and distribution direction, as well as their spatial distribution characteristics of specific cities. Results showed that the overall distribution pattern of tourist scenic spots in Shanxi presents an agglomeration characteristic in Jinzhong district, but the agglomeration pattern and degree of the tourist scenic spots in different district were different. Geographical landscape tourist attractions mainly concentrated in central, southeast and northeast districts of Shanxi. Water scenic spots concentrated in central, south and northeast districts with an axial zonal distribution; Biological landscape tourist attractions showed a ‘diamond’ agglomeration pattern; relics tourist attractions were mostly distributed in northern, and southeastern Shanxi; Construction and facilities of tourist attractions presented agglomeration characteristics of triangular shape; The entertainment and shopping tourist attractions were evenly distributed in the whole province. The spatial distribution direction of tourist scenic spots was consistent with the regional shape of Shanxi Province. Except for no directionality and centrality of the distribution of entertainment and shopping tourist scenic spots were found, other types of the tourist scenic spots have different degree of agglomeration characteristics. The analysis of the spatial pattern of tourist attractions for all prefecture-level cities showed that water scenery scenic spots were evenly distributed among the cities. The hot spots of landscape and architectural facilities appeared in Yangquan City, while the cold spots appeared in Jincheng City, but the degree of agglomeration was small. The hot spot area of biological landscape tourist attractions is located in Changzhi City, while the cold spot area is located in Linfen City and Yuncheng City, with a high degree of agglomeration. In addition, the factors that influence the spatial distribution of scenic spots were qualitatively analyzed from two aspects of physical geography and human society.

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    Morphology and Sedimentary Characteristics of Vitex Trifolia Nebkhas in the Houtian Sandy Land of Nanchang City
    Li Xiangjie, Li Zhiwen, Du Jianhui, Zhang Huijuan, Zhan Jiangzhen, Du Lan, Sun Li, Hou Chu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (11): 2042-2051.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.11.017
    Abstract394)   HTML27)    PDF (4922KB)(214)      

    In order to explore the morphology and sedimentary characteristics of the nebkhas developed around the rivers and lakes in the subtropical humid areas, the Houtian sandy land in Nanchang was used as the research area to conduct field investigations on the nebkhas formed by the dominant species Vitex trifolia, sampling and analysis of sediments to study the morphology and sedimentary characteristics of nebkhas and their relationship with vegetation characteristics. The results show that: The Vitex trifolia nebkhas in the Houtian sandy land are mostly shield-shaped, with large horizontal scale, low height, and gentle slope. The sediments of the nebkhas are mainly medium sand, with poor sorting, a coarse skewness and narrow kurtosis distribution, sediments all originate from nearby flat sandy land and inter-dune land, which are near-source deposits. The average particle size is a tendency of finer first and then coarser from the bottom of the windward slope to the leeward slope, reflecting the wind-breaking and sand-fixing function and the re-sorting of sand particles of the nebkhas. All morphological parameters of shrubs and nebkhas have high correlations (except for the height of the shrubs) (P<0.01), indicating that the morphological parameters develop in a coordinated manner during the development of nebkhas. Due to the influence of vegetation types and regional environment, different from the ellipsoid or cone-shaped nebkhas formed by upright shrubs with few branches in arid-semi-arid areas, theVitex trifolia with creeping and low height often forms low and wide range nebkhas. The subtropical humid areas are not rich in wind resources and the sand sources in Houtian sandy land are insufficient, so the sediments are all from nearby flat sandy land and inter-dune land, but the deposition law of different slope positions is similar to the arid-semi-arid areas.

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    Comparative Analysis on the Quality of Urbanization Structure of Central Cities in Southwest Economic Core Area of China: Taking Chengdu-Chongqing as Examples
    Sun Pingjun, Luo Ning
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 1019-1029.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.011
    Abstract383)   HTML20)    PDF (2830KB)(187)      

    The quality of urbanization structure based on the orderly coordination and coupling of internal systems is an important basic component of urbanization quality, which should be included in the existing urbanization quality analysis framework that based on urbanization development benefits. The former is called the foundation and supporting urbanization Quality I, the latter is called the benefit of urbanization quality II, which is mutually causal. Based on the perspective of urbanization structure quality, this article uses the improved coupling coordination model to comparative analysis the urbanization structure qualities and their driving forces between Chongqing and Chengdu that are the core cities of Southwest Economic Core Area (Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration area) from 2005 to 2017, in order to provide a reference for the integrated construction of the “Chengdu-Chongqing Twin Cities Economic Circle”. The results show: 1) The qualities of urbanization structure in Chongqing and Chengdu are relatively high, and their are continuously in growing, and Chengdu ’s urbanization structure quality is significantly higher than that of Chongqing. Which is closely related to the spatial organization structures formed by topography, development stage, and urban positioning, of Chongqing ’s “modern metropolis in the main urban area + vast rural areas in non-main urban areas” spatial organization structure and Chengdu’s modern metropolitan spatial organization structure. 2) The driving factors of urbanization show the characteristics of diversification, stages and differences. In which, the administrative force and market force played important roles during the period, and followed by the internal forces and the external forces, while the external forces in the whole process is continuous weakening, reflecting that China’s urbanization is an endogenous development progress. 3) Based on the average values of the urbanization subsystem and its system coupling and coordination analysis, can effectively avoid the distortion and inaccuracy caused by the differences in index selection of each urbanization subsystem. Finally, this article puts forward some suggestions for the urbanization sustainable of the two cities.

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    Spatio-temporal Analysis of Built Environment and Street Vitality Relationship Based on Street-level Imagery: A Case Study of Futian District, Shenzhen
    Si Rui, Lin Yaoyu, Xiao Zuopeng, Ye Yu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (9): 1536-1545.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.09.005
    Abstract383)   HTML22)    PDF (1028KB)(151)      

    The last decades have witnessed a steady increase in studying urban vitality. However, the information that could depict 3D space has not been included in studies. This research attempts to incorporate street view imagery data to elaborate the spatiotemporal variability of vibrancy in Futian District, Shenzhen. As for the street-level physical environment, attributes are extracted from street view images by deep machine-learning algorithms SegNet. 2D built environment indicators of streets were extracts from the Open Street Map and POI points. A multivariate econometric are framed to examine the association between urban environment and the vitality at the street level of commercial streets and residential streets. The results showed that: 1) The peak hours of activity on commercial streets are 18:00 to 20:00, and the peak hours of activity on living streets are 11:00 to 13:00. 2) Futian District Street Vitality Shows Polycentric Structure, whose distribution had shown obvious spatial differences with time. 3) Variations in the temporal and degree effects of different built environment indicators on street vitality. Increasing the mix of facilities contributes to the morning and nighttime vibrancy of commercial streets, as well as the afternoon vibrancy of living streets. More compact streets have a positive impact on commercial streets’ vitality, and safer pedestrian environments have a positive impact on both living and commercial streets’ vitality. Improving the building continuity will promote the vitality of commercial streets. Higher interface richness increases the vitality of living streets in afternoon and evening. An increase in the richness of the interface will promote the daytime vitality of the residential street.

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    The Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Geographical Agglomeration of E-sports Industry in China
    Ma Hongzhi, Zhong Yexi, Zhang Yidi
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 989-997.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.008
    Abstract364)   HTML40)    PDF (906KB)(349)      

    Based on the data of e-sports enterprises from 2003 to 2016, using the Herfindahl-Hirschman index, spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial panel econometric model, the geographic agglomeration characteristics of China’s e-sports industry and its influencing factors are quantitatively analyzed. The research fidnding shows: 1) The development of China’s e-sports industry is advancing through twists and turns, and has significant stage characteristics. Since the entry of e-sports games into China in 1998, it has a history of more than two decades. It has experienced many iconic events such as germination, officialization, twists and turns, recovery, and rebirth. It has finally been recognized by the public and the official. After being officially listed in China’s sports events in 2003, it experienced three stages of “volatility development-power accumulation diffusion-concentrated outburst”, which was characterized by difficult exploration, legal and correct name, and entering life. 2) The development of China’s e-sports industry is spatially dependent, and the evolution of industrial agglomeration has undergone various structural models. The spatial distribution state of the e-sports industry presents a spatial dependence from random to agglomeration, and its evolutionary model is constantly changing, showing an overall two-level agglomeration center and undergoing a structural evolution from “dual-core” to “single-core”. The focus of development has generally moved to the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. 3) Analysis of driving factors shows that factors such as economic level, industrial structure, human resources, government policies, innovation environment, economic extroversion, and user scale all affect the geographic agglomeration of the e-sports industry. Among them, the influence of industrial structure, human resources and economic level on the agglomeration of e-sports industry is particularly significant. The high economic development level, excellent completion structure and good human resources are more conducive to the development and agglomeration of e-sports industry.

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    The Construction of Transnational Education Space from the Perspective of Mobilities: The Case of International Schools
    Lin Libin, Zhu Hong, Zhang Bo
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (7): 1107-1115.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.001
    Abstract356)   HTML137)    PDF (546KB)(233)      

    The increasingly diversified and internationalized educational spaces around the world have promoted the vigorous development of geographies of education. In light of vibrant mobilities research, the meanings and connotations of educational spaces have further extended into various non-traditional institutional spaces including families, communities and workplaces, requiring geographers’ reflection on how diverse education spaces are shaping and being shaped differently through different geographical spaces and processes, and the relational nature of educational mobilities. International schools, a bourgeoning but relatively under-examined phenomenon in existing geographical writings, are transnational educational spaces created in specific places by the process of globalization. Taking an international school in Guangzhou as an example, this paper explores the tension between global and local, mobilities and stillness in the international school through qualitative research methods including participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The research shows that: knowledge, peoples, spaces and other elements are transnationally mobilized and transferred in an interconnected manner, making the international school into a comprehensive and multi-level transnational “education enclave”; Meanwhile, mobilities do not indicate the negation of stillness. Both the processes of mobilities and stillness are shaping the international school simultaneously. A certain degree of involvement of local elements has not threatened the foundation of the international institution. In general, the holistic cross-border flow of educational resources contributes to the separation from the local in terms of physical spaces, social services and classes. Transnational education based and produced in local fails to achieve real cross-cultural interactions and connections, but further strengthens the cultural differences and boundaries. The present study further enriches studies in the field of geographies of education as well as special urban spaces in contemporary internationalized China.

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    Emerging Themes of Environmental Economic Geography in China
    He Canfei, Mao Xiyan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (9): 1497-1504.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.09.001
    Abstract336)   HTML42)    PDF (644KB)(181)      

    The changing global environment and techno-economic paradigm exert remarkable influences on the economy-environment relationship. However, economic geographers across the world have primarily retreated from tackling environmental challenges at the same time. In response, Environmental Economic Geography becomes an emerging theme of Economic Geography since 2000, which makes efforts to reconsider the economy-environment relationship from the perspective of Economic Geography. The development of Economic Geography in China adheres to the tradition of human-environment interactions, which lays the foundation for developing Environmental Economic Geography. The rapid growth and transition of China’s economy also provide rich cases for conducting Environmental Economic Geography researches. Generally, Environmental Economic Geography does not necessarily require a fresh start. Instead, it can be derived from the theoretical thinking of Economic Geography. This study proposes three potential themes. First, Environmental Economic Geography can revisit the location of economic activities which are environment-relevant, leading to a better understanding of how the changing environment reshapes the global economic landscape. Second, Environmental Economic Geography can trace the flows of factors and the interactions between actors by network analysis, providing better chances to project the transfer of environmental risks at different geographical scales. Third, Environmental Economic Geography can look into how different actors interact with each other across different regions and at multiple levels of institutional contexts, unravelling the process of green innovation and green transition in different geographical contexts.

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    Spatial Pattern Evolution and Impact Factors of Location Choice of Enterprises in Northeast China
    Song Yang, Wang Tingting, Zhang Yu, Qian Sitong, Wang Shijun
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (7): 1199-1209.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.010
    Abstract334)   HTML34)    PDF (1253KB)(306)      

    As the core carrier and main body of the industrial space, enterprises play an important role in the regional economy. Accordingly, enterprise investment and location selection will become an important engine for the overall revitalization of Northeast China. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the spatial pattern of enterprises in Northeast China in 2000-2019. For this purpose, a large dataset with 115 852 data information about the above-scale enterprises was used in the analysis of core factors of the location of the enterprises. Multiple spatial data analysis techniques, such as kernel density estimation, nuclear density estimation, nearest neighbor analysis, and geographic weighted regression models were used for location analysis. The results showed that: 1) Enterprises in Northeast China have gradually expanded to both ends with the ‘T’-shaped railway as the axis; 2) Shenyang urban district maintained a leading position for the capital scale of enterprises in Northeast China. The capital scales of Harbin, Changchun, and Dalian have grown rapidly and the gap with Shenyang urban district gradually narrowed; 3) The spatial distribution pattern of enterprises in 26 key industries in Northeast China can be divided into three types: single-core type, central city cluster type and ‘large agglomeration-small dispersion’ type; 4) Six factors are recognized to have a significant impact on the location of enterprises in Northeast China: market size, urban hierarchy, foreign direct investment, economic development, labor cost and transportation accessibility. Among them, market size and urban hierarchy are the two core factors influencing the spatial differentiation pattern of enterprises in Northeast China, followed by FDI. The spatial heterogeneity of these three factors is relatively strong, while the spatial heterogeneity of transportation accessibility, economic development and labor cost is relatively weak; 5) Market size, urban hierarchy and FDI showed obvious differences in the impacts of the location of enterprises in different types of regions.

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    Frontier Hotspots and Development Directions of Geographical Science Research: From a Perspective of National Natural Science Foundation Application Keywords in 2021
    Gao Yang, Xiong Juhua, Wu Hao, Zhang Zhonghao, Liu Jianbao, Li Xin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 15-30.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2022.01.002
    Abstract332)   HTML29)    PDF (5188KB)(293)      

    Geographical Science is an important support for improving human understanding of the earth surface, exploring the relationship between man and land, and solving complex problems in resources, environment, development, and disasters. It is the mission and duty of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) to lead scientific development and support the construction and cultivation of talent teams in all fields. Tracking the frontiers in the field of geographical science, optimizing the discipline layout and conducting strategic guidance are important tasks of the geographical science division of the NSFC. In this study, taking 4 479 applications in the field of geographical science of the NSFC in 2021 as samples, the word cloud analysis method was used to analyze the research hotspots of geographic science and various sub-disciplines. The results show that ‘deep learning’‘climate change’ ‘ecosystem services’‘hyperspectral remote sensing’‘Qinghai-Tibet Plateau’, and “sustainable development” are the hotspots of the research contents and methods of geographical science. In terms of intercross and fusion between sub-disciplines, the intercross of research hotspots between information geography and human geography is relatively weak, and the main common keywords are ‘spatial analysis model’ ‘geographic information system’ ‘remote sensing’, and ‘machine learning’. Hot keywords of Physical Geography and Human Geography are highly cross-integrated, and the hot common keywords include ‘ecosystem services’‘land use’‘land use change’‘sustainable development’ and ‘scenario analysis’. In the future, the NSFC-Division of Geography will start with keywords setting and interdisciplinary integration in order to further optimize the layout of Geographical Science from the strategic level, guide scientists to focus on frontier issues in Geography, and serve major national strategies such as carbon neutrality and rural revitalization.

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    Evolution Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Innovation Network of Township Cable Industry Cluster: A Case Study of Gaogou Town in Anhui
    Li Junfeng, Bai Jingjing, Wang Shujing
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 1039-1049.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.06.013
    Abstract327)   HTML16)    PDF (2442KB)(105)      

    Due to the lack of advanced technology and talent innovation elements, the evolution process and formation mechanism of industrial cluster innovation network in underdeveloped areas vary a lot from those in economically developed areas. How to break through the bottleneck restrictions of talent and technology and how to scientifically build its innovation network become to be very critical in the process of high-quality transformation. In order to enrich the research content and paradigm of traditional industrial cluster innovation network, as well as provide a theoretical basis for local governments in underdeveloped areas to enhance the development of cluster innovation, this article takes Gaogou Town in Anhui Province, a national cable town in underdeveloped areas has been selected as a case, and takes the traditional cable industry cluster has been taken as the object for this research. Based on patent cooperation and field survey data, with the help of UCINET, a quantitative analysis of the innovation network of the Gaogou cable industry cluster is carried out in this article to reveal the composition and evolution characteristics of the innovation network, and to explore its evolution mechanism as well from the perspective of multidimensional proximity theory. The research shows that: 1) The innovation network of industrial clusters is composed of three major elements; network main body, network connection and network structure, which are interrelated and develop synergistically; 2) the innovation network of traditional industry cluster in towns area has been formed for a long time, and has experienced the initial stage, networking stage and development stage. During above the period, the innovation subject changed from single to diversified, the mode of connection turned from informal to formal, the strength of connection grew from weak to strong, and the connection structure developed from sporadic sites to network. 3) Due to the limitation of regional scope, industrial nature and economic foundation, geographical proximity plays an important role in the formation of innovation network of traditional industrial clusters in towns; Cognitive proximity is in backward state, and its function is restricted by spatial proximity to a certain extent; The self-innovation ability of traditional industries in towns is quite weak, and the innovation network mainly depends on the government and cooperative organizations, and the role of institutional proximity and organizational proximity needs to be further highlighted.

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    High-quality Development Spatio-temporal Evolution of Industry in Urban Agglomeration of the Yellow River Basin
    Li Linshan, Zhao Hongbo, Guo Fuyou, Wang Yu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (10): 1751-1762.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.10.007
    Abstract323)   HTML26)    PDF (1231KB)(227)      

    The Yellow River Basin is an important ecological barrier and an important economic zone in China, with a good industrial base and huge market potential. Taking the urban agglomeration in the Yellow River Basin as the research space unit, the article identified the connotation of high-quality development of the industry in the basin through literature review, so as to build an index system of industrial high-quality development, and analyzed the spatio-temporal process of industrial high-quality development in the urban agglomeration in the Yellow River Basin. Research shows that: 1) the overall level of industrial high-quality development of urban agglomeration in the Yellow River basin is rising, and presents obvious spatial differentiation characteristics. The closer it is to the downstream, the higher the index of high-quality industrial development will be. 2) The development indexes of each industrial dimension shows different spatial characteristics. In terms of industrial vitality and innovation efficiency, there are obvious differences between upper, middle and lower reaches. There are different industrial structural problems for different urban agglomerations. The industrial spatial connection of urban agglomeration in the upper and middle reaches is insufficient, and the gap with the middle and lower reaches urban agglomeration is expanding. The pressure of ecological environment brought by industrial development of various urban agglomerations tends to aggravate, and the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin has become the high value area of environmental pollution. There are greatly different in the comprehensive level of high-quality industrial development and the sub-index of various dimensions in all urban agglomerations in the Yellow River Basin. These differences are formed under the comprehensive role of different location conditions and historical bases, urban agglomeration spatial structure, industrial structure, industrial spatial connection pattern, and national and local industrial policies.

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    The Spatio-temporal Evolution and Mechanism of the Coordination Between Quality and Quantity of Economic Growth in Chinese Urban Agglomerations
    Zhang Guojun, Wang Yunzhe, Wang Juehan, Cao Yongwang, Zhou Chunshan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (12): 2075-2086.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.12.001
    Abstract319)   HTML45)    PDF (1228KB)(341)      

    The aticle sets urban agglomerations which the Chinese 13th Five-year Plan outline referred to as the research objects, respectively from the economic efficiency, economic structure, economic stability, economic development potential, results distribution, resources and environment, the welfare of the people’s livelihood seven dimensions of urban agglomeration economy growth quality characterization, from growth rate of GDP and per capita GDP of two dimension depicting economic growth to build a comprehensive index system. Using the methods of entropy value method, coupling coordination model, geodetector and so on, we analyze the coupling coordination between quality and quantity of economic growth in China from 2006 to 2018 and its interaction mechanism. The results showed that: 1) As for the overall level, the coordination degree between quality and quantity of economic growth in China's urban agglomerations is low, and shows a downward trend; 2) In terms of the spatial pattern of coordination degree, the spatial pattern of the quality of economic growth with the quantity of economic growth and the speed of economic growth showed a trend of “high in the east and low in the west” and remained relatively stable, but the spatial pattern of coordination degree of the quality and scale of economic growth changed greatly; 3) In terms of coordination types, the “quantity lag” type distributed sporadically, the “scale lag” type is concentrated in the central and western regions, the “speed lag” type is expanded in the northeast, and the “quality lag” type showed diversity due to the different coordination objects; 4) The coordination among the quality of economic growth and the scale of economic growth and speed of economic growth shows a feature of not accordance; 5) The analysis of mutual coordination mechanism shows that the welfare of the people’s livelihood, economic development potential and per capita GDP have a significant and important influence on the improvement of the coordination level of economic growth quality and quantity in 19 China’s urban agglomerations; 6) It explains the key measures to be taken by different coordinated urban agglomerations, so as to help the high-quality economic development of 19 China’s urban agglomerations.

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