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    The Ecological Redlines of National Rare and Endangered Species of Firmiana danxiaensis in the Danxia Mountain
    Ouyang Jie
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1166-1173.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.015
    Abstract839)   HTML23)    PDF (23543KB)(91)      

    Firmiana danxiaensis is selected as Critically Endangered (CR) plants in the first volume of the China Species Red List (CSRL, 2004), as well as the grade national key protected wild plants. Field surveys show that F. danxiaensis in the core areas of the Danxia Mountain of the Guangdong Province are not only very rare, but also in very narrow distribution areas. As the increasing influence of the world natural heritage sites of “China Danxia”, abundant activities of human beings and visitors in the Danxia Mountain may influence the survival environments of natural plants. Therefore, it is important to find out the number of F. danxiaensis , and summarize the characteristics of their micro geomorphic environments. The number of F. danxiaensis and their spatial distribution are got by field investigations, and the spatial analysis module of the ArcGIS10.5 are used to overlay at the DEM data of 1 m resolution ratio to analyze their environment characteristics of spatial distribution of the slope and the aspect. The investigations indicate that there are only 772 Firmiana danxiaensis in the core areas of the Danxia Mountain, with the altitudes between 100-300 m, slope above 30°, aspects of northwest and southeast with vertical joints and horizontal beddings, and relatively barren soil of cliffs. From the study, we may speculate that F. danxiaensis is also distributed with similar micro-landforms of Danxia red cliffs outside of this research area. The actual situation needs to be further investigated and verified by UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) technology. Besides F. danxiaensis , there are special rare and endangered vegetations in the Danxia Mountain, such as Danxiaorchis singchiana, Spiradiclis danxiashanensis, Viola hybanthoides, and Chiritopsis danxiaensis which are the common wealth of all mankind in revealing the origin of the species, system evolution, genetic breeding, reproductive ecology, etc. So it is urgent to monitor, protect and study the 6 concentrated areas of F. danxiaensis of Guaimianshi, Jinguichaosheng, Longjiaoshan, Jinshiyan, Shuangxitai, and Longwangquan-Shaoyinting, and establish ecological redlines of F. danxiaensis in the Danxia Mountain of Guangdong Province, China.

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    Geo-structure: Theoretical Basis, Concept and Analytical Framework
    Hu Zhiding,Lu Dadao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1045-1054.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.002
    Abstract630)   HTML45)    PDF (507KB)(203)      

    With the diversification of the research paradigm and methods of human geography, the research perspectives and methods of geopolitics, as an important branch of human geography, also become diversified. Especially since the 1960s, the structural turn of geopolitics has led to a number of important research results in geopolitics. However, on the whole, the study of geographical structure is too simple and immature. Drawing on the latest progress of structuralism in philosophy and related disciplines, especially the study of social theory on social structure, international relations on international social structure and geography on spatial structure, this article discusses the theoretical basis, concept and analytical framework of geo-structure. The analytical framework of the geostructure consists of 5 parts: structure as a component, structure as a process, structure system, 2 levels of structure and 2 mechanisms of action. The contents that constitute the geo-structure can be roughly divided into 3 kinds, namely, material structure, conceptual structure and spatial structure. The structure as a process focuses on exploring the relationships and their interdependence within the structure, and the impact of these changes on the identities and interests of geo-bodies, which means that the structure itself is changing. The geo-structural system has not been seriously studied. But with the advent of the geo-economic era, the transformation of Hobbes culture to Lockean culture, especially the interdependence under various relations, makes the international anarchic society move towards a structural system composed of politics, military, economy and culture. The 2 levels of the geopolitical structure and the 2 mechanisms are closely linked, reflecting the relationship between geo-bodies and the geopolitical structure in which the geopolitical body is placed. Each part of the geo-structure should form a whole in order to explore its impact. In the end, some problems in using geo-structure and the current international situations are briefly discussed in this study.

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    Security Situation and Spatio-temporal Evolution Along Belt and Road Based on Terrorist Attack Data
    Han Zenglin,Wang Xue,Peng Fei,Liu Tianbao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1037-1044.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.001
    Abstract540)   HTML87)    PDF (1956KB)(269)      

    The national safety evaluation, risk assessment and forecasting of countries along the “Belt and Road” initiative are the foundation and prerequisite for the successful implementation of the “National Initiative” and have become the key issues in the study of political geography. Based on the Global Terrorism Database, an evaluation system of the national security situation including the number of terrorist attacks, the number of deaths, the number of terrorist injuries and degree of property losses in terrorist attacks, was developed. Employing Standard Deviation Ellipse and Nuclear Density Estimation method approach to measure the spatio-temporal characteristics of the national security situation. The results show that: 1) From the analysis of time evolution, the national security situation along the “Belt and Road” became increasing seriously from 1970 to 2017, with significant phase characteristics and experienced 3 stages of “rising-active-falling”; 2) From the perspective of spatial analysis, standard deviation ellipse of national security situation moving northwest, the center of gravity path experienced a shift from the West Asia and North Africa, South Asia to West Asia and North Africa area; The spatial characteristics around the “9.11” incident have changed from the 3 "terrorist active areas" and "U-type terrorist latent circles" to the 2 "turbulent core areas" and 3 "turbulent centers".

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    Spatio-temporal Change of Facaulty Members of Higher Education Institute and Its Influential Factors in China in 2005-2015
    Wang Ruoyu,Huang Xu,Xue Desheng,Liu Ye
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1199-1207.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.001
    Abstract529)   HTML108)    PDF (1675KB)(411)      

    Based on the national statistical yearbook data from 2005 to 2015, this article studies the spatial pattern evolvement of the distribution of scientific research talents in China (limited to data, the study area not includes Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) and its influence mechanism by applying panel negative binomial regression and spatial auto-correlation analysis. The result shows that: 1)The distribution of scientific research talents in China showed great imbalance. Generally speaking, talents agglomerate in the southeast but sparse in the northwest. Scientific research talents are mainly agglomerate in Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai; 2) The distribution of scientific research talents has some spatial agglomeration characteristics. Hot spots are the eastern coastal areas, especially Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Jiangsu while the cold point area is concentrated in the western region and Heilongjiang Province. The area of cold points has decreased from 2005 to 2015; 3) Talent policy, the development of universities and the level of public service are the main factors that determines the overall spatial distribution of scientific research talents, but no evidence support that other factors have significant influence. With the increase of professional qualification, the influence of the economic factors on the scientific research talent gets weaker, but the influence of public service level gets stronger. On the other hand, from the perspective of regional differences, compared with the western regions, the scientific research talents working in middle and eastern universities are more likely to be affected by the public service.

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    The Climatic Variations of Temperature Extremes in the Eastern of China
    Qi Qinghua,Cai Rongshuo,Guo Haixia
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1340-1350.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.016
    Abstract492)   HTML28)    PDF (16809KB)(194)      

    :Based on percentile and other statistical methods, the climate index was built to analyze the extreme peculiarities of temperature, its space-time evolution and the regional differences in the eastern China (ECM excluding Hongkong Macao and Taiwan), and the associations with the global and regional climatic and oceanic variabilities were discussed. The results show that, in the past 60 years, the long-term warming trend in the ECM is obvious. Due to the influence of latitude and seasons, the response to global warming is most obvious in the northern regions with high latitude and in winter and spring seasons. Compared with the daily minimum temperature, the daily maximum temperature did not distinctly increase especially in the central region between the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. As a result, the diurnal temperature range also showed a decreasing trend overall. In consistent with the average temperature extremes and climatic regioons, the intensity of extreme cold events (ECE) decreased significantly, especially in the north of the Yellow River and southeast coastal areas. However, the long-term trend of the intensity of extreme high temperature events (EHTE) is not obvious, especially in Huanghuai area where the decrease trend dominated. Long-term trends of annual frost and ice days and the cold wave duration experienced a reduce, while the heat wave duration gives priority to increase. The spatial pattern of the intensity and frequency of the extreme events were well consistency, and the response to global changes is remarkable. The impaction index of the ECE possessed greater values in northern region and inland, while lower in the southern regions and coastal areas. The corresponding long-term trend is decline with regional uniformity, especially in the eastern coastal areas. Meanwhile, the impaction index of the ECE in spring is higher than that in winter, and its decline trend is not obvious. The long-term increase trend of impact index of the EHTE was smaller and regional differences are significant. Moreover, the climatic trend in the areas with large values of impaction index was mainly enhanced, while that in the areas with smaller values most significantly weakened. Overall, the frequency of regional extreme temperature events is more sensitive to global climate change than the intensity. The analysis further shows that, the subtropical high, Antarctic and Arctic oscillations may be important factors influencing the formation and evolution of extreme temperature events in the EC.

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    Evaluation of Eco-city Under the Concept of High-quality Development: A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration
    Xu Liting,Yao Shimou,Chen Shuang,Xu Yu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1228-1237.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.004
    Abstract481)   HTML55)    PDF (1325KB)(259)      

    Eco-city is an essential form of sustainable urban development and represents the tendency of modern cities. The evaluation of eco-city provides the fundamental basis for the planning, construction and management of eco-city. With the rapid development of social and economic, the connotation and evaluation index system of eco-city also need to update with the times. Currently, China's economy has shifted from a rapid growth stage to a high-quality development stage. Urban is an essential platform of regional economic development, it will also enter the stage of high-quality development. The eco-city is highly compatible with the concept of high-quality development, it is necessary to integrate the high-quality development ideology in the eco-city evaluation, which is in line with the current urban transformation and development requirements of China. Therefore, on the basis of combing the evolution and connotation development of eco-city, we set up an eco-city evaluation system guided by the concept of high-quality development, and then taking the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) as an example to carry out the ecological level evaluation study of urban. Thus, the characteristics of spatial-temporal variations of urban ecological level was evaluated and the main obstacle factors was revealed. Based on various statistical data of YRDUA in 2005, 2010 and 2015, 27 indicators for evaluating eco-city that reflects the requirements for high quality development ideology were constructed from three aspects, they are economic development, ecological environment protection and social civilization progress. The entropy-TOPSIS model then analyzed the ecological level of cities, and the major obstacle factors was measured through obstacle degree model. The results showed that: The ecological level of the YRDUA present a steady improvement trend, the urban ecological level spatial pattern of the YRDUA shows a "core-periphery" structure, and it experienced the evolution process of double-high value center in 2005, single-high value center in 2010 and multiple-high value center in 2015. The ecological level of Shanghai municipality, provincial capital cities and other economically-strong cities like Suzhou and Wuxi are significantly better than other cities. There is a significant correlation between ecological level and city hierarchical, which means the urban ecological level is directly proportional to the population scale. The higher the urban hierarchy, the more advantageous the urban construction has, thus the higher the ecological level is. And the ecological level gap of the different urban hierarchy has gradually expanded during the study period. From the perspective of the 3 subsystems, economic development, ecological environment protection and social civilization progress, each city presents different advantages and disadvantages regarding different indicators. Moreover, the difference of ecology level regarding the economy and society are significant than the ecological environment. The obstacle factors of the ecological level of the YRDUA are relatively stable. For most cities, economic development, infrastructure, and public service factors are the primary constraints, especially in cities with relatively backward economic development, while a few economically developed cities have significant obstacles to environmental foundation and social civilization progress. In the future, the differentiated policies deserve much more attention, urban ecological level should promote to higher quality according to local conditions especially its significant constraints.

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    The Spatio-temporal Evolutionary Characteristics and Regional Differences in Affecting Factors Analysis of China’s Urban Eco-efficiency
    Yang Yong,Deng Xiangzheng
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1111-1118.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.009
    Abstract434)   HTML27)    PDF (1378KB)(211)      

    Improving urban eco-efficiency is the key to realize the construction of ecologically-civilized city, which also improve harmonious development of regional society, economy and ecology. In this article, we assessed the urban eco-efficiency with Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) in China (not including data of Tibet, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) during 2006-2013, then analyzed the spatio-temporal evolutionary characteristics of urban eco-efficiency by using Kernel density function, dynamic comparative of urban eco-efficiency of different scales in different economic zones also analyzed. Finally, the Tobit regression model was established, we discussed the impact of affecting factors on urban eco-efficiency based on different scales. The main results are as follows: 1) The mean value of urban eco-efficiency in China ranges from 0.807 6 and 0.838 2 during 2006-2013, high value areas present spatial agglomeration trend, the environment input factors such as sulphur dioxide emission, green house gas emission and solid wastes have negative effects; 2) China’s urban efficiency has a fluctuated dynamic change process, the mean eco-efficiency of various scales cities shows increasing tendency, the eco-efficiency of megacities improved fastest among various scales cities, urban eco-efficiency increasing returns to scale shows obvious, urban eco-efficiency becoming universal; 3) The effect of affecting factors on the urban eco-efficiency shows obviously scale difference, the large-scale cities have better economic foundations, industrial structure optimized continuously, an effective resource element allocation mechanism was formed gradually, therefore, there are few significant factors affecting ecological efficiency, however, the eco-efficiency of small-scale cities is more easily affected by various kinds of factors, therefore, it is necessary to take corresponding measures to improve the eco-efficiency of various scales cities.

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    The Spatio-temporal Pattern Evolution and Driving Force of the Coupling Coordi-nation Degree of Urban Human Settlements System in Liaoning Province
    Li Xueming,Guo Yujie,Tian Shenzhen,Bai Zhizhen,Liu He
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1208-1218.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.002
    Abstract385)   HTML40)    PDF (5014KB)(311)      

    Coupling coordination within the human settlements system is the basis for ensuring a balanced development of the human settlements. This paper expounds the internal coordination of the human settlements system and discusses the spatial and temporal distribution and driving force of the coupling and coupling coordination degree of human settlements in Liaoning Province, China. This paper builds the evaluation index system of the coupled development of human settlements system based on the five subsystems of ‘human-living-support-nature-society’. The coupling model between two systems is extended to five subsystems of human settlements. The entropy method and GIS spatial analysis methods are used to analyze the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of coupling coordination degree of human settlements system in Liaoning Province from 2005 to 2016. The research shows that: 1) From 2005 to 2016, the coupling degree and coupling coordination degree of the human settlements system in Liaoning Province showed a slow upward trend. There is a difference in the degree of coordination between cities. The high value areas of coupling coordination degree includes Shenyang and Dalian. The median area of coupling coordination degree includes Anshan, Fushun, Benxi, Dandong, Jinzhou, Yingkou, Liaoyang, Panjin, Tieling, Chaoyang and Huludao. The coupling coordination degree low value area includes Fuxin. 2) The coupling coordination degree of human settlements in Liaoning Province is in a dispersed pattern which presents a ‘roof ridge’ pattern and a ‘dual-core structure’ that decrease from the middle to the sides. In the east-west direction, the spatial evolution trend gradually evolves from the inverted the ‘U’ shape to the‘—’shape, and the north-south direction changes from the tilted line type to the ‘L’ type. The coupling coordination degree between Shenyang and Dalian has been in the top two, far higher than other cities, as a dual core to lead the coordinated development of the human settlements system in Liaoning Province. 3) There are five types of zones: medium coupling-low coordination zone, medium coupling-transition coordination degree zone, high coupling-low coordination degree zone, high coupling-transition coordination degree zone and high coupling-high coordination degree zone. 4) We use geographic detector to explore the driving forces of the coupiling coordination within the human settlements system. The spatial differentiation driving force mainly includes people's needs, economic development, housing and internet development. People's needs are the basis for the coordinated development of the human settlements system. Economic development is the main driving force, and housing is a tool for coordinated development. However, the development of the Internet is a new driving force for the coordinated development of the human settlements system.

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    Rural Space Transition in Western Countries and Its Inspiration
    Yuan Yuan,Zhang Xiaolin,Li Hongbo,Hu Xiaoliang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1219-1227.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.003
    Abstract380)   HTML38)    PDF (460KB)(284)      

    Recognition of rural space in western countries has undergone a profound turn from material and ideational space to the three-fold model of rural space proposed by Halfacree. Fundamentally influenced by “the production of space” and widely accepted as the systematic theoretical framework of rural space in western world, this model provides a whole new perspective on the transition of rural space in western countries from productivism to post-productivism. Differentiated rural space in western countries manifest that affected by interwoven forces of globalization, urbanization and modernization, dynamics and patterns of rural space transition development has been regenerated by combination and reorganization of essential productive factors, as well as its functions and values. Process of rural space transition in western countries reflects general rules in the view of “global countryside” proposed by Woods, which offers a great and significant enlightenment for studies in China. Based on the situation that urban and rural space is going through a critical period of accelerated reconstruction, theoretical guidance is urgently needed for newly emerging problems, patterns and forces, especially more studies on multi-dimensional cognition, multi-functional trend and multi-agent mechanism of rural space and its transition . In the end, this paper calls for establishing research paradigm of rural geography with Chinese characteristics, so as to better respond to the theme of the times on rural revitalization

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    The Fluctuation and Background Analysis of Geopolitical Relations Between China and the United States During the Last 40 Years
    Shen Shi,Yuan Lihua,Ye Sijing,Cheng Changxiu,Gao Jianbo,Song Changqing
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1063-1071.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.004
    Abstract361)   HTML19)    PDF (1720KB)(118)      

    China-US relations have always been the most important part of international geopolitical relations. Discovering and analyzing of the attitude of two sides to each other from an international multilateral perspective is of great significance for understanding the internal causes of variations in China-US geopolitical relations. Due to differences in political systems, the analysis of characteristics of the China-US changes from the perspective of the presidency of the U.S. can provide a deeper knowledge of the international geopolitical tendencies. From the time series analysis of China-US relations, we can understand the evolutionary stages of China-US geopolitical relations. An in-depth analysis of the motives of China-US relations changes is of great significance for properly making international geo-strategies. Based on the GDELT data, this paper utilized probability analysis and adaptive fractal analysis methods to analyze the attitudes' differences between China and the U.S. during the US presidential terms since 1979 from the perspectives of cooperation and conflict. Moreover, the persistence of China-US attitudes since the establishment of diplomatic ties was also studied. The results show that: 1) China-US geopolitical relations have experienced three periods: the Cold War period, the transition period and the economic and trade cooperation period. The characteristics of these three periods are that the strategic basis of China-US relations has changed from a joint anti-Soviet to economic and trade relations. 2) The negative attitude of the US toward China developed and improved during the George H.W. Bush and Clinton periods. It eased during the George W. Bush era and the early Obama period, but it became more serious in the later period of Obama. 3) The overall attitude of US toward China persists for about 4 years, and is mainly influenced by negative attitudes. During the current Trump administration, the political and economic factors of China-US geopolitical relations have undergone major transitions. It is recommended that policy-makers and researchers of China-US relations should pay attention to this transformation and seek new thoughts and new pathways to cope with China-US relations in a new stage.

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    The Progress and Prospect of Research on Chinese City Network
    Pan Fenghua,Fang Cheng,Li Xiande
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1093-1101.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.007
    Abstract360)   HTML42)    PDF (600KB)(164)      

    City network is an important perspective to study cities and regions. In recent years, a large number of studies on city networks involving China have emerged. For the one hand, the case study of China has always been attracting the attention of scholars all over the world for the past decades, and remarkable development has been achieved in city network research on China. For the other hand, while the number of publications is growing really fast, some limitations and challenges of this research has also appeared. Therefore, a systematic review to this large body of literature is needed at present. This article summarizes and reviews the progress of city network research on China from four aspects: 1) Data and methods used in city network research on China; 2) The major findings of this research, including network patterns and formation mechanism on different spatial scales; 3) The main contributions of this field; 4) Some limitations of current studies and the prospect for future research. The findings of this article are provided as follows. City network research on China utilizes various data and methods to construct networks, while Social Network Analysis and Complex Network Analysis are applied to the description of city networks. Major findings of city network research on China covers three spatial scales: global scale, national scale and regional scale, which have revealed the characteristics and formation mechanism of city network on China under different spatial scales. Mainly contributions of city network research on China include: 1) Multi-scale studies on city networks of Chinese cities are important inspirations for city network research worldwide; 2) Avoiding Western Centralism views on studying globalization and making up for the major defects in the research of world cities; 3) Using some original perspectives and data to depict inter-city relations, which has promoted the development of world city network research; 4) Bringing the network logic to the studies of Chinese cities as well as helping promote the academic development of urban geography and economic geography in China. Main limitations and challenges include: 1) A large number of empirical studies dedicate to describe and explain the network structure, paying less attention to theoretical innovations; 2) The data sources and network construction methods used are increasingly convergence, leaving no much room for related innovations in future work. Accordingly, we propose that city network research on China should actively expand the research perspective. Deepening the mechanism research and theoretical innovation should also be highlighted. And strengthening policy studying of city networks on China can benefit the further development of this field, which is almost neglected in current stage.

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    Development of Cross-border Integration of Beijing and Shanghai Based on Symbiosis Theory
    Wang Shaobo, Luo Xiaolong, Tang Mi, Liu Junfeng
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (11): 1681-1690.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.001
    Abstract347)   HTML43)    PDF (613KB)(263)      

    The symbiosis of cross-border areas is the basic condition for realizing the integrated development of urban agglomerations. Based on the theory of symbiosis, this article takes Shanghai and Beijing as examples, Logistic symbiosis function is used to identify the symbiotic relationship between Beijing and Shanghai with their own neighboring cities. Meanwhile, the formation mechanism of symbiotic relationship is discussed based on the spatial differentiation of symbiotic environment and interface. Study found: 1) Compared with Beijing, Shanghai has a more coordinated development with its neighboring cities, and they have a mutualism and parasitism relationship with their surrounding cities. 2) Compared with Shanghai, Beijing has certain political specialties; the political rights between Beijing and its neighboring cities is unequal; Beijing’s market environment is mostly one-way interactive mode, which makes some limits for Beijing to form a good symbiotic relationship with its surrounding areas. However, Shanghai has a relatively equal communication environment with its neighboring cities; its police and market environment is mostly two-way interactive mode, which promoted its symbiotic relationship with surrounding cities. 3) Factor space contact structures of symbiotic interface between Shanghai and Beijing with their surrounding areas have obvious pattern of "traffic corridor" features. Compared with their cities, the elemental flow and symbiotic degree of Beijing and Shanghai and important traffic corridor nodes or cities along the route are higher.

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    Pattern Language of the Spatial Arrangement of Traditional Villages: A Case Study of Zhangguying Village
    Li Bohua, Zheng Shinian, Liu Peilin, Dou Yindi
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (11): 1691-1701.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.002
    Abstract325)   HTML43)    PDF (787KB)(188)      

    The spatial form and combination characteristics of traditional villages contain strong regional cultural genes which make the typical and modal spatial layout, and form unique spatial pattern language. Based on the basic theory of pattern language and landscape genes, taking Zhangguying Village as the research object, this article carries on the spatial element recognition and the landscape gene extraction to the traditional village, and then constructs the pattern language system of the spatial layout of Zhangguying village. This article studies the splicing, transformation and nesting of horizontal and vertical dimensions, and explores the nested structure, process mechanisms and logical context of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village which provides a new theoretical method and research idea for the protection and sustainable development of traditional villages in China. The results show that: 1) Through analyzing the spatial deconstruction and landscape genes of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village, the spatial layout can be divided into living space, connecting space, subsidiary space and compound space. By generating and extracting 86 kinds of spatial design vocabulary, a graphic prototype database for spatial layout of Zhangguying Village has been established. Each type of spatial design vocabulary has its own characteristics and connected with each other. 2) By spatial nesting the schema vocabulary of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village, teasing out the spatial lexicon, spatial syntax and spatial grammar followed in the nesting process, this paper established the pattern language system of the spatial layout of Zhangguying Village. This system has integrated graphic language logic, and its development pattern and space order always followed the patriarchal etiquette system and traditional ethics. 3) The spatial layout pattern language of Zhangguying Village has complete and stable design syntax and grammar. The space design language is rich in vocabulary, and the combination types of syntax are multiplex, but the grammatical structure is relatively single. The overall space is mostly formed by continuous "copying" and "pasting" the same or similar basic space elements which follow a fixed pattern. Special spatial relationship forms the village spatial layout with partly complex & changeable and the whole relatively single. And a lot of rhetorical devices have been used in the layout of village space. 4) The spatial layout of Zhangguying Village is influenced by the geographical environment greatly. The village space construction elements and design ideas have strong regional color. The vocabulary and space law of pattern language also have distinctive local characteristics.

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    Nature and Basic Issues of Geography
    Song Changqing, Zhang Guoyou, Cheng Changxiu, Chen Fahu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (1): 6-11.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.002
    Abstract318)   HTML46)    PDF (494KB)(260)      

    A discipline has typically the following four key features, namely independent research objects, independent research questions, unique characteristics, and unique social services. This paper first discusses the nature of Geography from three aspects, to reveal the characteristics of modern Geography. First, the research object of Geography is changing from simple to complex evolution. In performing geographic research, we should well recognize the complexity of geographic systems. Second, the framework of geographic research questions is structured by the fusion among geographic features, space, and time. This paper explains the essential distinction between different geographic research questions, which promotes the development of the methods and technologies for answering these questions. Third, the philosophy of combining reductionism and holism is growing continuously. A new pattern of research has been formed based on new disciplines and technologies, which is the parallel development of the research on geographic features and that on systems. This paper then identifies the essential characteristics of geographic research, summarizes the key research questions in Geography, and discusses the multiple effects of driving mechanisms on the laws of Geography. An understanding of the fundamental characteristics and the modern value of Geography illustrated in this paper will be contribute to the societal development of Geography.

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    Temporal-spatial Pattern of Regional Population Shrinkage in China in 1990-2010: A Multi-indicators Measurement
    Liu Zhen, Qi Honggang, Qi Wei, Liu Shenghe
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (10): 1525-1536.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.10.001
    Abstract314)   HTML59)    PDF (2763KB)(271)      

    Regional population shrinkage is becoming an important issue affecting the sustainable development of regional economy and society in the worldwide, and also arousing increasing attention in China. However, though some related studies in view of population distribution existed, few of them have directly addressed this phenomenon. Against this background, this article aims to investigate regional population shrinkage in China by employing multi-indicators. Specifically, we discussed the existing definitions of population shrinkage, and then based on the spatial population data of 1990, 2000 and 2010 in prefecture-level and county-level, applied both the single indicators, including total population and labor, and the integrated indicator which includes not only total population and labor but also birth rate and aging, to analyze the changes of population shrinking units in number and spatial distribution, and compared the differences in the measurement indicators. The main findings are as follows: 1) Both the single indicators, namely total population and labor, showed that population shrinkage units have increased significantly in number: 27.4% and 38.6% of the units decreased their total population while 21.4% and 25.2% of the units decreased their labor in prefecture-level and county-level from 2000 to 2010, respectively; moreover, many units also show an aggravation trend in the shrinking degree; 2) The population shrinking units have been expanding rapidly in the Central and the Western regions, especially in Sichuan-Chongqing- Guizhou region, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River region and the Northeast region. In contrast, the coastal region has only increased some shrinking units in the northern of Jiangsu Province and the western of Fujian Province; 3) The single indicators were effective in identifying the absolute population shrinkage, and we argued that the total population is more suitable than the labor, because total population shrinking came first in most of the units and then followed by labor shrinking; 4) The integrated indicator was more effective in evaluating the comprehensive status of population development in one region, and then it can identify the units which were relatively shrinking their population, that is, their overall situation is worse than the national average level though they still increased their total population. The results showed that the units with a relative shrinking population have a high proportion, which was about 20% in the county level in both periods, while that type of units in prefecture-level was nearly doubled to about 25% from 1990-2000 to 2000-2010. 5) Regional population shrinkage was more obvious in county-level than in prefecture-level, but the difference has been narrowed, given the fact that the differences in percentages, shrinking degrees, and spatial distributions of the shrinking units were very close in the period from 2000 to 2010. Based on the above findings, this article argues that regional population shrinkage needs further attention by scholars and governments.

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    Spatio-temporal Distribution and Influencing Factors of Environmental Pollution Incidents Based on Multi-scales in China
    Zhao Xueyan, Wang Rong, Wang Xiaoqi, Liu Jianghua
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (9): 1361-1370.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.09.001
    Abstract307)   HTML32)    PDF (1219KB)(215)      

    Environmental pollution incidents have become a major challenge for human social development, seriously restrict the sustainable development. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to clarify the temporal and spatial characteristics of pollution incidents and its influencing factors, in order to provide references for the formulation of effective environmental protection policies. In this paper, used the Theil index, coefficient of variation, ESDA and other methods to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of pollution incidents from 2006 to 2016 in China, and the GeoDetector to identify the influencing factors at different scales. The results showed that: 1) At the provincial scales, the occurrence frequencies of environmental pollution incidents and the occurrence of environmental pollution incidents at different levels both showed fluctuating downward trends, and their frequency and regional differences all showed 'East-Central-West' low-lying land patterns. 2)At the prefecture-level cities scale, the frequency of environmental pollution incidents is reduced as the decreases of city scale, and the U-shaped change occurs with the decrease of economic development level, the frequency of pollution incidents in key environmental protection cities is higher than ordinary cities, difference of environmental pollution incidents is reduced as the decreases of city scale and economic development level, and the environmental protection key cities are higher than ordinary cities. 3) The environmental pollution incidents in east of the 'Hu Line' are frequent and diverse, and the western pollution incidents are rare and single, and the spatial distribution of different levels of environmental pollution incidents were quite different. 4) There existed differences in impacting factors at different scales, and as the scale increased, the correlation between impacting factors and environmental pollution incidents also increased. Among them, the level of economic development and the level of environmental supervision all had vital impacts on environmental pollution incidents. The interaction between environmental supervision and other factors had the significant impacts to the environmental pollution incidents.

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    An Identification Method of Traffic Accident Black Point Based on Street-Network Spatial-Temporal Kernel Density Estimation
    Wang Yingzhi,Wang Lijun
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1238-1245.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.005
    Abstract306)   HTML17)    PDF (4114KB)(111)      

    With the rapid progress of society and increase of motorization level, traffic accident is also increasing. It has become the third leading cause of accidental death in China, seriously threatening human life and social development. How to identify the black point of traffic accident is one of the important issues of traffic safety management. This article took the view of spatio-temporal street-network, matched traffic accidents to the spatial-temporal subsection of street-network for calculating the network spatio-temporal kernel density estimate. A method of identifying accident black points, which using street-network spatio-temporal kernel density estimated value as identification index and cumulative frequency analysis to determine the identification threshold, was proposed. We took the traffic accident records of a county in East China from 2013 to 2015 as the research data, to identify the traffic accident black points. It can be seen that traffic accidents have significant clustering characteristics in spatial road network and temporal features. In addition, most of the spatio-temporal sub-sections of accident black appear at roads intersections, which proves that there is indeed geometric heterogeneity between intersections and ordinary sections. The accident black points is a closed area formed by the continuous sub-sections of spatio-temporal with high accident rate. Moreover, the accident incidence rate in the center of the area must be higher than that in the surrounding area. In this study, the accident black points are displayed in 3d scene with 2d plane and temporal dimension. Further, the road characteristics, surrounding location and temporal characteristics of 8 high-risk accident black points are analyzed. The experiments demonstrated that this method can more accurately identify the spatio-temporal boundary of accident black points.

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    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (1): 1-5.  
    Abstract302)   HTML50)    PDF (362KB)(282)      
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    Threshold Effect of Regional Collaborative Innovation on Innovation Performance
    Fan Fei, Lian Huan, Wang Xueli, Wang Song
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (2): 165-172.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.001
    Abstract298)   HTML20)    PDF (503KB)(137)      

    Innovation is the main driving force for regional coordinated development, sustainable development and high-quality development. Collaborative innovation, as an important form of integration of innovation factors, is conducive to increasing the mobility of factors within the region, and reasonable allocation of innovative elements, which will improve regional innovation performance. Based on the improved DEA model to measure/evaluate the innovation performance of 62 major cities in China (not including the urban data of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan due to data limitation) in 2003-2016, this article takes the impact(s) of regional innovation cooperation and inter-regional innovation resource flow on regional innovation performance as the starting point and uses the threshold regression model to comprehensively analyze the impact mechanism of collaborative innovation on regional innovation performance under different economic development levels. The results show that: 1) Through the analysis of the innovation performance of each city, it is found that the overall innovation performance of 62 major cities in the study period presented an increasing trend with fluctuations. The average innovation performance value increased from 0.624 in 2003 to 0.684 in 2016, and regional innovation performance had a large spatial variation. From the perspective of the four major sectors in the country, the average level of innovation performance of major cities in the eastern and northeastern regions was higher than the national average. The average innovation performance of major cities in the central and western regions was lower than the national average at the end of the study. 2) Collaborative innovation had a certain promotion effect on the improvement of regional innovation performance. There was a nonlinear relationship between the four core explanatory variables and innovation performance in this article. The impact of patent cooperation on regional innovation performance was a positive double threshold, when the level of economic development was below the first threshold of 10.441. The number of patent cooperation had the greatest impact on regional innovation performance, and its elasticity coefficient was 0.039. The number of scientific paper cooperation had a positive single threshold for regional innovation performance. The impact on regional innovation performance has shown a downward trend with varying degrees of economic development. 3) The flow of scientific and technological personnel and the flow of scientific and technological capital were different under different economic development levels, and the degree and direction of innovation performance were different. The flow of scientific and technological personnel had the most obvious effect on the innovation performance when it crosses the first threshold of economic development level of 10.088 and below the second threshold of 10.255, while the impact of scientific and technological capital flow on innovation performance was most significant when the economic development level was below the first threshold of 9.427. To improve China’s innovation performance level, in addition to focusing on optimizing the allocation of innovation resources within the city, we should also consider collaborative innovation for the region in terms of innovation factor flow and regional innovation cooperation in the process of formulating urban innovation performance policies and technology resource management, of influencing the impact of innovation performance, and formulating different collaborative innovation to promote regional innovation performance strategies under different economic development levels.

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    Local Government-led Capital Circuit and Urbanization: A Case Study of Kangbashi New District, Ordos City
    Yin Guanwen
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1082-1092.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.006
    Abstract288)   HTML23)    PDF (578KB)(106)      

    Since the 2000s, new town and new district have become important phenomenon in China’s urbanization process. The construction of these new urban spaces is closely related to the transformation of local policies. A major strand of literature has reached a consensus that local governments are playing a pivotal role in Chinese urbanization. However, little has concerned the relationship between capital flows and local government in urban development process. Especially for inland cities lacking foreign capital, it is necessary to explore the interaction between government and capital. Taken Kangbashi New District in Ordos City as a case study, this article puts forward a research framework of “local government-led capital circuit”, and examines the role of local government in capital circulating and capital switching process. The data used in this study mainly come from interviews and secondary data gathered through 4 rounds of fieldwork from April 2011 to August 2016. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with Ordos municipal officials in charge of urban planning and the construction of new district projects. Three circuits of capital flow are identified: 1) Capitalization of coal resources; 2) Capital fixes in urban infrastructure and real estate; 3) Attraction of investments in manufacturing and tertiary industries. This article shows that the local government dominated these 3 circuits of capital accumulation in the new district making through land leasing, support for the investment company, infrastructure provisions and various preferential policies. And, the local government channeled the floating capital accumulated in the primary circuit (from the coal industry) to the built environment of the new district. This study contributes to the existing literature in several ways. First, it enriches Harvey's model of capital switching. Based on the situation of the developed capitalist economy, Harvey points out that the state is only indirectly involved in the process of capital accumulation. However, this study argues that the Ordos Government directly “manipulates” the capital accumulation and capital switching process. In addition, this study also provides a new way to test Harvey's capital switching model through a case study instead of the macro-scale analysis of various pertinent historical data. Second, the case of Ordos adds new knowledge about the new town construction project. New town and new district in China are built as a pool to absorb the floating capital accumulated in the primary circuit, and to further attract investment for local economic development. It has become a popular strategy of the local government. Third, this study advances the understanding of the state-market relations. Market development does not result in the demise of the state regulation in China; rather, the local government dominates the market forces by firmly controlling land leasing, taxation and the provision of many public facilities. The Chinese experience can provide useful information about local state regulations in the post-global financial crisis and post-neoliberalism era.

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    Regional Economic Resilience and Influential Mechanism During Economic Crises in China
    Tan Juntao, Zhao Hongbo, Liu Wenxin, Zhang Pingyu, Qiu Fangdao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (2): 173-181.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.002
    Abstract287)   HTML29)    PDF (591KB)(174)      

    This article quantitatively analyzes the economic resilience of 31 provinces of China in terms of resistance and recoverability during two economic crises: the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Moreover, it analyzes the main factors that affected regional resilience. There are three main findings. Firstly, in the first economic cycle, the economic resistance in western region was relatively high, and the central region was low; the provinces with high economic recoverability were mainly concentrated in the central region, while those in the eastern and western regions were lower, with economic resistance and recoverability showing a certain negative correlation. All regions in second economic cycle demonstrated well resistance; those with low economic resistance were mainly located in the eastern coastal areas and along the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Thirdly, the secondary industry was stronger than the tertiary industry in terms of economic resilience during the first economic cycle, while the situation was different in the second economic cycle. Finally, the influential factors affecting economic resilience varied across the two economic cycles; location advantage, per capita fixed asset investment and per capita GDP had strong explanatory power on economic resilience, but the direction of action in the two economic cycles was different.

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    Commentary on Eco-hydrological Regulation for Integrated River Basin Management
    Zhang Guangxin,Chen Yueqing,Wu Yanfeng
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1191-1198.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.018
    Abstract275)   HTML12)    PDF (455KB)(160)      

    The river basin water and ecological issues have become prominent urgent problems and have generated considerable recent research interest around the world, owing to the combined effect of global climate change and human activities. This paper first briefly presented the concept of integrated river basin management. Then we provide the concept and connotation of eco-hydrological regulation for integrated river basin management, it is synthetically guided by theory of sustainable development, theory of ecohydrology as well as nature-based solution to water issues for comprehensive contributing to dual-regulation of a river basin. With the support and participant of government and publics, especially those of mitigation measures (e.g., laws and regulations, water right and water market, ecological engineering, hydraulic engineering), it could efficiently address river basin water and ecological issues and improve benefits from water and ecosystem. Therefore, it could help to achieve a coordinated development between water resources-ecological environment-social economy, and promote the maximum of public welfare in river basin. Furthermore, we systematically elaborated the essential research contents of eco-hydrological regulation for integrated river basin management: 1) the principle and methodology of eco-hydrological regulation; 2) the integrated water resources management for eco-social coordinated and sustainable development in river basin. The results of this paper have a great implication in the enrichment and development of theoretical methods and technical systems of integrated river basin management, which would be beneficial for effectiveness as well as overall level of integrated river basin management.

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    Spatial Pattern and Influencing Mechanism of Interprovincial Migration’s Hukou Transfer Intention in China
    Gu Hengyu, Liu Ziliang, Shen Tiyan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (11): 1702-1710.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.11.003
    Abstract271)   HTML40)    PDF (1861KB)(216)      

    Based on data from migration dynamic micro survey 2016, this article first construct the network of interprovincial Hukou transfer intention in China. Then, with the use of some spatial analysis methods, including global Moran’s I coefficient and hot spot, we explore the spatial pattern of such network. Considering network autocorrelation in our data, Eigenvector Spatial Filtering Gravity Model (ESFGM) is applied for analyzing the driving factors. Main results reveal that: 1) The network shows a concentrating spatial pattern, and migrating flows with high ranks are mainly from the undeveloped areas to developed regions. That is to say, the willingness of transferring Hukou differs from regions to regions, showing heterogeneity. 2) Although there exists a random spatial pattern of Hukou attractiveness, such pattern of out-migration is concentrating. Furthermore, provinces in the west and northwest are the hot spot areas of Hukou emigration intention, while the cold spot areas are the mid-east regions in China. 3) From the macro perspective, population of destination shows a negative impact on Hukou transfer intention, while the size of population in an origin is not highly correlated; per capita GDP of both origin and destination, as well as export of foreign-invested firms, influence the intention positively and notably. But among all macro factors, the average wage of employees in urban areas leads to relatively higher impact. 4) From the micro perspective, generally speaking, migrants’ individual and family factors have strong ties with their Hukou transfer intention. A migrant, with higher education level, smaller age and larger scale of family in the destination, tends to transfer his (or her) Hukou to the immigration place. In the meantime, impacts of house condition and migration reason cannot be ignored: a migrant with lower intention of buying a local house or migrating for business, is likely to have a lower intention of transferring Hukou.

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    Spatio-temporal Variation Features of Air Quality in China
    Zhang Xiangmin, Luo Shen, Li Xingming, Li Zhuofan, Fan Yong, Sun Jianwu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (2): 190-199.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.02.004
    Abstract271)   HTML18)    PDF (6336KB)(184)      

    Cross-regional air pollution control is an urgent problem in ecological civilization construction. Based on the daily air quality index (AQI) data of 343 districts in China in 2015, used the statistical analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis method, the temporal and spatial distribution features of air quality in China and nine regions of the terrestrial surface system was analyzed. The results show that: 1) The seasonal mean values of AQI in the whole country and nine major regions show the air quality is worse in spring, is excellent in summer and autumn, and falls to its worst in winter. Meanwhile, the seasonal mean values of AQI show a “U” shape. 2) The monthly mean values of AQI in the whole country and nine major regions show a “L” shape. 3) The daily mean values of AQI in the whole country and nine major regions show a periodic W-pulse fluctuation pattern. 4) The “hot spot” and “cold spot” regions demonstrate the differential pattern of being high and hot in the North and being low and cold in the South. 5) The frequency structure of the primary pollutant in the nine regions is significantly diversified, and the highest frequency of the primary pollutant PM2.5 or PM10 has a clear differential pattern between the East and the West.

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    Spatio-temporal Change and Influencing Factors of Environmental Regulation in China's Coastal Urban Agglomerations
    Ren Mei,Wang Xiaomin,Liu Lei,Sun Fang,Zhang Wenxin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1119-1128.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.010
    Abstract270)   HTML18)    PDF (3694KB)(125)      

    The efficiency of environmental regulation(EER) is an important way to evaluate the government's ability of environmental regulation. Based on the panel data of three coastal metropolitan agglomerations in eastern China from 2003 to 2016, this article uses the super-efficient SBM model with unexpected output to measure their EER, and combines the coefficient of variation, Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and GLS model to analyze the spatial evolution characteristics of urban agglomerations' EER and explore its driving factors. The results show that: 1) The EER in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomerations rises most significantly; The EER in the River Delta urban agglomerations declines obviously; The EER in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomerations is higher than other urban agglomerations. 2) The internal differences of EER of the three major urban agglomerations are obvious, and the internal difference of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomerations is higher. 3) The Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration is a spatial agglomerations area with high EER, and the spatial spillover effect is significant; Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomerations are spatial agglomeration areas with low EER, and their spatial spillover effects are not significant. 4) Economic development level, industrial structure, market environment, urbanization level and opening level are the influencing factors of EER of urban agglomerations.

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    Territory vs. Dipan: Power-space Relationship Comparison Between the West and China
    Hou Lulu,Liu Yungang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (7): 1055-1062.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.07.003
    Abstract263)   HTML12)    PDF (505KB)(73)      

    Territory is a core concept representing complicated power-space relationship in Political Geography. The concept came from biology and went through a rapid development stage in the past century. Despite of the fact that territory study heads forward multivariate scale, the core viewpoints maintain rarely changed. With the increase of empirical analysis of territory, it seems easy to perceive the discrepancy between the imported theory and the actual situation of Chinese society. The traits of power, border and space of territory are founded on the western discourse system. We put forward that “dipan” is a much powerful and maneuverable indigenous notion in China compared to territory. It consists of two Chinese characters: “di” means land while “pan” stands for bearing the weight of something. Thus, this term can be understood as occupation or control of certain space through objects or special social power, and the latter meaning is more frequently used. Chinese society is a nepotistic society, where reasonable power according with etiquette order speaks louder in daily life. By term analysis of everyday application and literary works, we find that the special social power in “dipan” is closely related to “guanxi”. “Dipan” has 3 features. First of all, it expresses a strong subjective feeling. Being well acquainted with each other, long-term stable relationship and mutual benefit interaction can be formed. The closer the “guanxi” is, the easier it is to cross the standard power boundary. Secondly, power brought by “guanxi” and operated in “dipan” are often irregular. Gatekeeper enjoys varying degrees of autonomous discretion power in the handling of specific affairs. Intimate relationship would be taken into consideration in situation handling process. Thirdly, while territory puts emphasis on boundaries, “dipan” lays stress on fuzzification of boundary. With vague border, various subjects could make use of the resources flexibly. One good turn deserves another; harmony could be achieved and multi-win come into being. This is why “guanxi” occupies an important position in Chinese daily behavior. Therefore, “dipan” can be regarded as the spatial projection of Chinese-style “guanxi”. According to the types of “guanxi”, “dipan” can be divided into 3 types. Emotional “dipan” is usually generated by blood and familial relation, and “courtesy” is the main factor shaping its space; instrumental “dipan” is formed by utilitarian relationship; and the mixed “dipan” is affected by both personal relations and objective factors like spatial distance. “Dipan” system becomes a buffer between my territory and others’ territory, where power and behavior freedom in certain space can be achieved through “guanxi” construction.

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    Spatial Pattern of Urban-rural Coordination Development in Northeast China
    Huang Yuming
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1302-1311.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.012
    Abstract252)   HTML19)    PDF (1799KB)(123)      

    Coordinating urban-rural coordinated development is an important foundation for achieving economic sustainable development of region. This paper selects 36 prefecture-level units in Northeast China as samples and constructed systematic index system to evaluate the level of urban-rural coordinated development. Then, the paper uses Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and spatial regression to research the spatial pattern and influence mechanism of urban-rural coordinated development in Northeast China in 2005, 2010 and 2015. The result shown that: 1) The regional difference of urban-rural coordination degree in Northeast China has shown an expanding trend, and the phenomenon of spatial agglomeration is obvious, but the intensity of spatial agglomeration is declining. 2) The level of urban-rural coordination varies diferent in different regions. During the study period, Dalian and Jinzhou have always been high level of urban-rural coordinated area, and Chaoyang has always been a low level of urban-rural coordinated area. Hegang and Qitaihe were the most obvious upward cities of urban-rural coordination order, while Harbin and Liaoyuan declined most significantly. 3) From the perspective of spatial pattern, intermediate urban-rural coordination areas increased and moved northward, while primary urban-rural coordination areas decreased and concentrated in the middle. Then, formed a "north-south high, middle low" urban-rural coordination pattern. At the same time, the cold and hot spots of urban-rural coordination are shrinking, and the spatial polarization effect tends to weaken. 4) Urbanization and large-scale agricultural management have a positive effect on urban-rural coordinated development, industrialization does not significantly promote the urban-rural coordination in northeast China and is negatively related to the urban-rural coordination, agricultural modernization plays a positive role in the urban-rural coordinated development. In recent years, transportation gradually plays an positive role in urban-rural coordinated development. Economic development level and informatization level in the urban-rural coordinated development in northeast China are not obvious.

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    Impact of Rail Transit on the Travel Cost of Bus Transit and the Spatial Equity: A Case Study of Guangzhou
    Chen Huiling,Wang Boli,Cao Xiaoshu,Shi Enming,Liu Yongwei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1265-1275.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.008
    Abstract251)   HTML27)    PDF (16567KB)(103)      

    Rail transit provides the possibility for residents from car travel to public transport travel. This paper studies the changes and characteristics of travel costs which subway construction brought up and the spatial equity of its influence from two aspects of travel time and travel expenses. The results show that: 1) The spatial patterns of weighted average time and fare indicators are core-peripheral. After the operation of subways, the relative change value of the weighted time in the southern suburbs is high, and the change rate of Huadu district is the lowest. The areas of high change rate of weighted fare accessibility are concentrated in the southern fringe areas and along the subway lines. 2) In the bus transit scenario, the isotime curves of CBD are concentric circles and eighty percent of residents could arrive in the nearest commercial complex within 80 minutes and RMB 2. In the rail transit scenario, the isotime curves are extended and diffused along the subway lines and eighty percent of residents could arrive in the nearest commercial complex within 30 minutes and RMB 5. 3) Whether or not to take the subway, the inequity degree of travel time between communities is higher than of travel fare. The absolute and relative improvement of travel time of Panyu district after with subway is great. Due to the bus transit network is well in central city, the absolute change of travel time which subway brought is slight, but its relative change is high. The rail transit has a significant on the cost-effective of medium-distance and long-distance travel. This research could provide the theoretical support for the development of the multi-modal transit system.

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    Deconstruction of Marine Ontology and Important Research Issues in Perspective of Human-ocean Regional System
    Liu Tianbao,Yang Fangfang,Han Zenglin,Peng Fei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1321-1329.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.014
    Abstract249)   HTML8)    PDF (456KB)(72)      

    In human-ocean regional system, ocean gets important property of sociality. As for composition, ocean has 4 parts. The first ocean, namely natural ocean, is the naturally existing part of ocean in human-ocean region system. Its core elements are geographical location, physical composition and spatial form. The second ocean, namely artificial ocean, is the built facilities and related material and energy flow in human’s marine practices, including base and facilities, material flow between human subjects and collection & emission between human and ocean. The third ocean, namely relation ocean, is the relationship between human subjects concerning marine practices. Its main contents are subject composition, contents and representation form. The fourth ocean, namely concept ocean, is human’s cognition and perception of ocean and related practices. The core is the idea concerning the relationships between human and ocean, land and ocean and human subjects. In reality, natural ocean, practical ocean and conceived ocean interact one another, producing colorful oceans. With human’s marine practices development, relation and concept oceans, together with natural and artificial oceans, have become marine research and practice focuses.

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    Spatiotemporal Pattern Evolution of Economic Efficiency in County Area of Jilin Province Based on Malmquist and ESDA
    Li Ning,Li Tiebin,Fang Yangang,Zhou Lijun,Wang Yu,Zhao Wei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2019, 39 (8): 1293-1301.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.08.011
    Abstract248)   HTML20)    PDF (830KB)(120)      

    County economy is the important support of China's economic growth, while the promotion of total factor productivity has become the only way to promote the economic growth of the county. Based on 11-year panel data of 39 counties in Jilin Province, the article estimated the total factor productivity of the counties, using the DEA-Malmquist index method. And then, by means of the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), the article made a further study on the spatial correlation and spatial difference of the economic development efficiency of the counties from different time dimensions. Research findings: 1) During the inspection period, the total factor productivity of county area in Jilin Province was generally rising, and the differences among counties showed the trend of expanding first and then narrowing. And there is no positive correlation between total factor productivity and county economic aggregate; 2) In terms of total factor productivity improvement, technological progress has played a dominant role, but in recent years, the contribution to total factor productivity has decreased year by year. While the promoting effect of technical efficiency and scale efficiency on the total factor productivity of Jilin Province is increasing year by year; 3) As far as the whole province is concerned, there is no significant global spatial autocorrelation in the total factor productivity of the counties, and the spatial pattern of random distribution is basically presented. However, in the local spatial scale, there is a certain degree of spatial agglomeration, and the main distribution pattern is H-H and H-L; 4) The spatial and temporal differentiation of economic efficiency between counties is mainly affected by their resource endowment and county economic division, industrial structure and economic agglomeration level formed on this basis.

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