There are many problems of ecology and environment in arid area, and the ecological vulnerability is one of the focuses in arid regions. As a result, ecological protection and environmental management in arid regions have always been a hot topic of global concerns. The Tarim River Basin, which is very vulnerable, is located in the inland arid regions of Northwest China. Before the implementation of ecological water transport, due to the impacts of natural environmental changes and intensified human activities, the vegetation in the region was seriously damaged, desertification was gradually intensified, and economic developments was seriously hindered. Therefore, the ecological and environmental problems of the Tarim River Basin have been attracted great attentions of the state. In 2000, the Chinese government invested 10.7 billion yuan to carry out ecological control projects in the Tarim River Basin, and to implement ecological water conveyance in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. From 2000 to 2016, 17 times ecological water transfers have been carried out in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Studying whether the ecological water conveyance projects in the lower reaches of the Tarim River could improve the ecological environment and promote local economic development, and how to quantify the changes of ecological environment and economic development, and how to analyze the characteristics of the relationships between water conveyance and the changes of ecological environment and economic development, are the important basis for the scientific and sustainable implementation of ecological water conveyance, and of great significance for the sustainable development of regional economy. It is of great significance. Based on the remote sensing data of 2000, 2010 and 2016 in the lower reaches of Tarim River, land types in the region were classified and changing characteristics of ecosystem service value in the region were assessed; Then, Principal Component Analysis was applied to estimate the evaluation scores of regional socio-economic. The results are as follows: 1) Since the beginning of ecological water conveyance, the area of unused land in the lower reaches of the Tarim River has not changed much, and it has always accounted for more than 70% of the total area of the region; The water area increased most significantly, and the area of farmland and construction land has also increased, but the area of woodland and grassland decreased. 2) From 2000 to 2016, the value of each service function of ecosystem has increased, and the value of provide aesthetic landscape and gas regulation increased greatly, which were 318.35% and 312.94% respectively; What’s more, the total value of ecosystem services increased by about 69.57%. 3) The factors that affect the economic development of lower reaches of the Tarim River were economic geography factors and agricultural development level; From 2000 to 2016, social economic scores in the lower reaches of the Tarim River increased, that shows the social-economic benefits of ecological water conveyance were very significant, and there was a positive correlation between social and economic benefits and ecological water conveyance. As a result, the ecological water conveyance project should be continued with reasonable control and management measures in order to promote the local ecological restoration and sustainable economic development.