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    Method System of Urban Physical Examination for High Quality Development in China
    Zhang Wenzhong, He Ju, Chen Li
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.01.001
    Abstract614)   HTML59)    PDF (1538KB)(374)      

    Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, the urban planning, construction and management in China has undergone qualitative changes, but the urban problems caused by rapid urbanization are still increasingly prominent. The concept of urban physical examination arises at the historic moment and is gradually implemented from the national strategy to the concrete practice of urban high-quality development. On the basis of sorting out and analyzing the background and function of urban physical examination. This article starts from the core connotation of high-quality urban development in China, which is eco-livable, distinctive, diverse and inclusive, innovative, healthy and comfortable, safe and resilient, convenient transportation, clean and orderly. We design the index logical framework of urban physical examination from the above eight aspects and sorts out the relationship among various indicators of urban physical examination. Urban physical examination must be a ‘global physical examination’ rather than a ‘department physical examination’, so the urban physical examination has the dual function of ‘examination of general planning’ and ‘physical examination of a city’. The article points out that we should adopt the trinity of physical examination, third party physical examination and social satisfaction survey, and apply the closed-loop mode of ‘evaluation-feedback-governance’. It also analyzes the similarities and differences of urban physical examination in different scales, proposes the methods of urban physical examination in China. This article aims to provide theoretical guidance for urban physical examination in China and provide a research framework and scientific support for future urban physical examination research topics

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    Urban Research Using Points of Interest Data in China
    Zhang Jingqi, Shi Wenbao, Xiu Chunliang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (1): 140-148.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.01.015
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    The rising of POI (Point of Interest) data drives an innovation of urban research. In order to sort out the progress of urban research using POI data in China, summarize the directions of research, methods of data analysis and shortcomings, and provide references for the future application of POI data in China’s urban development, CiteSpace was used to analyze 625 related literatures in CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) database from 2010 to 2019. Result shows that a large number of literatures in urban research using POI data emerged since 2013, and boomed in 2017. According to the results of knowledge map analysis, the main applications of POI data in urban research are identification of urban functional areas, division of urban central areas and boundaries, identification of business agglomeration and recommendation of interested points. While the main methods for analyzing POI data are kernel density analysis, spatial correlation analysis and DBSCAN algorithm. Plenty researches show that POI data is a kind of effective data for urban research, and very helpful for researchers to better understand the spatial structures, distribution patterns and development rules of cities. In future, it can be combined with machine learning and the other algorithms to provide a decision-making method for a long-term development of urban expansion and internal functional structure adjustment. However, POI data can not replace the shape data in some scenarios, and the impact of public awareness should be seriously taken into account individually for different researches.

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    Estimating and Interpreting China’s Hukou Migration Under the Strategy of New-type Urbanization
    Liu Tao, Liu Jiajie, Cao Guangzhong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 553-561.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.001
    Abstract489)   HTML170)    PDF (1551KB)(389)      

    Migration in China is a process that involves not only floating to destinations but also settling down there by gaining local Hukou. The second step, in particular, has become the primary concern of the recent new-type urbanization. But, important as it is, our knowledge about this particular step is severely restricted due largely to data limitation, and this article tries to overcome the restriction. In the article, we first estimate the number of Hukou migration at the 277 prefecture level cities (not including Sanya, Danzhou, Haidong, Hulunbuir, Bayannur, Wuhu, Bengbu, Zhengzhou, Pingdingshan, Nanyang, Huangshi and cities of Xinjiang, Xizang, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan) between 2011 and 2017; We then compare its spatiotemporal patterns with those of floating population over the period, and we further evaluate the impact of New-type Urbanization Plan on its patterns. Results show that Hukou migration has become increasingly active in recent years, and its spatial patterns are highly similar to those of the floating population. Popular destinations are primarily situated in the three coastal regions, whereas the geographic distribution of origin is much less clustered, with the highest out-Hukou-migration being found in the middle Yangtze River and Northeast China. Mega-cities are where the local Hukou is most pursed, first-tier cities maintain a persistent attraction for Hukou migration; and the emerging second-tier cities have seen a rapid increase in the intake of this migration. Small and median-sized cities, by contrast, are very uncompetitive, despite that all the restrictions on Hukou transfer have been removed there. These cities have even seen an increasing out-migration of their Hukou-holders. The results revealed here are the basis on which our advice for policy makers are made. The advice is not simply on the issue of Hukou reforms, but also touches the topics of balanced regional development and reduced urban inequality. The results also highlight the exciting research prospect of both Hukou migration and new-type urbanization, a prospect that requires both creative imaginations and vigorous investigations of China’s prospect of both Hukou migration and new-type urbanization, a prospect that requires both creative imaginations and vigorous investigations of China’s migration.

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    Urban Spatial Expansion Mode Based on the Construction of Landscape Ecological Security Pattern: A Case of the Coastal Area of Jiangsu
    Yang Qingke, Wang Lei, Li Yongle, Qin Xianhong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 737-746.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.001
    Abstract441)   HTML150)    PDF (2635KB)(504)      

    The importance of ecological security space has attracted more and more attention in the top-level design of urban spatial expansion in China. That’s very necessary to identify security issues and key ecological factors from regional scale, construct landscape ecological security pattern and analyze urban spatial expansion mode, which can provide policy reference for the upcoming territorial spatial planning. Taking the coastal areas of Jiangsu as an example, based on the theory of ‘process-pattern’ of landscape ecology, this article constructs four single ecological security patterns for the maintenance of basic ecosystem services such as landform, water conservation, biodiversity and recreational landscape. According to the ‘minimum-maximum constraint’ criterion, by overlapping mosaic operations, four different levels of comprehensive ecological security patterns are constructed, and the low security level zone that needs to be strictly protected, then the high security level that could be planned as a key development zone in future. Meanwhile, use MCR model, set up and compare the impact of different models on urban spatial expansion, such as ‘ecological security protection type’ ‘economic growth dominant type’ and ‘ecological and economic coordination type’. The results show that the coordinated model of ‘ecological protection and economic development’ can better balance the ‘ecological-social-economic’ benefits. This model can reasonably determine the space for urban construction and industrial development. It is the optimal model for the orderly and healthy development of cities and towns in the future, and also of great significance for optimizing the spatial layout of cities and towns and improving the comprehensive benefits of construction land development.

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    Spatial Pattern and Determinants of Highly Educated Talents in China, 2000-2015
    Wu Rongwei, Wang Ruoyu, Liu Ye, Gu Hengyu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (11): 1822-1830.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.007
    Abstract416)   HTML39)    PDF (948KB)(229)      

    Based on the data from the 2000 and 2010 China censuses by prefecture level and above, and the 2015 1% population sample survey data of Chinese provinces, this article studies the spatial pattern evolution of the distribution of highly educated talents and its influence mechanism in China. The coefficient of variation, Theil coefficient and Gini coefficient are used to measure the spatial imbalance of the highly educated talents proportion. The panel data Tobit model is used to identify the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of the proportion of the highly educated talents. The results show that: 1) The distribution of the highly educated talents proportion in China shows a great imbalance, closely related to the city level, which is highlighted in administrative regions such as municipality, provincial capitals, and city specifically designated in the state plan, to which a large number of talents are attracted, while the talents proportion in ordinary prefecture-level cities is relatively low; 2) In the past 15 years, the coefficient of variation, Gini coefficient and Theil coefficient of the talents proportion have all declined, indicating that the spatial imbalance of the talents proportion has decreased; 3) Average wage level, cost of living, city hierarchy, students enrollment of regular institutions of higher education per 10 000 people, the number of hospital beds per 10 000 people, expenditure for education per capita, expenditure for science and technology per capita are positively correlated with talents proportion; The ratio of middle school students to teachers and the number of internet users per 10 000 people are negatively correlated with talents proportion; Unemployment rate, green rate, sulfur dioxide emissions per unit area have no significant impact on the talents proportion.

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    Spatio-temporality of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants in Northeast China Based on Current Emission Inventories
    Zhang Mengduo, Chen Weiwei, Gao Chao, Zhang Xuelei, Jiang Yibing, Xiu Aijun
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (11): 1940-1948.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.019
    Abstract383)   HTML22)    PDF (6049KB)(202)      

    Quantifying local anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants emissions is the basis of comprehensive prevention and control of air pollution. Although heavy pollution periods occurred frequently in Northeast China over past years, the development of anthropogenic emission inventory relatively lags behind other regions. Based on current four emission inventories (i.e., EDGAR, CEDS, MIX, PKU), we analyzed the spatio-temporality of atmospheric pollutants emissions (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NOx, NMVOCs, NH3, OC, BC) from five source sectors (i.e., industry, energy, transportation, residential, and agriculture) in Northeast China (i.e., Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, East Fourth League of Inner Mongolia). The results showed the NOx, SO2 and NMVOCs were the main pollutants in Northeast China, which were mainly from industry, energy, and transportation. PM2.5 and PM10 were mainly from residential and industry, and the former is greater than the latter in contribution. All pollutants emissions (except NH3) followed the order; Liaoning Province > Heilongjiang Province > Jilin Province > East Fourth League of Inner Mongolia. The annual emission of pollutants (except NH 3) displayed a “positive U” with significant higher intensity in winter than other periods, while NH3 emissions was the opposite with the main occurrence from May to July. Among four inventories, the total emission and source contribution of each pollutant were obviously different, especially for NH3.The NH3 emissions from PKU was significantly lower by 170% as compared to EDGAR values in Northeast China. Furthermore, diversity factor reached 96% in East Fourth League of Inner Mongolia, which was the largest contributor of NH3 emission. In addition, the disagreement for SO2, NOx, BC and OC emissions were above 30%. An important reason for the large difference might be the use of different activity data and emission factor. By providing the basic information, this study contributes to better understanding of current status of atmospheric pollutants emissions in Northeast China, and also may be useful to select reasonable emission inventory for numeric simulation.

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    The Practice and Development Path of Rural Revitalization Driven by Tourism: Taking Wulingyuan District of Zhangjiajie City as An Example
    Ma Xuefeng, Liu Yulin, Tan Jiaxin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (12): 2019-2026.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.008
    Abstract363)   HTML20)    PDF (941KB)(197)      

    Rural revitalization is a new strategy to adapt to the new era. Rural tourism is a new type of industry combining traditional agriculture and tourism, based on the features of rural resources. In order to provide a new perspective for understanding the role of tourism in rural revitalization, the study generalizes what Wulingyuan District has done to get rid of poverty and adapt to the needs of the times, analyzes the practice mode of rural revitalization driven by tourism in Wulingyuan District from the three turns (industrial turn, management turn, and space turn). At last, the article summarizes the general mechanism and path of rural revitalization driven by tourism development. The results show that: 1) The development of tourism is the main channel and backbone of poverty alleviation in the poor regions with abundant resources to realize rural rejuvenation. The development and concentration of tourism in a region is based on local tourism resources. Meanwhile resource-rich areas rely on their own development advantages and have established corresponding popularity in the local area. 2) Wulingyuan has shifted from forestry development to tourism development, which provides a dynamic basis for achieving rural revitalization. The separation of management rights and administration authority in the scenic spots has promoted the development of rural economy. Meanwhile, the pattern of ‘scenic spot tourism, urban residential’ has accelerated the pace of rural revitalization in Wulingyuan District. 3) Wulingyuan District has formed a practical pattern of tourism industry, tourism city, integration of urban and rural, and rural revitalization. The Three Turns is not only a material change, but also an ideological improvement to optimize the regional industrial structure. With the continuous extension of the tourism industry chain, the flow of factors between urban and rural areas has been accelerated, and the gap between urban and rural areas has been continuously reduced. 4) Accelerating the innovation of tourism ecology, continuously increasing the income of farmers, and strengthening the construction of rural social infrastructure by taking the government as the leader can achieve the revitalization of rural in the resource-rich impoverished area. In accordance with the general requirements of industrial prosperity, ecological livability, rural civilization, effective governance, and affluent living, the government will take the lead in establishing a benefit distribution mechanism for cooperative construction.

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    The Systematic Structure and Trend Simulation of China’s Man-land Relationship Until 2050
    Li Xiaoyun, Yang Yu, Liu Yi, Chen Yuanyuan, Xia Siyou
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (2): 187-197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.001
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    Man-land relationship is the eternal research subject of geography and the key scientific issue to promote the implementation of sustainable development. Based on systematic thought, this paper applies system dynamic method that is good at dealing with complex interactive relations to explore the internal structure and element correlation of man-land relationships, and to construct man-land system model to simulate the development trend and core characteristics of China’s man-land relationship until the middle of this century under the two development scenarios, that is basic mode and regulatory mode. The results show that, in the contemporary man-land system composed of population, economy, society, resources and environment, there are four core positive and negative feedback loops, and the aforementioned five factors play different roles in the system, which can be summarized as: population is the main cause, economy is the promoting cause, resources are the foundation, environment is the representation, and society is the regulation. From 2017 to 2050, if the current man-land relationship mode is allowed to continue, the core resources and environmental factors will always be under high pressure, and the man-land system will face the risk of collapse. However, under the regulatory development mode bearing multiple policy intentions, although the core resource factors are still overloaded, the overall trend of the system is positive, and the man-land relationship will meet its inflection point. In the future, relevant policy regulation needs to continue to make more efforts in the gap between energy supply and demand, as well emission reduction targets.

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    Relationships Between Climate, Underlying Surface and Runoff Yield and Flow Concentration Processes in China’s Middle and Small Rivers
    Wang Huaijun, Zhang Jianyun, Wang Guoqing, Cao Lei, Pan Yingping, Feng Ru
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (1): 109-120.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.01.012
    Abstract342)   HTML36)    PDF (3050KB)(367)      

    Our study constructed 80 indices of climate and underlying surface in 340 middle and small river basins of China, as well as explored the sensitivity of hydrological model simulation efficiency to environmental factors, and also discussed the interactions between the process of runoff yield and concentration and environmental factors. We found that: 1) Significant correlations were observed between the same type of climate and the underlying surface factors, while the correlation coefficient of different types of environmental factors was relatively low. In the K-means analysis, the Hopkins Statistic was first used to analyze the agglomeration of all watersheds, and the result showed that the Hopkins statistic was 0.83, indicating that the data is highly aggregated. The middle and small rivers in China could be roughly divided into south region, north region and northwest region; 2) Variance of the principal component analysis for the classified environmental factors increased, the classification effect of climate, vegetation and land use, soil, and terrain for river basins is better, whilst the classification effect of geomorphology, geology, human activities, and watershed morphology was not ideal; 3) GR4J model exhibited good applicability in Chinese rivers, aridity index, clay content and leaf area index showed the greatest impacts on the efficiency of the hydrological model; other environmental factors such as precipitation, elevation and basin area also affected the simulation efficiency of the model; 4) Precipitation, other woodland and leaf area index had the highest correlation with production store capacity (PSC); evapotranspiration, air temperature and sand standard deviation showed the greatest impact on intercatchment exchange coefficient; the proportion of low-cover grassland, the proportion of primitive soil and the proportion of hilly area exhibited the greatest correlation with routing store capacity (RSC), and the environmental factors with the highest correlation with unit hydrograph time constant (UTH) were the wetness index, percentage of tableland and the proportion of arid and deserts soil. Our results indicated that it was feasible to estimate the parameters of the hydrological model from the perspective of climate and underlying surface. Furthermore, the results in this study could provide a basis and reference for the transplantation of hydrological parameters from gauging basin to ungauged basin.

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    ‘Sub-Zone’ Model and Benefit Evaluation of Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Zone
    Meng Guangwen, Zhao Chuan, Zhou Jun, Wang Yanhong, Wang Shufang, Du Mingming
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (11): 1803-1811.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.005
    Abstract329)   HTML14)    PDF (759KB)(352)      

    ‘The Belt and Road Initiative’ provides a vast space for China’s production capacity cooperation and industrial upgrading, while the overseas economic and trade cooperation zone is an effective platform for capacity cooperation between China and the countries along the Belt and Road. On the basis of an overview of China’s overseas zones, this article uses China’s direct investment data in Thailand and Thailand’s GDP to analyze bilateral trade and investment. The development mode of Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Park is discussed in detail in 4 aspects: ‘Sub-Zone’ model, location, service environment, and enterprise char-acteristics. The data envelopment analysis method is used to evaluate the development efficiency of Chinese overseas zones in recent years. The research results show: 1) Thai-Chinese Rayong Industry Zone is the first platform for Chinese companies to invest in Thailand and an effective carrier for capacity cooperation between China and Thailand; 2) Thai-Chinese Rayong Industry Zone adopts the ‘Sub-Zones’ model, which is an effective model for Chinese overseas zones; 3) Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Zone has higher input-output efficiency and benefits from 2012 to 2018, especially in 2016 and 2018; Finally, the experience of Thai-Chinese Rayong Industrial Zone is discussed for benefiting other Chinese overseas Zones: the investment environment and efficiency can be improved by ‘Sub-Zone’ model, building a complete industrial chain by combines its own advantages with the host country, the localization of overseas zone for promoting socio-economic development of the host country. This research will contributes to the theoretical and practical research of BRI and Chinese overseas zones.

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    Achieving Effective Connection Between Rural Revitalization and Targeted Poverty Alleviation in Poverty-stricken Regions
    Wang Yongsheng, Wen Qi, Liu Yansui
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (11): 1840-1847.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.009
    Abstract327)   HTML19)    PDF (1132KB)(187)      

    Rural is a system with specific structure and function constructed by various interrelations and interactional elements. Rural system exchanges important elements, such as people, capital, technology and information with urban system. Rural and urban are an organic whole. Both urban and rural must be developed sustainably to support each other. In China, rural system decline and rural diseases has become increasingly prominent under rapid urbanization. Rural development is important to urban and regional economic development. Rural areas are still the short boards in China’s urban-rural equalization. Poverty alleviation is a global issue. China has a large number of people living in extreme poverty. China’s rural poverty problem has attracted wide attention from academics at home and abroad due to its various types and complex causes as well as arduous task of anti-poverty. China has been committed to build an all-round well-off society and eliminate the absolute poverty from poor households, impoverished county and poverty-stricken areas by 2020. Government needs to make sure that all the poor people, particularly those with low incomes or disease, benefit from the national targeted poverty alleviation policy. Over the past three decades, China has taken five unconventional measures (Wuge Yipi) to push forward the targeted poverty alleviation strategy, and has achieved the millennium development goal of halving poverty ahead of schedule, making outstanding contributions to global poverty alleviation. China’s rural poor population has dropped from 250 million in 1978 to 70.17 million in 2014 and the corresponding poverty headcount ratio has decreased from 30.7% to 7.2%. Under conditions of rapid urbanization, rural revitalization is needed to improve rural decline and rural poverty. Currently, Central government has initiated rural revitalization strategy to make up the weakness of urban and rural harmonious development. China’s rural revitalization projects, including investments in infrastructure, energy, irrigation and new technologies have proven an effective poverty reduction strategy. A three-year alternating period before 2020 is not only the critical of poverty alleviation but also the basis of rural revitalization. Rural revitalization is the important way to coordinate urban and rural development in the new era. Targeted poverty alleviation can provide the foundation and energy to rural revitalization. Effectively integrate rural poverty alleviation with rural revitalization plays crucial role in the development of poverty-stricken regions. Rural areas have abundantly land resources while characterized by poor agricultural infrastructure, fragmented cultivated land, declined land quality and lower land productivity. Targeted poverty can solve the imbalance of urban-rural development through improving rural production, living and ecological environment. China’s rural revitalization strategy emphasizes the industry, ecology, talent, organization revitalization. Rural revitalization can solve rural underdevelopment through activated vitality, capacity, impetus and competitiveness. Targeted poverty alleviation provides the basis for rural revitalization via eliminating rural development drawbacks. Rural revitalization enhances the performance of targeted poverty alleviation. Synchronized poverty alleviation and rural revitalization will appear until 2020. Rural poverty alleviation will be sustainable eliminated using regional poverty alleviation ruler based on the index of people-land-industry-wealth coordination. And rural revitalization ratio and housing-industry symbiosis degree should be used to evaluate the effectiveness of rural revitalization.

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    Spatial-temporal Pattern of Industrial Soot and Dust Emissions in China and Its Influencing Factors
    Guo Zheng, Yao Shimou, Wu Changyan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (12): 1949-1957.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.001
    Abstract320)   HTML63)    PDF (1464KB)(241)      

    This essay intended to evaluate the spatial-temporal characteristics and driving factors of industrial soot and dust emissions in the provinces of China from 1999 to 2017. The data were collected and analyzed using different methods such as Gini coefficient, pollutant distribution index, standard deviational ellipse analysis, exploratory spatial data analysis and SDM model. The study concluded that: 1) The trend for industrial soot and dust emissions ratio and area ratio in different types of districts is inconsistent. The emission distribution in high, medium, relatively low and low areas, decreased significantly, however, at a relatively high emissions areas expanded significantly. 2) The Gini coefficient, disequilibrium index and concentration index of industrial soot and dust emissions in China are all fluctuating and decreasing, indicating that their spatial distribution presents a diffusion trend. 3) The standard deviational ellipse flatness of industrial soot and dust emissions revealed a significant decline, indicating that the direction of its spatial distribution was weakened. The average azimuth angle is 32.428°, which indicates that the spatial distribution pattern of industrial soot and dust emissions is in a northeast-southwest direction, which is basically consistent with the trend of industrial distribution in China. In addition, the standard deviational ellipse of industrial soot and dust emissions short axis expansion is much higher than that of long axis expansion. This implies that the evolution of spatial distribution of industrial soot and dust emissions in China is mainly due to the growth of the eastern and Western directions. In the meantime, the coverage area of the standard deviational ellipse is increasing, indicates the expanding of spatial distribution of industrial soot and dust emissions in China. Furthermore, the standard deviational ellipse center of industrial soot and dust emissions in China gradually moved from Henan Province to Shanxi Province. In the meantime, the spatial distribution of industrial soot and dust emissions in China tends to be stable after great changes. 4) The global Moran’s I of industrial soot and dust emissions in China changed from 0.126 to 0.312 at 5% significance test. Thus, there was a spatial correlation in the spatial distribution of industrial soot and dust emissions in China. Furthermore, the number of provinces in hotspots and coldspots of industrial soot and dust emissions in China increased, provinces in transition-spots and sub-hotspots decreased, while the number of provinces in sub-coldspots unchanged. 5) The increase of energy consumption, proportion of secondary industry, population density and economic development level will increase the emission of industrial soot and dust, while the improvement of foreign investment level, governance technology level and strength of environmental regulation will help to reduce the emission of industrial soot and dust.

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    Spatial-temporal Variation of Water Resources Stress and Its Influencing Factors Based on Water-saving in China
    Zheng Defeng, Wang Jiayuan, Li Yu, Jiang Junchao, Lyu Leting
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (1): 157-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.01.017
    Abstract314)   HTML27)    PDF (2035KB)(187)      

    Based on the perspective of water-saving, water stress was defined as the ratio of the planned consumption of water resources to available water resources. This article estimated the water resources stress index of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2017, the ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis) model was applied to study the spatial changing characteristic and correlation pattern of water resources stress index, the results showed that: 1) During the study period, the water resources stress index had a rising tendency in general, in the Bohai bay area, water resources stress index was high. Bohai Rim, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River had great water-saving potential; water resources stress was unevenly distributed in space. The difference of values from west to east were more than that of values from south to north. 2) The water resource stress index had obviously spatial agglomeration, and the agglomeration phenomenon showed a trend of strengthening. The spatial distribution of water resource stress index in high agglomeration areas and low agglomeration areas were relatively stable. 3) From 2005 to 2017, the main factors influencing the spatial distribution of water resource stress index across the country were water consumption per 10000 GDP and water consumption of ten thousand yuan industrial added value. The spatial differentiation in eastern China was mainly determined by the population, domestic water consumption, livestock quantity and water consumption of ten thousand yuan industrial added value. The less developed areas in the central and western regions were mainly determined by the water consumption per 10000 GDP and COD emissions.

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    Influencing Factors and Disequilibrium of Urban Municipal Infrastructure in China: Analysis Framework Based on City Classification
    Lin Jianpeng, Cao Xianqiang, Zhang Yinghui
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (4): 562-570.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.002
    Abstract304)   HTML165)    PDF (2200KB)(168)      

    The research on the evaluation of municipal infrastructure is of great significance for building a solid foundation for urban development, promoting the new business forms of urban development, and promoting the coordinated development of urban economic growth, social development and ecological environment protection. In order to correctly understand the development status of China’s municipal infrastructure level, factor analysis, spatial statistical analysis, overall difference index and decomposition methods were used to analyze the evolution of municipal infrastructure factors, disequilibrium and the relationship with economic development level in 36 key cities, 253 ordinary prefecture-level cities and 338 county-level cities in 2006, 2011 and 2016. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The factors, non-equilibrium, spatial distribution, and evolution of municipal infrastructure in different levels of cities have both commonalities and differences. 2) Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the focus of urban municipal infrastructure investment has changed, with more emphasis on people-centered urbanization. The correlation between the level of municipal infrastructure and the level of urban economic development has weakened between 2012 and 2016, and infrastructure investment has begun to pay more attention to people’s livelihood. 3) On the whole, the spatial distribution of urban municipal infrastructure level is characterized by higher in the east, central in the middle part, and lower in the northeast and west of China. At the same time, it has a positive spatial autocorrelation. 4) The overall, regional and inter-regional non-equilibrium of municipal infrastructure in key cities are higher than those of ordinary prefecture-level cities and county-level cities. 5) The inequality between regions is the dominant source of the current non-equilibrium problem of China’s municipal infrastructure. 6) The non-equilibrium between the level of municipal infrastructure and urban economic development is not a simple linear correlation.

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    Effects of Multiple Distances on Inbound and Outbound Tourism Flows in China: A Configuration-based Perspective
    Zhang Ziang, Bao Jigang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (1): 13-21.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.01.002
    Abstract298)   HTML52)    PDF (463KB)(188)      

    Tourist flows is one of the current issues in the field of tourism geography that should be urgently addressed. There is a sharp contrast between the rapid growth of China’s outbound tourism flow and the steady growth of inbound tourism flow. It is of great theoretical value and practical significance to understand the mutural tourist flows from and to China. Based on the multiple distances perspectives, this research draws upon the international trade field distance theory framework which includes economical distance, geographical distance, cultural distance and institution distance (CAGE), and the research method is Qualititive Comparative Analysis (QCA) method, which is very useful in exploring the path and mechanism of China’s high and low inbound and outbound tourism flows. In so doing, the structural characteristics, differences, evolution rules and influencing mechanisms of China’s inbound and outbound tourism at different levels can be analysed. The research results are as follows: 1) the influence of distance, as an influential factor is relatively certain. 2) Particularly, it influences China outbound tourism in a similar way that it affects the inbound tourism development. 3) When comparing China’s high international tourism flow and China’s low international tourism flow, distance has different effects on them. Among them, economic distance is the core condition of high international tourism flow. Geographical distance, cultural distance and institutional distance are the core conditions of low international tourism flow.

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    Correlation Analysis of Variation of Dry-wet Climate and ENSO in Northern China During 1960-2017
    Jia Yanqing, Zhang Bo
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (12): 2115-2124.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.018
    Abstract295)   HTML18)    PDF (3167KB)(151)      

    Based on the long-term daily data measured at 424 meteorological stations in Northern China during 1960-2017, ET0 was calculated using Penman-Monteith method, Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) were established using precipitation and evapotranspiration. On the basis of these results, the dryness/wetness trends measured by SPEI and the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence on the dryness/wetness threshold over Northern China during 1960-2017 are analyzed. The overall annual SPEI of Northern China fluctuated around the 58-year mean and its linear trend was not significant. The seasonal mean SPEI showed an increasing trend, the mean SPEI had increased more significantly in winter. Seasonally, the more significant wetness trend occurred in spring and winter. Geographically, a significant wetness was apparent over the areas of western Northwest China, and drought trend mainly occurred in the Loess Plateau, the Northern Northeast China and the eastern Inner Mongolia. Moreover, different grades of drought events decreased and different grades of wet events increased across the entire region. Among them, the moderate drought events showed the most significant decreasing trend, moderate and extreme drought events decreased significantly in western Northwest China, extreme wet events increased significantly in northern Northeast China and part area of Xinjiang. Three types of drought events decreased significantly and three types of wet events increased significantly in four seasons, Seasonally, three types of drought events decreased significantly in western Northwest China. The relationship between the ENSO and dryness/wetness climate arrives with a delay. The wet events occurred frequently in the following El Ni?o, the drought events happened often in following La Nina. SSTA had a significant positive correlation with SPEI of next year in annual and spring time scales. The SSTA was one of the factors that had an important impact to drought and wet condition in most areas of Nothern China.

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    Urbanization and Optimization of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration
    Huang Xinrong, Guan Weihua, Chen Mingxing, Hu Haoyu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (1): 64-73.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.01.007
    Abstract287)   HTML28)    PDF (6660KB)(225)      

    The impact of urbanization on eco-environment has become an area of crucial concern in environmental conservation owing to the radical changes in habitat structure and pollution produced by urban and suburban development in China. This article reveals temporal and spatial change of urbanization and eco-environmental quality from 2003 to 2016 in the Yangtze River Delta, and analyzes how urbanization influences eco-environment. Based on the city level data mainly from China City Statistical Yearbook, the indexes of 19 items belonging to 6 categories including urban population, industrial wastewater discharge are extracted. Urbanization system and eco-environment quality system are constructed. The scores of urbanization and eco-environment quality are given based on entropy method. By comparing urbanization and eco-environment quality scores in 2003, 2009 and 2016, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization level and eco-environment quality in the Yangtze River Delta can be summarized. Through Linear Spatial Panel Model and Spatial Doberman Model, the direction, degree and path of urbanization affecting the eco-environment quality are discussed and identified in view of improved STIRPAT model. 1) It is concluded that the urbanization and eco-environment quality in the Yangtze River Delta has both been improved, and the regional difference of urbanization is greater than that of eco-environment quality. A high-value clustering area of urbanization with Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou as the core is formed. The overall improvement of eco-environment quality in the Yangtze River Delta is obvious, while the regional difference of eco-environment quality is small. 2) Urbanization improves the quality of eco-environment. Specifically, urbanization of a city in the Yangtze River Delta has different impacts on the eco-environment quality of local and adjacent cities. For the local, urbanization plays a positive role in influencing the physical environment and people’s mind by changes in population, economy, land use and society. Population urbanization characterized by population agglomeration and structural optimization has brought concentrated consumption and emission, enhancing the efficiency of resource use and pollution control. Economic urbanization characterized by industrial agglomeration and economic development, has promoted industrial centralization and provided financial support for the response. Land urbanization characterized by land expansion and traffic optimization, has made cities more efficient. Spatial expansion reduces the internal pressure of the city. Social urbanization characterized by social progress, has changed individual actions by enhancing environmental protection awareness. For the adjacent, there is a “Siphon Effect” in urbanization. Pollution will be transferred to the adjacent because of the industrial transformation and environmental regulation, which will negatively affect the eco-environment quality.

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    Evaluation and Spatial Differentiation of High-quality Development in Northeast China
    Wang Wei, Wang Chengjin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (11): 1795-1802.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.004
    Abstract284)   HTML19)    PDF (4007KB)(196)      

    High-quality development is the basic feature of China’s economy and society in the new era, and is the only way for the development of Northeast China under the new normal. Based on the specific connotation of high-quality development and the regional characteristics of Northeast China, we constructed an index system of 34 specific indicators form six dimensions: Effectiveness, stability, coordination, innovation, sustainability and sharing. Then we measured the high-quality development status, explored their spatial differences and shortcomings of development in various regions, and finally put forward the promotion path for different types of regions. In this article, we found that the level of high-quality development in Northeast China is lower than the national average, and only seven cities are above the average, they are Dalian, Shenyang, Changchun, Harbin, Daqing, Panjin and Benxi. On the whole, the effectiveness and stability of economic development in Northeast China are good, but the coordination, innovation and sharing are poor. Specifically, the shortcomings of development mainly include the proportion of the tertiary industry, the degree of dependence on foreign trade, the proportion of research and development investment in GDP, the number of patent grants per 10 000 people, and the growth rate of urban and rural residents' income. Therefore, the key to promote high-quality development in the future is to develop the tertiary industry and foreign trade, increase R & D investment, encourage invention patents, and increase the income of urban and rural residents. The high-quality development level of sub-provincial cities such as Dalian, Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin are in the forefront. The overall pattern of high-quality development is ‘high in the south and low in the north’ and ‘uplift belt’ is formed along the Harbin-Dalian Railway. Cities with higher levels of coordination and sustainability are concentrated in central and southern Liaoning and Harbin-Changsha economic zone; Cities with high effectiveness and innovation level are mainly distributed along the Harbin-Dalian traffic corridor, while cities with high stability and sharing level are mainly distributed in the western and central parts of Northeast China. According to the score value of each dimension, all cities can be divided into seven types, and each type has different development shortcomings and upgrade path. For example, Dalian and Shenyang should improve the stability and sustainability, while Chaoyang, Suihua, Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Mudanjiang should improve the innovation and sharing. This research can help to enrich the theoretical research of high-quality development evaluation and provide reference for the high-quality development of Northeast China and other regions.

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    Spatial-Temporal Distribution Characteristics of COVID-19 Epidemic Disease in Zhejiang Province
    Bai Xue, Qiao Guanmin, Li Jialin, Mei Siyu, Ma Renfeng
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (12): 2010-2018.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.007
    Abstract278)   HTML15)    PDF (1029KB)(135)      

    The new coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia is highly infectious, and its symptoms are hidden, which is seriously damaging to social public security. As the fourth largest epidemic area in China, it is a good case for studying the spatial diffusion of epidemics to explore the epidemiological characteristics and spatial diffusion law of COVID-19. Based on the data of pneumonia cases diagnosed with novel coronavirus infection in Zhejiang Province from January 21 to February 29, 2020, SPSS24.0 was used for data mining and ArcGIS10.2 for spatial analysis The main results are: 1) The temporal variation of the number of new cases in Zhejiang Province has the characteristics of randomness, which conforms to the Poisson distribution function. The difference in infection rates between men and women was not significant. The typical symptoms of COVID-19 were fever, cough and pulmonary imaging lesions. 2) The infection rate showed significant spatial clustering, presenting as ‘One belt and four centers’. ‘One belt’ being the county level regional unit of the Taizhou-Wenzhou coastal railway belt, ‘four centers’ being Haishu district of Ningbo City (11.02/100 000), Xiuzhou district of Huzhou City (4.29/100 000), Shangcheng district of Hangzhou City (4.06/100 000), Jianggan district of Hangzhou City (4.80/100 000), and Tonglu County of Hangzhou City (5.78/100 000). On the whole, the areas with high infection rates are mainly concentrated in the areas with strong commercial exchanges, while the areas with low infection rates are concentrated in the regions with traditional industries and relatively less developed economies. 3) The cluster center of kernel density presents a North-South-North orientation transfer. The spatial evolution characteristics are four stages: ‘multi-core and multi-center’ ‘main nucleus fixation, polycentric evolution’, ‘single main nucleus, polycentric regression’ and ‘epidemic regression’.4) the diffusion rate in Zhejiang Province was first increased from January 29 to February 4, and then decreased from February 5 to February 29. According to the diffusion source, the Epidemic areas can be divided into: ‘no infection risk area’ ‘only endogenous infection with low risk area’ ‘mainly endogenous infection and high risk area’ ‘mainly exogenous infection with controlled high risk area’ ‘only exogenous infection and controllable risk area’. The internal logic of infectious disease deduction is the transmission from exogenous diffusion to endogenous contact. 5) From the evolution of the epidemic and the characteristics of the epidemic, the four-stage treatment strategy is proposed, such as: at the first stage, the fundamental measure for controlling infectious diseases is to cut the source of infection; at the second stage, it is important to promote group governance and prevention, and realize the common governance of the government, enterprises, communities, and individuals; at the third stage, the epidemic situation is classified and regulated to restore production and life; at the final stage, it is necessary to control the imported disease source powerfully. Four stage method is treating symptoms but not root causes. It is the fundamental solution to the public health problem to promote the construction of life circle and build a healthy city.

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    Measurement of Accessibility and Market Potential of Ski Resorts in China
    Dou Wenkang, Wang Shijin, Han Tongtong, Xie Jia
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (2): 319-327.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.015
    Abstract278)   HTML20)    PDF (4250KB)(170)      

    With the approach of the 2022 Winter Olympics, ski tourism has become a hot spot which is pursued by the general public. As the space carrier of ski tourism, ski resorts have increased exponentially in recent years. The ski resort can be used not only as a public service facilities and also as a tourist attractions in the city. Its planning and development will affect the residents’ life experience and employment in the surrounding areas, and it is also a manifestation of a city’s tourism competitiveness. Based on accessibility analysis and potential model, this article systematically analyzed the spatial distribution pattern and market potential of Chinese ski resorts, comprehensively recognized the advantages and disadvantages of ski resorts in terms of traffic accessibility, and put forward the corresponding development or improvement directions of ski resorts for different regions. The results showed that the average shortest travel time from ski resorts to the city center in China is 1.24 hours, the accessibility in the south is generally poor, and there are large differences within the same city in the north. The shortest time of each city to a ski resort is distributed in a circular pattern, with the best area in Henan and the worst area in Xinjiang. With their developed economy, large population and good accessibility, Beijing and Chongqing have become the cities with the greatest market potential for ski tourism, followed by Heilongjiang, Tianjin, Hebei and Shandong. The study can provide reference for tourists to choose ski tourism destinations, and also provide a theoretical basis for the planning and construction of ski resorts.

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    Spatial Accessibility Evaluation and Layout Optimization of Basic Education Facilities in Community Life Circle: A Case Study of Shahekou in Dalian
    Han Zenglin, Dong Mengru, Liu Tianbao, Li Yuan
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (11): 1774-1783.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.002
    Abstract267)   HTML20)    PDF (10170KB)(170)      

    As an important part of basic public service facilities, basic education facilities are of great significance for improving the quality of life of residents and improving the efficiency of urban operations. At present, the research on educational facilities is comprehensive, mainly focusing on spatial layout, spatial accessibility and facility configuration. However, in the research scale, residential units and even subdistrict are mostly basic units. Such accuracy is obviously poor. This paper uses UNA toolkit, which based on Rhino, to analyze the spatial accessibility of three basic education facilities in kindergarten, elementary school and junior high school in Shahekou District of Dalian from the residential building and community level, and proposes optimization ideas and site-selection schemes. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The spatial distribution of various basic education facilities is uneven, and there are phenomena of duplication and lack of coexistence; the phenomenon of “dislocation” of facilities and residential buildings is serious. 2) All kinds of basic education facilities have the problem of a small number of residential buildings within the service area. It will take a long time and distance to go to school. If the facility only serves residents within the scope of the specified service, some facilities may be underutilized. 3) In the scope of the prescribed services, junior high schools have the largest proportion of accessibility, followed by primary schools and kindergartens. Outside the prescribed scope of services, kindergartens have the worst accessibility, followed by junior high schools and primary schools. 2.97% of residential buildings with poor accessibility of the three types of facilities. These areas should give priority to adding education facilities. 4) In consideration of supply, demand and accessibility, two new facilities reference site selection schemes were proposed.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution and Influencing Factors of Water Resources Utilization Efficiency of Cities Along the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River
    Gong Canjuan, Xu Chenglong, Zhang Xiaoqing
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (11): 1930-1939.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.11.018
    Abstract267)   HTML16)    PDF (1545KB)(338)      

    Water was the basic resource for human survival and the decisive factor for regional economic development. The improving of the water resources utilization efficiency was an important way to solve the water crisis and promote regional high quality development. The super efficiency DEA model was used to measure the water resources utilization efficiency of cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River from 2010 to 2017. GIS spatial analysis method was applied to probe into the spatial and temporal evolution of water resources utilization efficiency. System GMM estimation in Dynamic Panel was used to quantitatively measure the influence of different factors on water resources utilization efficiency. The conclusions are as follows: 1) In time sequence, water resources utilization efficiency of cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River decreased with fluctuation, the average value of efficiency decreased from 0.7 in 2010 to 0.67 in 2017. Water resources utilization efficiency went on a fluctuated downward trend in more than 70% cities in the region, consistent with that of cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. The situation of inefficient utilization of water resources in cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River was still serious, and the water resources utilization efficiency needed to be improved urgently. 2) The spatial pattern of water resources utilization efficiency of cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River was basically stable. The water resources utilization efficiency along the both sides of the U-shaped region was relatively high, while that of the middle region was relatively low. The spatial distribution center of water resources utilization efficiency always located in the north of geographical center. 3) Environmental regulation, economic development level, industrial structure optimization and technical level all had a significant positive impact on water resources utilization efficiency, while farmland water conservancy facilities construction and urbanization level had a significant negative impact on water resources utilization efficiency. In the future, cities along the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River should continue to improve the economic, environmental and technological policies conducive to the improvement of water resources utilization efficiency, and pay more attention to improving the water-saving technology level of farmland water conservancy facilities and the development quality of the New Type of urbanization. The above conclusions can provide decision supports for ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin.

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    The Spatial Structure and Evolution of Building Height in Guangzhou’s Main Urban Area from 1835 to 2017
    Sun Wu, Ouyang Ruikang, Chen Xiang, Sun Jing, Zhu Linlin, Cui Fengyan, Ren Yanni
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 454-462.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.03.010
    Abstract265)   HTML15)    PDF (5044KB)(78)      

    According to different data sources and different technical routes, the land types and building heights of Guangzhou’s main urban areas in the large scale in the six periods of 1835-2017 were interpreted and restored. Focusing on the spatial differentiation of urban heights, the migration of height centers of gravity, and the rise of urban heights, the evolution of urban heights in Guangzhou’s main urban areas since 1835 was analyzed. Research shows that: 1) 1835-1907 belonged to the siege structure under the leadership of the king. The height is between 4 and 5 m, with little difference between the center and the periphery. The evolution of urban heights since 1928 has the characteristics of a modern city. 2) Although the scope of the main urban area, the geometric center, and the CBD center of each era have undergone major migrations, the height of the city has gradually decreased from 1928 to 2017, and can continue to strengthen. 3) In 1990, there was a difference in the building height of the land use type, and the land use types tended to be diversified. The difference in height between the function types increased the combination type of urban buildings. 4) During the eastward migration along the north bank of the Pearl River, the height of the center of gravity was small and the plane expanded prominently in 1928-1960; However, the subsequent 1990-2017 eras showed strong vertical uplift. The building enters the stage of modern high-rise buildings. The structure and evolution of Guangzhou’s urban building heights depend on the combined effects of the geographical pattern, urban planning, and market forces of the ‘near the mountain and by the river’ plain cities.

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    The Rural Settlement Morphological Types and Spatial System Characteristics in the Jianghan Plain
    Huang Yaping, Zheng Youxu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (1): 121-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.01.013
    Abstract263)   HTML18)    PDF (4138KB)(202)      

    Under the background of land space planning reform, the land space of county is divided into three types: Urban space, agricultural space and ecological space. Among them, the planning of rural residential area system is the key to the agricultural space reconstruction. The implementation of Rural Revitalization Strategy requires the construction of rural community system according to the law of rural population migration. The characteristics of rural settlement spatial pattern and the optimized reconstruction mode are the foundation of rural community reconstruction. Based on the land GIS data and the statistical data of villages and towns, the cluster analysis and fractal method are used to explore the form types and spatial system characteristics of rural settlements in the Jianghan Plain. The research shows that the Jianghan Plain has formed ‘two category and four types’ of rural settlement space forms due to the difference of its internal natural environment matrix: One is the balanced mosaic settlement form in the low-hilly and mound areas, which can be divided into two subtypes: high-density & low-hilly point form and medium-density & mound crumb form, this rural settlement present a ‘star point’ spatial structure. Another is shaft-dependent settlement form in the river and ditch network areas, which can be divided into two subtypes: low-density & lake-arc form and medium-low density & river-ditch linear form, this rural settlement presents a ‘point-axis’ spatial structure. The characteristics of ‘two category and four types’ rural settlement form and spatial system in the Jianghan Plain are typical in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River Plain. It can provide theoretical basis and practical guidance for the spatial reconstruction of such rural settlements and the optimization of rural residential area system.

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    A Comparative Study on Network Structures of High-speed Train and Inter-city Coach Based on the Urban Agglomerations
    Huang Jie, Du Delin, Wang Jiao’e, Zhou Jian, Jin Fengjun
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2020, 40 (12): 1958-1966.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.12.002
    Abstract259)   HTML35)    PDF (1389KB)(172)      

    High-speed railway and highway are the important components of land transportation and play an important supporting role in the development and integration of the urban agglomerations. At the urban agglomeration level, this article takes high-speed trains and inter-city coaches as the representatives of the two modes, and compares the characteristics of the two networks with the network analysis method. The results show that: 1) The frequency of high-speed trains is generally higher between urban agglomerations, and the frequency of inter-city coaches is mainly concentrated in the city-pairs in urban agglomerations; 2) The inter-city coach network are more mature and complex in many urban agglomerations and have higher values of the network characteristic indicators than high-speed trains. 3) The development of the two modes of transportation varies greatly in different urban agglomerations. The two networks in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta are relatively mature and developed. The inter-city coach network connectivity in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomerations is obviously superior to that of the high-speed train network. 4) The high-speed train network is with axis structure, while the inter-city coach network shows the ‘core-periphery’ structure. In the specific urban agglomeration, the two networks’ structures hold differences.

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    The Impact of Local Embeddedness on the Diversification of Export Market of Foreign-invested Enterprises in China
    He Canfei, Ren Zhuoran
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (3): 369-379.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.03.001
    Abstract254)   HTML182)    PDF (6679KB)(164)      

    Foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) have made great contributions to China’s export growth through direct exports and indirect spillover effects. Most of the literature focus on the role of FIEs in local exports and innovation based on knowledge spillover, while few studies focus on the trade activities of FIEs. From a global-local interaction perspective, this paper employs the data of the Chinese Customs in 2000-2016 to establish a three-dimension framework for local, destination, and local-destination interaction, examining the impact of the local embeddedness of FIEs on the diversification of FIEs’ export markets. In this paper, local embeddedness of FIEs is divided into three dimensions to explore its impacts on export expansion, namely, knowledge coupling, technology embeddedness, and other embeddedness. Descriptive analysis shows that the local embeddedness of FIEs in the eastern region is the highest, while that in the central region and in the western region is lower. Over time, the local embeddedness of FIEs in each region gradually increases. In addition, the number of new export destinations of FIEs in the eastern region is smaller than that in the central region and in the western region, but the number of countries which got comparative advantage is larger. The empirical results show that local embeddedness of FIEs in China has positive effects on the diversification of export markets. However, due to the trade particularity of FIEs, local embeddedness has different effects on the dual margin of exports. To be specific, local embeddedness plays a significant role in promoting comparative advantage of FIEs in exporting, but the promotion of the destination country’s expansion is restricted to general trade. Specifically, the knowledge coupling plays a major role in the promotion. Institutional distance and export spillover can promote the acquisition of comparative advantage of FIEs’ export, but they cannot promote the expansion of destination countries. This research helps FIEs in China to formulate localization strategy. On the one hand, FIEs have full motivation to initiative, strengthen their ties with local culture, society, and technology, and improve their coupling with local knowledge. On the other hand, the policy orientation should be shifted from direct cost incentives such as deductions and concessions to indirect policies, such as using industrial clusters to guide domestic and foreign enterprises in strengthening ties with each other. Besides, when formulating foreign trade policies, the government should fully consider the differences between general trade and processing trade, and develop specific trade policies.

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    The Differences of Urban-rural Population Change and the Underlying Mechanism in the Populaaation Shrinking Counties in China
    Liu Zhen, Qi Wei, Liu Shenghe
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (7): 1116-1128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.002
    Abstract250)   HTML57)    PDF (1753KB)(222)      

    In recent years, the continuous decline of the total population at the regional scale has become increasingly obvious. Considering that most regions have still been experiencing the rapid urbanization processes, it is necessary to analyze the differences of urban and rural population changes and its underlying driving forces in the population shrinking areas. Based on the population census data in 2000 and 2010, this article has analyzed the difference characteristics of urban-rural population change in the population shrinking counties by identifying several urban-rural differentiation types, and then we have established a theoretical framework to investigate the underlying drivers. The main findings are as follows: 1) 38.6% of the research samples have experienced population shrinkage in the period from 2000 to 2010, but most of them have been characterized by “urban population increasing and rural population declining” (or “urban growth and rural decline” for short), and these units account for 89.5% of all the shrinking samples, and the proportion of urban-rural population both shrinking type (or “urban and rural both decline” for short) has a relatively low percentage. 2) In the central region, the type of “urban growth and rural decline A”, which means a high urban growth rate, occupies the main part, and Northeast China has a high percentage of the type of “urban and rural both decline”, and there are obvious spatial differentiations in the eastern and western China. 3) The factors of urbanization level and economic development level have the most significant impacts on the differentiation of urban-rural population change among the population shrinking areas: the population shrinking areas with higher urbanization level and lower economic development level will be more likely to experience slow urban population growth and even urban population decline. 4) The growth rate of economic development, the level of natural population growth, and the quality of public services also have certain impacts on the differentiation of urban-rural population change among the population shrinking areas. Based on these findings, we argue that the perspective of urban-rural differentiation can deepen understanding of population shrinkage in China, and it can also contribute to the relevant theories of population shrinkage in a developing context.

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    Spatial Pattern and Its Impact Mechanism of Urban Commercial Fitness Space: Evidences from Shanghai, China
    Sun Feng, Zhang Jinhe, Wang Chang, Hu Quanxu, Zhang Haizhou
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (2): 198-206.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.002
    Abstract249)   HTML54)    PDF (5524KB)(336)      

    The reasonable layout of urban commercial fitness space and the identification of influencing factors are the basis for the sustainable development of urban fitness industry and the effective implementation of ‘Healthy China’ strategy. Based on POI (Point of Interest) data from Baidu and network evaluation data from Meituan, this article explores the spatial pattern and impact mechanism of commercial fitness space in Shanghai. The results show that: 1) The core-edge pattern of commercial fitness space is presented as a whole in Shanghai. A core agglomeration distribution area has been formed at the junction of Huangpu District, Jing’an District, Xuhui District, Changning District, Putuo District and Hongkou District, and there is no phenomenon of ‘hollow city center’. 2) The distribution of commercial fitness space keeps a high coincidence with the spatial distribution of high population density, high housing prices, developed transportation networks, residential area, office buildings and shopping centers in Shanghai. 3) Population density, underground distance, residential area distance, office building distance, chain situation and housing price level are the key factors affecting the spatial pattern. Population density has the greatest impact, followed by housing price level and office building distance, underground distance, residential area distance and chain situation are the smallest. Housing price level has negative impact, the remaining five have positive impact. Through the analysis of influencing mechanism, the paper is proposed to meet people’s growing demand for fitness, optimize urban commercial space, improve the quality of urban life, and help to achieve the national strategic goal of ‘Healthy China’.

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    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (2): 368-368.  
    Abstract243)   HTML44)    PDF (207KB)(183)      
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    Spatial-temporal Differentiation and Influencing Factors of Chinese Core Journals
    Liu Hailong, Xie Yalin, Wang Hu, Li Man
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2021, 41 (2): 243-251.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.02.007
    Abstract240)   HTML15)    PDF (1198KB)(153)      

    Based on the contents of Chinese core journals (core journals) from 1992 to 2017, this article uses Moore structure value to calculate the internal structure change of core journals, calculate the position of gravity center by gravity center model, analyzes its spatial and temporal differentiation characteristics through GIS visualization, assess the rationality of the impact model by ordinary least squares, and quantitatively analyzes the influencing factors of spatial and temporal differentiation of core journals through geographic detector model. The results show that the number of core journals has experienced development process of ‘decline-rise-gradual stability’ from 1992 to 2017, and the East-West differentiation is obvious with ‘Heihe-Tengchong Line’ as the boundary, showing the spatial characteristics of ‘overall dispersion and local agglomeration’. The change of internal structure is ubiquitous and different, and the change of internal structure in the west is higher than that in the east and the middle. The center of gravity of core journals shows a trend of eastern agglomeration with significant features in stages. The spatial differentiation of core journals is the result of the comprehensive effects of many factors, the influential factors of core journals will vary from time and region, science and technology factors are the main influencing factors of the spatial differentiation of core journals, followed by economic and educational influence, and social and policy factors are the general influencing factors of the distribution of core journals.

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