By taking 126 national traditional villages of Guangdong Provinces as samples, a database about spatial properties of these villages was established by the application of a vector map of Guangdong Province, with a scale of 1∶500 000, and ArcGIS. Then, the proximal point index, geography coefficient of concentration, spatial gini coefficient, and unbalanced index were combined and used to analyze the spatial distribution and controlling factors of these villages. The results are as follows: 1) The calculation of nearest-neighbour distance reveals that the spatial distribution of these national traditional villages in Guangdong Province presents a type of cluster; while the calculation of geography coefficient of concentration reveals that in the scale of a city, these villages are mainly distributed in the following four cities: Meizhou, Qingyuan, Guangzhou, and Zhanjiang. The calculation of spatial gini coefficient reveals that these villages present an unbalanced distribution pattern, they are mainly distributed in the north of Guangdong, then is the Pearl River Delta. In addition, the kernel density estimation reveals that there are two high density regions of these villages in Meizhou and Qingyuan, three sub-high density regions in Guangzhou, Zhanjiang and Dongguan, respectively. 2) The spatial distribution of these national traditional villages in Guangdong is affected by natural environment, social economy, history and culture. In terms of natural geographic environment, these villages are mainly distributed in the northern mountainous area of Guangdong, the Pearl River Delta, and the coastal area of Zhanjiang. It indicates more villages are distributed in relatively isolated mountainous area and plain area with good farming conditions. The reason is that the geographical environment of mountainous area is relatively independent, so traditional villages have formed their own characteristics in a relatively closed environment and preserved relatively complete; plain areas generally have ample water, land conditions and abundant land resources, so it is the first choice for people to live and work. Moreover, the spatial distribution of these villages significantly correlates with economic developing level of different regions, they are either distributed in relatively under-developed or developed regions. Because, people and government have money to protect traditional villages in developed regions; and in relatively under-developed regions, the transportation, communication, information exchange, economic development are relatively backward, where traditional villages were not destroyed but existed. Furthermore, the accumulation of history and culture is another important factor that affects the distribution density of these villages. Historical regions with distinct cultural identity in Guangdong are found to have more traditional villages.