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    The Measure of Displaced Households’ Compensation Approaches and Benefits Rate Based on Regression Model: A Case of Nanjing
    Dongqi Sun, Jingxiang Zhang, Hao Chen, Yi Hu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (2): 161-169.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.02.001
    Abstract1905)   HTML15)    PDF (1408KB)(5783)      

    Displaced compensation is the main point of displaced households’ benefits in inner-city restructuring and urban expansion. Its compensation approaches and benefits rate are influenced by many factors. This article uses 349 displaced residential surveys conducted in 4 resettlement areas in Nanjing to examine the compensation. 1) Examining compensation approaches by using binary logistic regression. In China, there are two approaches: in-kind compensation and monetary compensation. The result shows that displaced households from urban village and households with the couple are both unemployed are more likely to get in-kind compensation. Because of the large size of their displaced housing area in urban village, the monetary expenses are too high to the local government. And the resettlement housing is founded by the central government and municipal government subsidies, not by the local government alone, therefore, the local government are more likely to offer in-kind compensation for displaced households from urban village. 2) Examining the benefits rate of displaced households who get monetary compensation. The results show that: households from urban village have the highest benefits rate, because before displacement they could get more income from renting their housing, the local government have to give more to persuade them to leave. And “more than 7 members’ large household size” and “high education level” have significant positive contribution to benefits rate. For the large size households, the local government could consider their actual situation to give more benefits. And for the high education households, they know more law and policies to negotiate with the local government to get more. But the household with stated-work unit family member get less benefit rate. The results of this analysis could have several explanations. One is that residents who held a position in a work unit are usually better off than farmers. They are able to accept a lower discount than farmers, and may even purchase market housing. Another explanation is that since work units are supported by corresponding ministries of the central government, or have to maintain good relationships with the local government, in some demolition projects the local government coordinates with work units to make sure that employees are forced to move or to accept and sign the compensation contracts as soon as possible which make them loss the negotiation chance. We conclude that the benefit is not the result of market-oriented, but the product of the market and the old system of planned economy. Because in the process of compensation, the local government still use some the planned economy period approaches, such as incomplete monetization, set the standard ceiling; consider the households actual situation (whether they are low-income), etc.. Market led by the demolition and land transfer, in the resettlement compensation is still the implementation of non-market approach. Therefore, the establishment of fair and reasonable compensation mechanism is the key solution.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    The Construction of Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway and Its Geopolitical Strategies of China
    Fenghua Sun, Dadao Lu, Hezhi Dai, Xiaoyan Shen, Xixi Wang, Jianbin Xu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (1): 1-10.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.01.001
    Abstract4018)   HTML94)    PDF (489KB)(1505)      

    Firstly, this article reviewed the research of the construction of Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway. The interpretation of the theory of geopolitics and geopolitical strategy, the main foreign geopolitics and geopolitical strategy were summarized. Then it clearly pointed out that the geopolitical strategy determines the direction of competitive power. China has the most complex geopolitical environment in the world, because the "V" shape geopolitical hot line exists around China for long time. China's geopolitical "great game" is made up of the "V" shape geopolitical hot line which passes through five geo-political strategy of district, surrounding China, such as Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, South Asia, North Asia, and Central Asia. The dispute over the South China Sea is a direct threat to the safety of China's territory. Northeast Asia has become a hot spot in China's geopolitical relations. There is a long-time battle between China and India in South Asia. Russia will become an important Strategic partner of China in North Asia. The complex geopolitical factors of Central Asia will affect China's northwest frontier safety for a long time. The great geopolitical game of China must be well played to ensure the safety of China's geopolitical strategic problem. The study shows that there is of great significance for the construction of trans-Bohai strait passageway and its geopolitical strategies of China. Firstly, the construction of trans-Bohai strait passageway is an important support for playing the great game of China's geopolitical. Then it is an important component of the “one belt one road” strategy which is to break the U.S. Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy. Third, it will play an important role in curbing the local war to ensure national security in Northeast Asia. Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway is a world-class project which has high cost, high income as well as high risk. So we must learn from the experience and lessons of domestic and foreign world-class engineering construction, as well as do research in all relevant issues and we should never be eager for quick back.

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    Spatial-temporal Evolution of Malls in Guangzhou City and Its Impact on Urban Commercial Spatial Structure
    Xiaoying Zhang, Xibo Wu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (2): 231-238.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.02.009
    Abstract1760)   HTML8)    PDF (2633KB)(1279)      

    Commercial space is typical of concentration of various activities, and thus always has great impacts on urban development and the evolution of spatial structure. The research on commercial space is a very important domain in Urban Geography, among which the impacts of shopping malls on the structure of urban commercial space has gradually been focused on by some scholars recently. Employing the software of ArcGIS and SPSS to conduct spatial and statistic analysis, respectively, this article explores the spatial -temporal patterns of the development of shopping malls in Guangzhou City and their relationship with the change of urban commercial spatial structure. The following conclusions have been drawn from the research: Firstly, the increase in the number and scale of shopping malls takes on a cyclical and jumping pattern, which is closely related to urban development. As to the spatial pattern, they originally concentrated in the urban center and gradually diffuse outward to the urban outskirts over time. Analysis of the elements underlying the spatial-temporal evolution of shopping malls reveals that population size is positively correlated with the number and scale of shopping malls, while correlation between population density and distribution of shopping malls is not obvious. Their locations almost coincide with the places with good transportation accessibility. The location of metro stations greatly influence the spatial distribution of shopping malls. Secondly, the spatial-temporal pattern of shopping malls is also greatly determined by the government’s strategy over urban spatial structure and the change in land uses. Thirdly, the rising of the commercial style of one-stop and experiential consumption also imposes large impact on the pattern. Finally, the paper examines the impacts of the development of shopping malls on urban commercial spatial structure. A flat ranking system of urban commercial centers has been brought about by the development of shopping malls, promoting the formation of polycentric urban commercial system and the upgrading of commercial levels. Based on the above analysis, the paper has some implications for the location choice of shopping malls in Guangzhou. Constrained by limited land, traffic congestion, etc., the number of shopping malls in Guangzhou will not increase too much. The growth of population size and improvement in traffic infrastructures will be conducive to the development of shopping malls in the inner side of suburb area. In the outer side of suburbs, the strong radiation of shopping malls can be taken advantages to advance the commercial environment. The city government can guide the orderly development of shopping centers based on different regional characteristics.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Comparative Analysis on Poverty Degree of China′s 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas: with View of Comprehensive Development Index
    Jian-jun DING
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2014, 34 (12): 1418-1427.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1418
    Abstract1038)   HTML4)    PDF (596KB)(1076)      

    It is very important that to know the poverty degrees of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas in China for implementing the Contiguous Destitute Areas′ development and poverty alleviation strategy effectively. As development and poverty are the two sides of a coin, moreover, the development connotation has broadened from economic growth to comprehensive development and the poverty domain enlarged from single dimension to multi-dimensions, this article adopts a new way to assess poverty from the perspective of comprehensive development. Firstly, the author constructed a comprehensive development index system which covered 24 indicators of economic development, social service and ecological environment. Then, assessed and compared the poverty degrees of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas. The results showed that: 1) Among of the three dimensions of economic development, social service and ecological environment, economic development performance was the worst and became the poorest dimension of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas in China at present, the performance of social service had improved but still very poor, the ecological endowment was rich and ecological pressure was low so far, but the ecology was rather fragile and needed to pay more attention to it ; 2)The spatial distribution characteristics of poverty degree were that the poverty degree of Contiguous Destitute Area was more and more serious from eastern part to northern part and to southwestern part gradually, and southwestern hinterland was the poorest area of China, where covered 5 Contiguous Destitute Areas such as Wuling Mountain Area, Qinba Mountain Area, Wumeng Mountain Area, Border Area of Western Yunan and Rocky Desertification Area of Yunan, Guizhou and Guangxi, in these areas, there were lots of poor families and the poor degree was the most serious one; 3) Besides some common characteristics of the indicators which revealed the economic development level and regional self-development ability such as per capita GDP, per capita revenue, rural per capita net income, average years of education and scientific and technical personnel number in ten thousand people, there were obvious differences of indicators such as cement road ratio of administrative village, population density, nine-year compulsory education achievement ratio, village clinic coverage ratio and illiteracy rate of young adults among the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas.

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    Knowledge Structure of China’s Marine Economy Research: An Analysis Based on CiteSpace Map
    Zenglin Han, Bin Li, Kunling Zhang, Xuan Li
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (5): 643-652.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.05.001
    Abstract1670)   HTML3)    PDF (1705KB)(1066)      

    It is an important issue for marine economy research filed to analyze and show the research hotspot, the core of author groups, major research institutions and important scholarly journals. Taking 3 441 articles related to marine economy which are retrieved form “China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database” and“Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index” as subjects, we have drawn maps of the research hotspot, the core of author groups, major research institutions and important scholarly journals to by CiteSpace, a visual software for literature analysis. As a result, firstly, since Chinese marine economy research association was established in 1982, marine economy caused concern of scholars gradually. Secondly, the study of China’s marine economy focused on marine economy, marine industry, sustainable development, exploitation of marine resources, coastal tourism, coastal regions, etc. Thirdly, Han Zenglin, Zhang Yaoguang, Zheng Guibin, Yin Kedong, Li Jingyu and Xu Zhibin are the top six prolific authors in marine economy research, and most research teams are study alone, common research teams are made up by authors who come from the same institution; and State Oceanic Administration People’s Republic Of China, Ocean University of China, Liaoning Normal University and Guangdong Ocean University are the top four prolific intuitions. At last, the journal which published the most of articles about marine economy is “Ocean Development and Management”, while “Economic Geography”, “China Population Resources and Environment” and “Resources Science” are the main core journals of marine economy research. The article showed a structure in the marine economy research from various angles, by which we hope to help for the learning of the status of marine economy research.

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    Trade Network of China and Countries Along Belt and Road Initiative” Areas from 2001 to 2013
    Jialing Zou, Weidong Liu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (11): 1629-1636.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.11.004
    Abstract1456)   HTML9)    PDF (1148KB)(1032)      

    Since the proposition of “Belt and Road Initiative”, researches on trade between China and countries along the Initiative area have increased. However, it is relatively rare to study trade network taking China and those countries as a whole. In this article, we utilize a social network analysis method to analyze the characteristics, trade groups as well as core-periphery structure and its evolution of this trade network. Then we analyze the structure of sub trade network of China and the Southeast Asian countries. The results show that density of the trade network established by China and countries along “Belt and Road Initiative” areas has increased, coupled with growing number of core countries. Meanwhile, China’s core degree in this trade network has increased with China being the most important core country in 2013. What’s more, China becomes the core country in the sub trade network of China and the Southeast Asian countries as well. Based on this analysis, we propose that during the process of promoting “Belt and Road Initiative” construction, China should rely on policy communication to reduce trade barriers and improve trade facilitation with countries along the Initiative area. In particular, it should be set as the priority to facilitate trading conditions with core countries in the Initiative area trade network for further enhancing China’s core position in this network. What’s more, China should make good use of the advantage of being the core position in the network, play an active role of being the area core country and promote the construction and development of “Belt and Road Initiative”.

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    On the Urbanization Curves: Types, Stages, and Research Methods
    Yan-guang CHEN
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2012, 32 (1): 12-17.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.01.12
    Abstract6125)   HTML62)    PDF (410KB)(952)      

    The curves on the change of level of urbanization over time are called urbanization curves, which are in fact models of the progress of urbanization based on empirical evidences from developed countries and developing countries. There are two types of urbanization curves. One is S-shaped curve, and the other, J-shaped curve. The S-curve can be modeled with the logistic function, while the J-curve cannot be described by the logistic function. The former is applicable to the developed countries, whereas the latter is applicable to the developing countries. So far, there have been more studies on the S-shaped curve. However, fewer studies have been devoted to the J-shaped curve of urbanization. Consequently, we know little about the general principle on the J-shaped curve and its underlying rationale, which remain to be further explored in the future. In this paper, various studies on urbanization curves are systemized to form a framework of models on the level of urbanization. The logistic curve was once divided into three stages by Northam (1979): initial stage, acceleration stage, and terminal stage. However, the Northam's proposal is just a phenomenological theory with several defects: first, the definition of 'acceleration stage' is not correct; second, there are no theoretical basis and critical scale for the divisions. It can be proved that the logistic process falls into four phases. Taking half of urbanization level capacity as a tipping point, the logistic curve is divided into two stages: acceleration stage (urban majority) and deceleration stage (urban minority). The tipping point can be determined by two methods of elementary mathematics. Then the two stages are respectively divided into two sub-stages by means of the exponential law of urban-rural ratio with a parameter as characteristic length. Now, urbanization process can be divided into four stages: initial stage, acceleration stage, deceleration stage, and terminal stage. Also it can be divided into three stages: initial stage, celerity stage (including acceleration stage and deceleration stage), and terminal stage. Two methods are always applied to the research of urbanization curves and the related urbanization dynamics. One is phenomenological analysis, and the other, theoreticalogical analysis, which consists of three approaches: urban-rural allometric growth, urban-rural population replacement, and urban-rural population interaction dynamics. Urban-rural allometric growth analysis is a kind of scaling analysis. Urban-rural population replacement suggests a new dynamical analysis. Urban-rural interaction comprises linear dynamics and nonlinear dynamics. The linear dynamics is based on the well-known Keyfitz-Rogers model, whereas the nonlinear dynamical analysis can be employed to interpret the similarities and differences between the S-shaped and J-shaped curves. China’s urbanization process can be described with the J-shaped curve rather than the S-shaped curve. The studies on the urbanization curves will be significant for understanding the dynamical mechanism and essence of Chinese urbanization.

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    The Global Concept and Strategy of Contemporary China: Analysis on the Geopolitical and Geoeconomic Environment of the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’
    Dadao Lu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (4): 483-490.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.04.001
    Abstract1576)   HTML4)    PDF (1570KB)(921)      

    This article describes the significance of the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ on the rise of China. It is analyzed that the global basic geopolitical pattern, geopolitical tendency of important areas (nations), as well as the prospects of economic and trade cooperation with China. The possible problems that China is facing the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ strategy implementation are also analyzed. Finally, it’s pointed out that the government and scholars should strengthen the research, data collection and management of the ‘Belt and Road Initiative’.

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    The Theory and Practice of Urban-Rural Integration in China Under the New Urbanization
    Xiaofei Chen, Shimou Yao, Luocheng Zhang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (2): 188-195.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.02.004
    Abstract1686)   HTML5)    PDF (491KB)(871)      

    Issue of urban-rural integration is a comprehensive subject, with the new urbanization proposed, urban-rural relations are facing a complex dilemma in many cities, so it is important to discuss the theory and practice of urban-rural integration in China under the new urbanization background. The practice of new urbanization and urban-rural integration development is not only an important way to solve the problems concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers, or to promote a strong driving force for regional coordinated development and industrial upgrading. The article analyzes the ecological resources, migration, industrial layout and urban space, land system in the process of urban-rural integration and pointed out that we should confirm a resource-saving concept of urban-rural integration, establish a healthy urbanization direction of urban-rural integration, understand urban-rural integration from the perspective of regional space and solve the land system problems of urban-rural integration. At the same time, the article pointed out the optimization direction under the context of new urbanization:1) We should optimize the key areas development and exploit suburban land rationally; 2) We should optimize space layout and build diverse complementary pattern;3) We should optimize industrial structure of clusters and make better chain link between rural and urban industrial; 4) We should optimize a better environment and promote the urban transformation to eco-city; 5) We should optimize the market-oriented mechanism and guarantee the government regulation in line with the law.

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    Cited: CSCD(15)
    Millennium-scale Climate Variations from the Record of Grain-size and CaCO3 During the Pleniglacial in the Salawusu River Valley, China
    Feng-nian WANG, Bao-sheng LI, Jiang-long WANG, Dong-feng NIU, Zhi-wen LI, Yue-jun SI, Shu-huan DU
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2012, 32 (5): 596-602.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.596
    Abstract592)   HTML1)    PDF (628KB)(803)      

    The MGS2 segment of the Milangguowan stratigraphical section in the Salawusu River Valley, southeast of China’s Mu Us Desert, records 5.5 sedimentary cycles consisting of dune sands alternating with fluvial or lacustrine facieses. Based on the grain-size and CaCO3 analysis, it was found that Mz and σ appear peaks and valleys in different sedimentary facieses. CaCO3 contents range from 0 to 2.94% (average 0.39%) in the dune sands, 0.14% to 2.68% (average 1.43%) in the fluvial facieses and 0.39% to 15.57% (average 8.82%) in the lacustrine, and appear 5.5 grain-size and CaCO3 cycles similar to the sedimentary facieses changes. And the CaCO3 contents have a significant correlation with Mz. The result show that the dune sands accumulate and CaCO3 moved greatly during the periods with a strong cold-dry winter monsoon. Whereas, the fluvial or lacustrine facieses developed, silt and clay increased and CaCO3 gathered largely when the warm-humid summer monsoon strengthened. The observed climate fluctuations on millennium-scale during the Pleniglacial to the alternations attributed the strength of the East Asian winter and summer monsoons.

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    The Changing Humanistic and Economic Geography in China
    Dadao Lu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (5): 641-650.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.05.001
    Abstract1372)   HTML16)    PDF (479KB)(790)      

    To determine the direction and the field of research is the soul of discipline development. Humanistic and Economic Geography is a subject changing in both research field and even research direction. Recognition of research fields and disciplines for Humanistic and Economic Geography is essential. On the basis of combing the main branch development stage of Humanistic and Economic Geography in China for decades, the paper summarized the response of Humanistic and Economic Geography to the transformation development background of the social. On the one hand, the intersectionality of the discipline should be insisted, with the theory of ‘man-land’system as the direction and the combination of theory with practice being adhered. Humanistic and Economic Geography scholars should be with a new attitude and new vision, to think about the future development of discipline key fields, the development idea and the innovation of the theory and method. For the major problems which disciplines involved in a long time, strategic and consultative, predictive and summative work will gradually increase. In the paper, the development trend of some important fields such as information and social space economic organization, the new pattern of regional economy and‘New Urbanization’were expounded; some new ideas about ‘international hot spots’and ‘international frontier’, the theory research and the relationship between the theory and practice were proposed; and then the author put forward the suggestion that‘Humanistic Geography’to be renamed as‘Humanistic and Economic Geography’.

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    Cited: CSCD(15)
    The Centennial to Decadal Scale Variation of Summer Monsoon Precipitation in Northern Guizhou Province During the Last Deglacial
    Xiu-yang JIANG, Bang YANG, Xiao-yan WANG, Yao-qi HE, Fu-cai DUAN, Zhi-zhong LI, Chuan-chou SHEN
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2015, 35 (6): 773-781.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.06.773
    Abstract1403)   HTML2)    PDF (1236KB)(783)      

    The last deglaciation, transition from the last glacial maximum to the present interglacial (Holocene), has great importance in understanding how Earth’s climate system can abruptly switch from one state to another. This transition was also characterized by several abrupt climatic oscillations, including Heinrich event 1, B?lling-Aller?d, and Younger Dryas. However, uncertainty remains regarding the similarities and differences in monsoon history in different region. Here, we present a high-resolution (10-year on average) monsoonal record covering the time range from 16.82±0.04 to 8.29±0.03 ka BP, Based on 25 high-precision 230Th dates and 740 Oxygen isotopic data from stalagmite SX3-a and SX14 from Sanxing Cave, Northern Guizhou Province, China, an average 10 a resolution Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) record during the last deglacial was produced. Millennial- to decadal- scale coupling between the ASM and northern high-latitude climate persisted through whole last deglacial period, suggesting that the Atlantic meridional circulation play a role in monsoon climate. Decoupled from decreasing temperatures in Greenland during the BA, the concurrent intensified AM is likely attributed to the increasing insolation and the strong cross-equatorial flow. During the “Preboreal episode”, Antarctic temperature, atmospheric CO2 and CH4 were reached to its maximum values after the abrupt transition of Younger Dryas. Howerver, ASM experienced a 2.7 ka-long gradual increase of the monsoon rainfall. The summer insolation in the North Hemisphere was maximal at around 11,000 a B.P., however, until about 9 000 a B.P. a large remnant ice sheet persisted in North America, which could be impede the rebound of ASM. In addition, the cooling of the Antarctic during the early Holocene maybe also influenced ASM through the strong cross-equatorial flow.

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    Variations in Alpine Grassland Cover and Its Correlation with Climate Variables on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 1982-2013
    Qing Lu, Shaohong Wu, Dongsheng Zhao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (2): 292-300.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.02.016
    Abstract1143)   HTML3)    PDF (2273KB)(765)      

    The response of structure and function of terrestrial ecosystem to global climate change has become a major point. Vegetation is an essential component of the terrestrial ecosystem which has proved to be sensitive to climate change. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely recognized as a good indicator of vegetation coverage and productivity, has been widely used to indicate vegetation activity and dynamics, also vegetation growth, ecosystem structure and functions respond to climate change. Climate warming has important influence on the vegetation coverage, and alpine grassland is one of the most significant vegetation type on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This study used GIMMS NDVI data sets and climate data from 40 meteorological stations to investigate spatial and temporal variations of alpine grassland cover and the response of NDVI to climatic variables on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 1982-2013. The results showed that the average growing season NDVI is high in the southeast and low in the northwest. As a whole, the alpine grassland cover tended to increase on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with the rate of 0.000 3/a (p<0.05) in the past 32 years. Spatially, the tendency of alpine grassland NDVI showed great heterogeneity, with the significantly NDVI increased mainly distributed in the northeastern part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau dominated by alpine meadow which approximates to 26.0% (p<0.05) of the total study area. The area with significantly decreased area accounted for 4.7%, mainly emerged in the western part where the grassland was dominated by alpine steppe. In the regional scale, the variation in alpine grassland cover was more closely related to precipitation than other climate factors. The spatial characteristics of the relationship between growing season NDVI and climatic variables were analyzed based on the eco-geographical regions. Significant lagged correlations between precipitation and seasonal NDVI were found for the alpine steppe. The results suggested that precipitation was the key limit variable in the northeastern part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with higher annual mean temperature. But in the eastern and central eco-regions with the more rainfall, temperature could limit the growth of grassland vegetation. In the southern plateau with more precipitation and higher temperature compared with other regions, the correlations between alpine grassland cover and climatic factors were significant positive. The change of alpine grassland cover was not significantly relevant to climatic variables in the middle and western part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    The Reconstruction of Literary Tourist Destination: A Case Study of Fenghuang
    Ning AN, Hong ZHU, Chen LIU
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2014, 34 (12): 1462-1469.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1462
    Abstract1054)   HTML6)    PDF (581KB)(759)      

    Drawing on the qualitative research methods, especially the methods of observation, interview, and textual analysis, this article focuses on the study of the ancient town of Fenghuang. This article concerns on its space “encountering” between tourism and literature and analyzes how Fenghuang achieves its space reconstruction through the interaction between them. Based on the conceptual understanding of space that is proposed by Henry Lefebvre, Edward Soja, and David Harvey, this article discusses the process of space (re)construction in Fenghuang, including how “the material space” (re)produces “the conceived space” or/and “the space of power” which is governed by the power from the principal parts, and how it construct the “poetic space” which affected by human behavior in social practice. These findings indicate that: 1) the development of tourism changes the socio-economic structure of Fenghuang rapidly, and then the focus of its spatial attributes shifts after that, through which it achieves the reconstructing process from the original ecology of the paradise-like substances to the space full of power games. In this process, the local government and the developers have played the pivotal roles, in which they integrated and reproduced the space of Fenghuang and (re)constructed it as a “space of power” through their negotiations and gaming with civilians, retail managers and tourists. 2) Accompanied with tourists’ geographical imaginations, Shen Congwen, and his literary have constructed the ‘real’ images of Fenghuang. This process achieves the “poetical” construction of Fenghuang through which both the labels of literary tourist destination are produced and the “poetical” constructed space which is consumed by tourists through an imaginative way. 3) The (re)construction process of “space of power” and “poetic space” interacts with each other. The construction of the “poetic space” is included in the process of the construction of space of power; on the contrary, the construction of space of power is also affecting the construction of the “poetic space”. Literary promotes the development of tourism, and on the contrary, the development of tourism affects the image of tourists’ imaginations directly and indirectly. On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that the space (re)construction of Fenghuang is affected by the literary and tourism through which the material space of Fenghuang is viewed as space of literary destination with the attributes of materiality, scope of power, and symbolism. As an entry point, literary tourism is explored in this study, which on the one hand enriches the understanding of the meaning of space, and expands the existing theories of space construction; on the other hand, it develops a positive value and significance for tourists’ behavior, tourism developing and other researches.

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    Population Mobility of Urban Agglomeration in China: A Case Study on the Three Coastal Agglomerations
    Yang Sun, Shimou Yao, Dadao Lu, Luocheng Zhang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (12): 1777-1783.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.12.002
    Abstract1714)   HTML10)    PDF (381KB)(756)      

    New urbanization focuses on people-oriented urban modernization. Three core urban agglomerations represented by coastal urban agglomeration in China are becoming a new model of regional development and space combination with Chinese characteristics. This study on population absorption and flow process in the advancement of the three coastal urban agglomerations proves that: 1) In core areas of economic agglomeration, the degree of population aggregation is high, and the centralization characteristics of population spatial structure are obvious. 2) The ability of urban agglomeration to absorb floating population increased, and the absorption capacity is proportional to the level of urban agglomeration. 3) In the aspect of immobilization of population flow structure in the urban agglomeration area, eastern coastal cities are the preferred area for the floating population. Furthermore, the trend of population inflow from the west to the east is becoming increasingly obvious, and population flow is relatively immobilized, which becoming the main source of urban population. Strengthening the profound understanding of development functions of the major cities in urban agglomeration areas and enhancing the construction of a comprehensive city management database are necessary. In addition, analyzing the internal relations between urban agglomerations and the reasonable arrangement of the urban population, as well as the regional division of labor and the cooperation between cities in the industrial chain, are important to achieve a more profound exploration of the overall development trend of China’s urban agglomeration.

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    Several Theoretical Issues on Innovation Geography
    Lachang Lyu, Ru Huang, Qian Liao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (5): 653-661.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.05.002
    Abstract1101)   HTML5)    PDF (428KB)(754)      

    In the 1920s, Schumpeter proposed the theory of Innovation, but this theory did not arouse the attention by mainstream economists until 1950s-1960s. Though the space research of innovation had also aroused the concern of the geographers during that period, it failed to be the main areas of geography study. Since the 1980s, with "spatial turn" of human geography and emerging of knowledge economy, innovation geography has emerged as an important research area of geography, however, the research on the basic theory of innovation geography is still very limited, and that whether innovation geography as an independent subject is still under debating, therefore, those important issues concerned the discipline of innovation geography, such as the research object, discipline nature and tasks need to be examined further. This article argues that: Innovation Geography is an independent subject studying relationship between human’s innovation activities and geographical environment. The innovation activities of human beings as the most important aspect of human activities have great significances to establishing the intelligent human-earth relationship system. As a branch subject of human geography, innovation geography has cross-discipline nature, because it has close relationship with the branch subject of human geography and other subjects such as political science, management science, economics, policy science, urban planning and so on. We conclude the main tasks of innovation geography as follows: 1) The basic theory of innovation geography; 2) the regional distribution and combination of innovation elements such as talents, capital, technology, etc.; 3) the examination and evaluation of Innovation Milieu and innovation ecology and evaluation; 4) the survey of innovation geography and the study of the space pattern and regional effect of innovation; 5) the study of innovation links, innovation networks and innovation cluster; 6) the study of multi-scale innovation system; 7) the relationship of innovation, urban development and planning.

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    Spatial Patterns and Determinants of Rural Poverty: A Case of Guizhou Province, China
    Yongming Wang, Meixia Wang, Dianting Wu, Lin Zhao, Jianjun Ding
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (2): 217-227.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.02.007
    Abstract1586)   HTML6)    PDF (5096KB)(747)      

    China has been a long-period fast economic growth after its opening policy. The whole degree of poverty in China has decreased sharply, which plays an important role in fulfilling Millennium Development Goals (MDG) made by the United Nations. As a developing country, however, China still has a challenge of reducing poverty and promoting regional development. Rural poverty is still a serious problem in rural China, especially in mountainous or ethnic areas. Different scales of governments in China develop much poverty-alleviation policy, but the efficacy of these policy are sometimes low because “one size fits all” policy always neglect regional difference in poverty resulting from different contexts of different places. Spatial patterns and determinants of regional poverty is a key theme for scholars from many disciplines. Giving that determinants of rural poverty in different places are different and the effects of significant factor are dependent on spatial scales, there is a need for more empirical evidences at different scales or in different regions. Furthermore there is little study to explore the spatial variations of effects of determinants. The present article can fill these gap to some extent through analyzing the determinants of county-level poverty and its spatial variation of their effects within Guizhou Province in the southwestern China. The rate of county-level poverty is largely different within this province. Based on methods of OLS regression, spatial econometric and geographic weighted regression (GWR), this article studies spatial variations and determinants of rural poverty at the county level. The results show that rate of rural poverty is higher in the eastern, southern, western counties than middle and northern counterparts. There is a significant spatial autocorrelation of rural poverty, for index of Moran’s I is between 0.45 and 0.55, which indicates that poverty of neighboring counties have a positive effect on the poverty of a specific county. Some counties with a high-high poor pattern fall into spatial trap of poverty based on results of index of Local Moran’s I. These counties are located at southeast and southern parts of Guizhou and have a high proportion of ethnic minorities’ population. For the determinants, the OLS estimation results show that topographic slope, distance to a local urban center, the percentage of teenagers, the percentage of ethnic minorities are key determinants of spatial variations in rural poverty at the county level. The effects of these four factors are found to have different spatial patterns based on GWR analysis. There is no significant effect for distance to the provincial capital on the rural poverty. The above results have important policy implication. The core implication is to combine place-based and people-based policy, which surpass the current Poverty-Targeting-Alleviation (jing zhun fu pin) initiatives dominating poverty-reduction policy of China’s governments.

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    Progress and Prospect on Rural Living Space
    Bin Yu, Yan Lu, Juxin Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (3): 375-385.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.03.007
    Abstract1198)   HTML5)    PDF (530KB)(746)      

    In the context of both contemporary human development transformation and humanism booming, ‘living space’ has become a new perspective for human geographers to investigate the change of human-environment relationship, and the spatial view of integrating ‘pattern-connotation-implication’ has also become a new thinking to interpret the interaction of human activities and environment. So far, the researches on living space have focused mainly on the urban areas and their element space and space form. In contrast, little attention has been paid on the rural areas, juxtaposition space and three-dimensioned research. Rural living space refers to a polymer formed by the overlapping of everyday activities for rural residents in a certain territory, such as dwelling, employment, consumption and leisure, and also an organic body where spatial form, spatial implication and spatial meaning are inherently associated with each other. Due to differences in development environment and concrete national situations, post-modernization and counter-urbanization in developed countries has contributed to the post-rurality in rural space. There have been two highlights on rural living space in western academic circles. One indicates the diversification of living subjects in rural area in the context of post-productivism and the heterogenization of living space, and the other refers to life experience and spatial construction with respect to vulnerable groups who are “otherized” by urban social living or marginalized in space. Rural region in China has kept going through function transformation and spatial reconstruction, so it is a unique significance for the livable construction of rural living space. At the present stage, there are also two distinct characteristics studying on rural living space at home. From the view of contents, studies on changes in dwelling space and employment space of rural residents have been played more attention, while studies on consumption space and leisure space are as sparse as morning stars. From the view of methods, the empirical analysis in spatial forms has occupied a leading position, while the structural analysis in spatial implication and humanistic analysis in spatial meaning are expected to carry forward. Notably, it is hard for western studies on rural living space to be standardized. Studies on China’s rural living space own their distinct context. Effective analysis framework can be made from the view of space mutually unified by form, implication and meaning, applying the rational of deconstructing spatial pattern by environment, perceiving spatial connotation by relationship and interpreting spatial implication by impacts, and powerful analysis tools can be created based on various methods of spatial behavior analysis, employing the research methods of combing quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis, spatial analysis and statistical analysis; Which will focus on mainly exploring the features, mechanism and effects of the changes of the rural living space to reveal the change laws of rural human-environment. The expected achievements might amplify the research viewpoints, contents and methods of rural geography, and provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of the rural areas.

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    Cited: CSCD(19)
    Spatial Pattern of Chinese Economic Growth at County Level in the 21th Century
    Zaijun Li, Yaqian Zhang, Meijuan Hu, Zhifei Ma, Qiyan Wu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (8): 1134-1140.  
    Abstract1911)   HTML22)    PDF (12523KB)(739)      

    Entering the 21th century, under the context of coordinated regional development strategy, identifying the trend of spatio-temporal evolution of regional economy growth plays an important role in timely optimizing spatial pattern and formulating reasonable spatial development strategy. By characterizing regional economy growth with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and under the framework of exploratory spatio-temporal data analysis (ESTDA), this article focuses on analyzing spatio-temporal dynamic evolution of 2 303 counties’ economy growth in China in 1998-2013. The main results are following that: 1) There are synchronous trends of widening disparity and enhancing spatial association trends of county units’ economy growth. To be specific, regional economic growth disparity results from enhancing spatial association, while spatial association in space reflects widening regional economy growth disparity. 2) Local spatial association pattern of county units’ economic growth is relatively stable with time evolution. For instance, high-high areas like a mass type are mainly clustering in the eastern coastal region and exhibiting strip distribution type in Inner Mongolia region, and the amounts of high-high areas tend to increase. while low-low areas are mainly distributing in the vast Midwest region, but the amounts of low-low regions are decreasing. So, dominant economy core areas in future are still along both east-west axis of the Longhai-Lanxin showing belt development and along the north-south axis of eastern coastal regions. 3) The LISA time path can help find where are the most economic growth potential and vitality. The longest regions of LISA time path are mainly distributed around Bohai Sea, the Changjiang River Delta, the Zhujiang River Delta and the Inner Mongolia Region, while the shortest regions of LISA time path are widely located in Midwest counties which are economic backward areas and lack of upward economic momentum. Regions with maximum tortuosity of LISA time path are often lack of local stable spatial dependent direction, such as areas along the line of Beijing-kowloon railway, adjacent to longitude of 110°E and part of counties in Tibet. Hence, it is firstly essential to develop the Jing-Shan economic trough belt, then motivating its effect in connecting the west and east of China. 4) According to space-time transition matrix of local Moran's I, the maximum probability value of together up is just 0.061, while the frequency of type IV is 0.936 8. This implies that county units’ economic structure and local spatial association structure have higher stability and there exists to some degree path-dependent or space-locked mode.

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    Combination Between Big Data And Small Data: New Methods of Urban Studies in The Information Era
    Xiao Qin, Feng Zhen
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (3): 321-330.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.03.001
    Abstract939)   HTML2)    PDF (603KB)(738)      

    Appearance of Information and communication technology has set off a new wave of big data to promote a transformation of the traditional methods in urban studies. However, types of limitations of big data also make scholars rethink the role of small data in specific applications for research. We believe that the small data will not lose its value, instead, it can be combined with big data in urban study, which is needed to focus on relationship between urban and resident activity in the information era. Therefore, we should discuss a new framework for such combination on complicated urban problems and diversified resident demands. Firstly, we put forward to three methodologies including combination between physical space and activity space, combination between correlativity and causality, and combination between macro-scale analysis and micro-scale analysis. Secondly, based on above methodologies, we build three method frameworks for urban studies in the information era, namely ‘Spatial development evaluations for big samples+Spatial difference and connection discovery+Factors discussions for small samples’, ‘Model building for small samples+Factors discussions+Verifications and explorations for big samples’, and ‘Micro-analysis of activities+Delineations of activity space+Factors discussions’. Finally, we discuss applications of above three method frameworks.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    Bivariate Probability Distribution of Meteorological Drought Characteristics in the Aksu Basin Using Copula
    Yu-hu ZHANG, Kai-li LIU, Qiu-hua CHEN, Xin-xin HU
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2014, 34 (12): 1480-1487.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1480
    Abstract903)   HTML5)    PDF (648KB)(731)      

    Based on the daily precipitation data of 9 meteorological stations within and around the Aksu River Basin from 1960 to 2010, the distribution function of drought duration and drought severity were analyzed using Pa index by Curve fitting method and the Run theory. Though 4 statistical methods(eg.RMSE、AIC、BIC and Bayes), 3 kinds of Archimedean Copula were respectively employed to describe the joint distribution of the two drought characteristics variables. Finally, the spatial distribution status of the drought return periods of the 9 meteorologic stations were analyzed. The results are shown as follows. 1) To describe the joint distribution , the fitting effect of GH Copula is the best, Frank Copula’s is following. When using the curve fitting method to get the distribution function of drought duration, we can define the empirical frequency formula as experience frequency of the two-dimensional Copula function edge distribution. It can make the analysis based on the frequency of Copula function's result more objective and reliable. 2) The drought risk across the Aksu River Basin is very high. The estern and southern drought risk are higher than the western and northern. 3) The results also show that long-lasting droughts are highly probably the severe droughts. The results can provide theoretical support for the basin drought risk response and mitigation.

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    Translocal Restaurants’ Cultural Production Under the Paradox of Globalization and Locality: Case Studies from Guangzhou
    Guo-jun ZENG, Shu-zhi SUN, Hong ZHU, Bo LIU, Xiao-mei CAI
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2013, 33 (3): 291-298.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2013.03.291
    Abstract598)   HTML1)    PDF (896KB)(719)      

    The globalization is far from the displace process. However, it is the process of redefination and production of locality. On the background of globalization, the frequent migration of people and businesses makes them exceed the established boundary, forming a more and more translocality. Recently, the locality and cultural production are gotten a lot of research interests of cultural geographers. However, many questions, such as ‘paradox of cultural preservation and innovation’ and the ‘dilemma of authenticity and standardization’ faced by translocal cultural production are unresolved by scholars. This article constructs a theoretical framework of restaurants' cultural production to discuss the categories and characteristics of translocal cultural production based on four cases of foreign restaurants in Canton. The theoretical analysis reveals that there are four different kinds of cultural production of translocal restaurants: standardization of authenticity, cultural production of authenticity, cultural production of standardization, and cultural production of Heterogeneity. And the results of case study illustrate that four kinds of cultural production can be accepted by the consumers of translocal restaurants. In virtue of disciplinary integration, the conbination of translocality and cultural production would provide chances for the development of translocal cultural production. And also, it is a new exploration of the food geography with the methodology of new culture geography. This article would promote the discipline development of cultural geography. In the meanwhile, it can provide a theoretical basis for the protection and innovation of food culture, as well as diffusion of food culture and identification of place image.?

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    Spatial Distribution Features and Controlling Factors of Traditional Villages in Guangdong Province
    Yafen Feng, Wanyuan Yu, Rulin Lei
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (2): 236-243.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.02.009
    Abstract1232)   HTML5)    PDF (1118KB)(715)      

    By taking 126 national traditional villages of Guangdong Provinces as samples, a database about spatial properties of these villages was established by the application of a vector map of Guangdong Province, with a scale of 1∶500 000, and ArcGIS. Then, the proximal point index, geography coefficient of concentration, spatial gini coefficient, and unbalanced index were combined and used to analyze the spatial distribution and controlling factors of these villages. The results are as follows: 1) The calculation of nearest-neighbour distance reveals that the spatial distribution of these national traditional villages in Guangdong Province presents a type of cluster; while the calculation of geography coefficient of concentration reveals that in the scale of a city, these villages are mainly distributed in the following four cities: Meizhou, Qingyuan, Guangzhou, and Zhanjiang. The calculation of spatial gini coefficient reveals that these villages present an unbalanced distribution pattern, they are mainly distributed in the north of Guangdong, then is the Pearl River Delta. In addition, the kernel density estimation reveals that there are two high density regions of these villages in Meizhou and Qingyuan, three sub-high density regions in Guangzhou, Zhanjiang and Dongguan, respectively. 2) The spatial distribution of these national traditional villages in Guangdong is affected by natural environment, social economy, history and culture. In terms of natural geographic environment, these villages are mainly distributed in the northern mountainous area of Guangdong, the Pearl River Delta, and the coastal area of Zhanjiang. It indicates more villages are distributed in relatively isolated mountainous area and plain area with good farming conditions. The reason is that the geographical environment of mountainous area is relatively independent, so traditional villages have formed their own characteristics in a relatively closed environment and preserved relatively complete; plain areas generally have ample water, land conditions and abundant land resources, so it is the first choice for people to live and work. Moreover, the spatial distribution of these villages significantly correlates with economic developing level of different regions, they are either distributed in relatively under-developed or developed regions. Because, people and government have money to protect traditional villages in developed regions; and in relatively under-developed regions, the transportation, communication, information exchange, economic development are relatively backward, where traditional villages were not destroyed but existed. Furthermore, the accumulation of history and culture is another important factor that affects the distribution density of these villages. Historical regions with distinct cultural identity in Guangdong are found to have more traditional villages.

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    Spatial Pattern of Catering Industry in Nanjing Urban Area Based on the Degree of Public Praise from Internet: A Case Study of Dianping.com
    Xiao QIN, Feng ZHEN, Shou-jia ZHU, Guang-liang XI
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2014, 34 (7): 810-817.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.07.810
    Abstract1653)   HTML3)    PDF (926KB)(694)      

    With the rapid development of information technology, the information from the internet becomes an important way for people to gain social support. The combination of internet and geospatial information not only changes the way people live and work, but provides new approaches for urban studies. This article mainly focuses on the nuclear density analysis and the comprehensive evaluation of spatial pattern of the Catering Industry by the analysis on the comprehensive score and the ranking of the Catering businesses, on the basis that the evaluation system of public praise degree with the data from a website of Dianping.com. The result reveals that 4 classes of the4 public praise degree were found among the Catering businesses in the urban area of Nanjing, which looks like a “pyramid” with large number on the bottom and small number on the top, that indicates the number Catering businesses with lower degree of public praise is largest and that of mid-class Catering businesses is relatively small. In other word, the Catering Industry of Nanjing is now on a low level development. The spatial pattern of the Catering Industry consists of a core (Xinjiekou) and other secondary service centers roughly demonstrates the feature that service quality decreases by circle pattern, and the top-class Catering businesses that develop separately are mainly in the center of urban area. Also, the state of retail trading in the urban commercial district would affect the spatial distribution of traditional and leisure Catering businesses. However, the traditional central place theory is harder to explain the problems of spatial distribution pattern of urban Catering Industry. This study has found an approach that could evaluate the service quality of Catering Industry with the quantitative study on the public praise of Catering Industry with the data from the internet. Moreover, it could provide some advices for the service facilities planning and policy made by the government in order to facilitate the marketing Intelligence of Catering Industry and rational consumption of consumers.

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    Space Pattern Evolution of Population Distribution and the Driving Factors in Northeast China
    Tingting Yu, Yuxiang Song, Feilong Hao, Rong A
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (5): 709-717.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.05.008
    Abstract815)   HTML5)    PDF (1707KB)(685)      

    Northeast China is considered as the important old industrial base. However the change of population distribution and driving factors were not clear yet under the circumstance of a new round of revitalization. Therefore, according to the population census data in 1990, 2000 and 2010, Lorenz curve, relative change rate of population density and Moran’s I are employed to analysis spatial pattern evolution of population distribution in Northeast China in 1990-2010, which consist of 176 counties. Subsequently, based on the partial least squares (PLS) regression method, 10 natural and social-economic factors are recognized to make quantitative analysis on spatial pattern evolution of population distribution in Northeast China. Major conclusion can be drawn as follows: 1) From the stand point of overall distribution pattern changes in nearly 20 years, average population density shows: Heilongjiang Province< Jilin Province

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Temporal Variation of Hydrological Rhythm in Poyang Lake and the Associated Water Exchange with the Changjiang River
    Xue DAI, Rong-rong WAN, Gui-shan YANG, Xiao-long WANG
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2014, 34 (12): 1488-1496.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1488
    Abstract1268)   HTML2)    PDF (630KB)(683)      

    Watershed hydrological cycle has been changed along with the intensifying frequency of extreme water events due to the influence of climate change and human activities. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, is a lake naturally connected with the Changjiang River. The complicated river-lake interactions impact the hydrological rhythm of lake, which will further influence water security associated with flood control, drinking water usage, water pollution and water ecology in the lake basin. In the case, it is of great importance for maintaining watershed water security to understand the characteristics of hydrological rhythm variation in terms of river-lake interactions. In this study, temporal variation of hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake and the associated water exchange with the Changjiang River were analyzed based on the measured hydrological data of 4 gauge stations in Poyang Lake area along with other data from the Hukou station at the intersection between the Changjiang River and Poyang Lake in 1951-2011. The major findings are shown as follows: the span of dry season increased since water level remains low in November and April. Meanwhile, the span of flood season decreased in 2000s. The lower water level in rising season and retreating season make Poyang Lake rising later but falling earlier than they did in 1980-2002, thus shortening the conversion time of the lake from flood situation to dry situation. Further, the peak flow in the annual hydrograph has been shifted. The primary cause of hydrological rhythm variation is the water exchange between the main stream of the Changjiang River and Poyang Lake. In 2000s, changes in the water level of the Changjiang River altered the interaction between the river and Poyang Lake through the slope of water surface, disturbing the lake basin hydrological processes and resulted in disordering of hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake. The increasing discharge from the lake to the river in retreating season lead to the lake enter dry season earlier. And the declining water level of Changjiang River in rising season lead to the addition of lake water continued to leak river, thus the lake rose slowly. For the reasons given above, the variation of water supplement of Poyang Lake on the Changjiang River mainstream in 2000s altered the hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake. Results of this study improve our understanding of Poyang Lake hydrological rhythm consequences of river-lake relationship changes, and it provides knowledge for long-term planning for effectively restoring nature's innate rhythms for sustainability and productivity in the Poyang Lake Basin. In addition, the results will help further explore the coordinate and healthy river-lake relationships.

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    Rescaling and Scalar Politics in the ‘One Belt, One Road’ Strategy
    Fenglong Wang, Xianchun Zhang, Linchuan Yang, Shijian Hong
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (4): 502-511.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.04.003
    Abstract1362)   HTML3)    PDF (2475KB)(667)      

    ‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR) was proposed by President Xi Jinping in 2013 when he visited Kazakhstan and Indonesia. It is now the core regional development strategy in China. A series of studies (mainly in Chinese) have been conducted to provide the contextual knowledge or suggestion for this strategy. However, a theoretical examination of OBOR remains at the very superficial level among existing scholarship. This study aims to analyze the nature and impacts of OBOR from the perspective of rescaling and scalar politics, with a balanced consideration on the political geographical mechanisms and potential risks for promoting OBOR. It is argued that OBOR reshapes the roles and territoriality of Chinese state and produces a number of new geographical scales based on construction of international infrastructure, capital flows and trade cooperation. Specifically, the state power is re-territoralized through forming new international organizations and investing in the international infrastructure; the importance of some large cities are also highlighted as the nodes of OBOR. In other words, the inter-national processes are embedded in sub-national regions or new state spaces, confirming the previous theories on ‘localization’. The rescaling strategies enable China to gain more influence on Eurasian geo-political and economic processes and more space to accelerate its capital accumulation. This echoes Lefebvre's arguments that the spatial fix of urban growth is based on scalar fixes. Therefore, it is interesting to note that the scale and power relations are mutually constructed. On the one hand, scale is produced and reconstructed by both international and domestic political powers and capitals; on the other hand, the rescaling processes have great impacts on the existing power relations and capital accumulation. The perspective of scalar politics suggests that there are some potential hindrance and risks behind this new initiative. At the international level, China is not only facing complex up-scaling forces related to the multilateral and international relations and local unrests, but also confronting the down-scaling forces based on the existing boundary and scalar discourses. At the domestic level, OBOR may lead to excessive competition, over accumulation and repeated construction due to local protectionism determined by the political promotion system in China. Some potential risks may also be caused by Xinjiang separatists, who can get supports easier than with the further opening of China to the rest of the world in the OBOR strategy. China must cope with these scalar politics actively in order to promote "one belt one road" strategy. This research has much policy implication for Chinese government to smooth the mechanisms of scalar politics on internationalization and reduce the potential risks of oversea investment, inter-national cooperation and regional governance. This aticle also furthers the understanding of scale in human geography by integrating discussions of rescaling and scalar politics from different sub-disciplines.

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    Point Pattern Analysis of ATMs Distribution Based on Ripley’s K-Function Method in Nanjing City
    Jiechen Wang, Min Lu, Zhenyu Yuan, Yikang Rui, Tianlu Qian
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (12): 1843-1849.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.12.009
    Abstract2184)   HTML19)    PDF (722KB)(657)      

    Since distributions of many types of urban objects are not random but in some particular patterns, analyzing and revealing the spatial distribution pattern of these points in urban space are essential to understand social, economic and geographical factors behind the distributions, and analysis results are conductive to wide applications such as facility layout and aided decision support. In point pattern analysis, the results may be biased by merely calculating the nearest neighbor distance. The Ripley’s K-function was therefore proposed with advantages of considering the distance between any pair of points. Because many urban points associated with human activities are constrained by road networks, a network K-function, as an extension of traditional planar K-function, is then presented by applying a network distance, i.e., the shortest path distance between any pair of two points. In this article, the Ripley’s K-function was applied to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of ATMs in Nanjing City. First of all, we used both planar univariate K-function and network univariate K-function to analyze the distribution pattern of ATMs at spatial scales of downtown areas and main urban districts. Then we used planar bivariate K-function and network bivariate K-function to investigate the spatial correlation between ATMs and metro stations in main urban districts. Local bivariate (cross) K-functionwas finally applied to explore the impact of metro stations on the ATMs in local areas. The results show that ATMs are highly clustered in both planar and network space and the cluster characteristic is more significant in downtown areas than in main urban areas. Besides, ATMs and metro stations are highly correlated in the study area. With the increase of the measuring distance, the relationship between ATM and metro station distributions shows more obvious characteristic of spatial aggregation within a certain distance. In the analysis of local cross K-function method, ATMs are clustered with metro stations in downtown areas while there is no significant clustering characteristic between ATMs and metro stations on the outskirts. It implies that the distribution of ATMs is mainly determined by the regional commercial development. In addition, for spatial pattern analysis on point objects distributed along road networks, network K-function method is more practical than planar K-function in terms of revealing appropriate distribution pattern and relationship between two types of point objects.

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    The Spatial Pattern of China Air Cargo Transportation in 21st Century
    Yanling Chu, Zhiguang Gong, Zhongzhen Yang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2016, 36 (3): 335-341.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.03.003
    Abstract774)   HTML0)    PDF (461KB)(649)      

    The domestic express market in China expands quickly since 2000. Air cargo transportation industry becomes a new growth point in China civil aviation transportation industry. In 2012, China civil aviation cargo turnover volume is 57.44×108 tn-km, second behind US in the world. China air transportation varies from both time and space with the international air freight transportation market change and domestic air freight transportation rise. Air freight transportation is a very important part of air transportation and flight network is its spatial carrier to provide air transport service. Illustration of China air transportation feature and its spatial pattern to both air freight transportation industry and aviation industry will contribute to formulate aviation industry development strategy, which has a very important theoretical significance and practical value to China air freight transportation industry development and airline network layout optimization. The air transportation and its spatial pattern are the important topics in air transport field in China. Currently concerning studies are mainly focusing on the passenger traffic. Thus, this paper analyzes the spatial pattern and temporal evolution of air cargo transportation in China based on SDE and Spatial Gini index. SDE is used to describe temporal process of the element spatial distribution. Spatial Gini index is used to measure element concentration in network. With domestic airport and flight segment data from 2001 to 2012, this paper calculates SDE and Spatial Gini index to describe China air cargo transportation and its spatial pattern. The result shows: 1) The spatial pattern of the air cargo transportation is consistent with the economic pattern, mainly concentrating in Shanghai and Hangzhou—the core of Changjiang River Delta, Guangzhou and Shenzhen—the core of Zhujiang River Delta, Beijing and Tianjin—the core of Beijing and Tianjin District, as well as developed areas in western China, (e.g.) Chengdu and Chongqing). China flight transport center is moving to the northwest inland region from the southeast coastal areas; 2) Four combination airports (e.g. Beijing/Tianjin, Shanghai/Hangzhou, Guangzhou/Shenzhen and Chengdu/Chongqing) replace Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou and become four highly concentrated regional air freight transport combination hubs. Air freight network is changing from coexistence hybrid network (point-to-point structure, hub-and-spoke hub structure) to hub-and-spoke network. 3) The air cargo at the airports and flight segments tends to disperse, and its volume on hub airports and main routes reduces slowly year on year. Regional airports and branch flight segments undertake more and more air cargo. 4) The air cargo transportation main corridors are established between four combination hubs. On those corridors, the total air cargo volume reduces from 47.04% in 2001 to 30.91% in 2012.

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    The Rising Labor Costs and Spatial Restructure of Chinese Manufacturing
    Wei Li, Canfei He
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA    2017, 37 (9): 1289-1299.   doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.09.001
    Abstract1081)   HTML2)    PDF (639KB)(649)      

    The spatial evolution of manufacturing is one of the focuses of economic geographers. Using Chinese industrial enterprises data and panel data regression model, this article investigates the effect of labor market transition on the spatial transfer of Chinese manufacturing. The main conclusions are as follows: firstly, the rising labor cost has becoming a key factor that has an influence on the spatial transfer of Chinese manufacturing. The industrial agglomeration in developed area was not affected by the relatively high labor costs before 2004, but after 2004, the rising labor cost in developed area drove enterprises, no matter export-oriented enterprises or enterprises that served domestic marked, to migrate to relatively less developed areas with relatively low labor costs. Secondly, the flying geese pattern has occurred in China. Before 2004, China's manufacturing continuously agglomerated to the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Shandong Peninsula and other areas. However, after 2004, the manufacturing enterprises began to migrate to less developed area, such as the northern Jiangsu, the middle and western Shandong and the middle and western regions in China. Enterprises that met the domestic market mainly migrated to the central and western China, while export-oriented enterprises mainly migrated from the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta to Shandong Peninsula, Liaodong Peninsula and other areas with convenient transportation. Lastly, the eastern area showed little tendency of industrial upgrading. The development of enterprises, especially enterprises that met domestic market was still labor cost-driven. However, the development of exported-oriented enterprises showed a tendency of capital-driven.

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