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  • Orginal Article
    Dongqi Sun, Jingxiang Zhang, Hao Chen, Yi Hu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2016, 36(2): 161-169.

    Displaced compensation is the main point of displaced households’ benefits in inner-city restructuring and urban expansion. Its compensation approaches and benefits rate are influenced by many factors. This article uses 349 displaced residential surveys conducted in 4 resettlement areas in Nanjing to examine the compensation. 1) Examining compensation approaches by using binary logistic regression. In China, there are two approaches: in-kind compensation and monetary compensation. The result shows that displaced households from urban village and households with the couple are both unemployed are more likely to get in-kind compensation. Because of the large size of their displaced housing area in urban village, the monetary expenses are too high to the local government. And the resettlement housing is founded by the central government and municipal government subsidies, not by the local government alone, therefore, the local government are more likely to offer in-kind compensation for displaced households from urban village. 2) Examining the benefits rate of displaced households who get monetary compensation. The results show that: households from urban village have the highest benefits rate, because before displacement they could get more income from renting their housing, the local government have to give more to persuade them to leave. And “more than 7 members’ large household size” and “high education level” have significant positive contribution to benefits rate. For the large size households, the local government could consider their actual situation to give more benefits. And for the high education households, they know more law and policies to negotiate with the local government to get more. But the household with stated-work unit family member get less benefit rate. The results of this analysis could have several explanations. One is that residents who held a position in a work unit are usually better off than farmers. They are able to accept a lower discount than farmers, and may even purchase market housing. Another explanation is that since work units are supported by corresponding ministries of the central government, or have to maintain good relationships with the local government, in some demolition projects the local government coordinates with work units to make sure that employees are forced to move or to accept and sign the compensation contracts as soon as possible which make them loss the negotiation chance. We conclude that the benefit is not the result of market-oriented, but the product of the market and the old system of planned economy. Because in the process of compensation, the local government still use some the planned economy period approaches, such as incomplete monetization, set the standard ceiling; consider the households actual situation (whether they are low-income), etc.. Market led by the demolition and land transfer, in the resettlement compensation is still the implementation of non-market approach. Therefore, the establishment of fair and reasonable compensation mechanism is the key solution.

  • Orginal Article
    Guangwen Meng, Chunzhi Wang, Mingming Du, Jiguang Wang, Chuan Zhao, Xiaonan Lu, Hongmei Wang
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2018, 38(5): 727-736.

    The article uses the index of trade combination degree to analyze the dependence of China and Nigeria on each other, and summarize the characteristics of China's investment and trade with Nigeria. Then, by reviewing the progress of development of Nigeria Ogun Guangdong Free Trade Zone, analyzing the Free Trade Zone aggregation degree by using the EG index, the results show that most industries have high agglomeration degree, and conform to the requirements of Nigeria to encourage pioneer industry. The third, through the analysis and discussion of the results, the article sums up the challenges faced by the Zone in terms of industry, infrastructure, the host country's political and economic environment. Finally, it puts forward some suggestions on the future optimization and development of the park from the government and the enterprise.

  • Orginal Article
    Yan-guang CHEN
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2012, 32(1): 12-17.

    The curves on the change of level of urbanization over time are called urbanization curves, which are in fact models of the progress of urbanization based on empirical evidences from developed countries and developing countries. There are two types of urbanization curves. One is S-shaped curve, and the other, J-shaped curve. The S-curve can be modeled with the logistic function, while the J-curve cannot be described by the logistic function. The former is applicable to the developed countries, whereas the latter is applicable to the developing countries. So far, there have been more studies on the S-shaped curve. However, fewer studies have been devoted to the J-shaped curve of urbanization. Consequently, we know little about the general principle on the J-shaped curve and its underlying rationale, which remain to be further explored in the future. In this paper, various studies on urbanization curves are systemized to form a framework of models on the level of urbanization. The logistic curve was once divided into three stages by Northam (1979): initial stage, acceleration stage, and terminal stage. However, the Northam's proposal is just a phenomenological theory with several defects: first, the definition of 'acceleration stage' is not correct; second, there are no theoretical basis and critical scale for the divisions. It can be proved that the logistic process falls into four phases. Taking half of urbanization level capacity as a tipping point, the logistic curve is divided into two stages: acceleration stage (urban majority) and deceleration stage (urban minority). The tipping point can be determined by two methods of elementary mathematics. Then the two stages are respectively divided into two sub-stages by means of the exponential law of urban-rural ratio with a parameter as characteristic length. Now, urbanization process can be divided into four stages: initial stage, acceleration stage, deceleration stage, and terminal stage. Also it can be divided into three stages: initial stage, celerity stage (including acceleration stage and deceleration stage), and terminal stage. Two methods are always applied to the research of urbanization curves and the related urbanization dynamics. One is phenomenological analysis, and the other, theoreticalogical analysis, which consists of three approaches: urban-rural allometric growth, urban-rural population replacement, and urban-rural population interaction dynamics. Urban-rural allometric growth analysis is a kind of scaling analysis. Urban-rural population replacement suggests a new dynamical analysis. Urban-rural interaction comprises linear dynamics and nonlinear dynamics. The linear dynamics is based on the well-known Keyfitz-Rogers model, whereas the nonlinear dynamical analysis can be employed to interpret the similarities and differences between the S-shaped and J-shaped curves. China’s urbanization process can be described with the J-shaped curve rather than the S-shaped curve. The studies on the urbanization curves will be significant for understanding the dynamical mechanism and essence of Chinese urbanization.

  • Xiao Duning, Li Xiuzhen
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 1997, 17(4): 355-364.
    This essay is based on two important landscape ecology congresses the authors attended in 1995. It summerized the recent development of landscape ecology at home and abroad, and introduced some advanced fields in the subject, such as spatial ecology, future landscape planning, optimum land use arrangement, as well as landscape and culture etc. The authors also gave his own opinions on some theoretical and practical problems, such as frame works of landscape ecology, landscape stability and bearing capacity, ecological effects of human activity, agricultural landscape construction and planning, as well as urban landscape structure and residential environment etc. To make this new discipline more applicable in our country, much work should be done on the cooperation among different sciences and government departments.
  • Orginal Article
    Fenghua Sun, Dadao Lu, Hezhi Dai, Xiaoyan Shen, Xixi Wang, Jianbin Xu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2017, 37(1): 1-10.

    Firstly, this article reviewed the research of the construction of Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway. The interpretation of the theory of geopolitics and geopolitical strategy, the main foreign geopolitics and geopolitical strategy were summarized. Then it clearly pointed out that the geopolitical strategy determines the direction of competitive power. China has the most complex geopolitical environment in the world, because the "V" shape geopolitical hot line exists around China for long time. China's geopolitical "great game" is made up of the "V" shape geopolitical hot line which passes through five geo-political strategy of district, surrounding China, such as Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, South Asia, North Asia, and Central Asia. The dispute over the South China Sea is a direct threat to the safety of China's territory. Northeast Asia has become a hot spot in China's geopolitical relations. There is a long-time battle between China and India in South Asia. Russia will become an important Strategic partner of China in North Asia. The complex geopolitical factors of Central Asia will affect China's northwest frontier safety for a long time. The great geopolitical game of China must be well played to ensure the safety of China's geopolitical strategic problem. The study shows that there is of great significance for the construction of trans-Bohai strait passageway and its geopolitical strategies of China. Firstly, the construction of trans-Bohai strait passageway is an important support for playing the great game of China's geopolitical. Then it is an important component of the “one belt one road” strategy which is to break the U.S. Asia Pacific rebalancing strategy. Third, it will play an important role in curbing the local war to ensure national security in Northeast Asia. Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway is a world-class project which has high cost, high income as well as high risk. So we must learn from the experience and lessons of domestic and foreign world-class engineering construction, as well as do research in all relevant issues and we should never be eager for quick back.

  • Orginal Article
    Xiao Qin, Feng Zhen
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2017, 37(3): 321-330.

    Appearance of Information and communication technology has set off a new wave of big data to promote a transformation of the traditional methods in urban studies. However, types of limitations of big data also make scholars rethink the role of small data in specific applications for research. We believe that the small data will not lose its value, instead, it can be combined with big data in urban study, which is needed to focus on relationship between urban and resident activity in the information era. Therefore, we should discuss a new framework for such combination on complicated urban problems and diversified resident demands. Firstly, we put forward to three methodologies including combination between physical space and activity space, combination between correlativity and causality, and combination between macro-scale analysis and micro-scale analysis. Secondly, based on above methodologies, we build three method frameworks for urban studies in the information era, namely ‘Spatial development evaluations for big samples+Spatial difference and connection discovery+Factors discussions for small samples’, ‘Model building for small samples+Factors discussions+Verifications and explorations for big samples’, and ‘Micro-analysis of activities+Delineations of activity space+Factors discussions’. Finally, we discuss applications of above three method frameworks.

  • Orginal Article
    Guo-jun ZENG, Shu-zhi SUN, Hong ZHU, Bo LIU, Xiao-mei CAI
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2013, 33(3): 291-298.

    The globalization is far from the displace process. However, it is the process of redefination and production of locality. On the background of globalization, the frequent migration of people and businesses makes them exceed the established boundary, forming a more and more translocality. Recently, the locality and cultural production are gotten a lot of research interests of cultural geographers. However, many questions, such as ‘paradox of cultural preservation and innovation’ and the ‘dilemma of authenticity and standardization’ faced by translocal cultural production are unresolved by scholars. This article constructs a theoretical framework of restaurants' cultural production to discuss the categories and characteristics of translocal cultural production based on four cases of foreign restaurants in Canton. The theoretical analysis reveals that there are four different kinds of cultural production of translocal restaurants: standardization of authenticity, cultural production of authenticity, cultural production of standardization, and cultural production of Heterogeneity. And the results of case study illustrate that four kinds of cultural production can be accepted by the consumers of translocal restaurants. In virtue of disciplinary integration, the conbination of translocality and cultural production would provide chances for the development of translocal cultural production. And also, it is a new exploration of the food geography with the methodology of new culture geography. This article would promote the discipline development of cultural geography. In the meanwhile, it can provide a theoretical basis for the protection and innovation of food culture, as well as diffusion of food culture and identification of place image.?

  • Chen Guojie
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 1997, 17(1): 1-7.
    Baidu(76) CSCD(24)
    The formation and enlarging of economic development gaps between the east, centre and west in China resulted from long time evolution by comprehensive effects consisting of historical, natural and social factors. Contemporary unbalance of regional economic development enlarges the gap of economic grades in the three parts of China. It is a good way for the western China to carry out the strategy of overall opening to outside world, but it should emphasize to connect with the Pacific Area and the eastern and central parts of China. Meantime, it is not negligent for the western part to accelerate the construction of trafic trunk connecting the west with the east.
  • Orginal Article
    Jian-jun DING
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2014, 34(12): 1418-1427.

    It is very important that to know the poverty degrees of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas in China for implementing the Contiguous Destitute Areas′ development and poverty alleviation strategy effectively. As development and poverty are the two sides of a coin, moreover, the development connotation has broadened from economic growth to comprehensive development and the poverty domain enlarged from single dimension to multi-dimensions, this article adopts a new way to assess poverty from the perspective of comprehensive development. Firstly, the author constructed a comprehensive development index system which covered 24 indicators of economic development, social service and ecological environment. Then, assessed and compared the poverty degrees of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas. The results showed that: 1) Among of the three dimensions of economic development, social service and ecological environment, economic development performance was the worst and became the poorest dimension of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas in China at present, the performance of social service had improved but still very poor, the ecological endowment was rich and ecological pressure was low so far, but the ecology was rather fragile and needed to pay more attention to it ; 2)The spatial distribution characteristics of poverty degree were that the poverty degree of Contiguous Destitute Area was more and more serious from eastern part to northern part and to southwestern part gradually, and southwestern hinterland was the poorest area of China, where covered 5 Contiguous Destitute Areas such as Wuling Mountain Area, Qinba Mountain Area, Wumeng Mountain Area, Border Area of Western Yunan and Rocky Desertification Area of Yunan, Guizhou and Guangxi, in these areas, there were lots of poor families and the poor degree was the most serious one; 3) Besides some common characteristics of the indicators which revealed the economic development level and regional self-development ability such as per capita GDP, per capita revenue, rural per capita net income, average years of education and scientific and technical personnel number in ten thousand people, there were obvious differences of indicators such as cement road ratio of administrative village, population density, nine-year compulsory education achievement ratio, village clinic coverage ratio and illiteracy rate of young adults among the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas.

  • Orginal Article
    Yanwei Chai, Bochu Liu, Yu Liu, Xiujun Ma, Tana, Yue Shen
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2018, 38(1): 1-10.

    Urban signs characterize the state of development and operation of a city, including construction conditions of built environment,driving force of urban economic and social development, operational status of facilities and urban activities of individuals in the city, etc. The diagnosis of urban signs equals to the health examination of urban development and operation, by which sticking points are recognized. A set of reliable and practical urban diagnostic indices is required not only to comprehensively reflect correlative sub urban systems that are static or dynamic, but also illustrate the status of urban system through quantitative methods and geo-visualization. Using traditional data and big data from different sources, this paper constructs a system of diagnostic index of urban signs based upon the integration of urban activity-travel system, urban population system, urban operation system, and urban environment system. The diagnostic index system is decomposed into 4 dimensions including fundamental force, driving force, pressure and vitality. The fundamental force index is used to describe basic attributes of land use and population; the driving force index reflects the state of development of spatial units through development of enterprises and quality of the environment; the pressure index is used to monitor the running status of the urban system, and as such, it plays a role in risk-evaluation and risk-warning; the vitality index reflects the real vitality of the spatial units by demonstrating the dynamic characteristics of the activity system and flows in time and space. 12 spatio-temporal scales are acquired through intersection of 4 levels of the spatial units(municipal Shanghai , district, Jiedao, census tract)and 3 levels of temporal scales(annual,daily and real time levels). The index weight is determined by fuzzy hierarchy analysis. Taking April 6, 2016 as an example, we calculate both comprehensive and dimensional diagnostic index of urban signs of Jiedaos (subdistrict that is sub-divided into several residential communities or neighbourhoods) in Shanghai and elaborate on how the diagnostic index of urban signs corresponds to actual state and facilitates detection of urban problems. Results show that comprehensive diagnostic index varies slightly while considerable variations emerge in diagnostic index of each dimension. Fundamental force index, driving force index and vitality index decline gradually from inner city to suburbs. On the contrary, pressure index increases from inner city to suburbs. Through visual and real-time analysis and evaluation, the diagnostic index of urban signs has huge potential for implementation in urban grid management, pressure warning and other needs of urban governance.

  • Orginal Article
    Zenglin Han, Bin Li, Kunling Zhang, Xuan Li
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2016, 36(5): 643-652.

    It is an important issue for marine economy research filed to analyze and show the research hotspot, the core of author groups, major research institutions and important scholarly journals. Taking 3 441 articles related to marine economy which are retrieved form “China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database” and“Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index” as subjects, we have drawn maps of the research hotspot, the core of author groups, major research institutions and important scholarly journals to by CiteSpace, a visual software for literature analysis. As a result, firstly, since Chinese marine economy research association was established in 1982, marine economy caused concern of scholars gradually. Secondly, the study of China’s marine economy focused on marine economy, marine industry, sustainable development, exploitation of marine resources, coastal tourism, coastal regions, etc. Thirdly, Han Zenglin, Zhang Yaoguang, Zheng Guibin, Yin Kedong, Li Jingyu and Xu Zhibin are the top six prolific authors in marine economy research, and most research teams are study alone, common research teams are made up by authors who come from the same institution; and State Oceanic Administration People’s Republic Of China, Ocean University of China, Liaoning Normal University and Guangdong Ocean University are the top four prolific intuitions. At last, the journal which published the most of articles about marine economy is “Ocean Development and Management”, while “Economic Geography”, “China Population Resources and Environment” and “Resources Science” are the main core journals of marine economy research. The article showed a structure in the marine economy research from various angles, by which we hope to help for the learning of the status of marine economy research.

  • Orginal Article
    Tingting Yu, Yuxiang Song, Feilong Hao, Rong A
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2017, 37(5): 709-717.

    Northeast China is considered as the important old industrial base. However the change of population distribution and driving factors were not clear yet under the circumstance of a new round of revitalization. Therefore, according to the population census data in 1990, 2000 and 2010, Lorenz curve, relative change rate of population density and Moran’s I are employed to analysis spatial pattern evolution of population distribution in Northeast China in 1990-2010, which consist of 176 counties. Subsequently, based on the partial least squares (PLS) regression method, 10 natural and social-economic factors are recognized to make quantitative analysis on spatial pattern evolution of population distribution in Northeast China. Major conclusion can be drawn as follows: 1) From the stand point of overall distribution pattern changes in nearly 20 years, average population density shows: Heilongjiang Province< Jilin Province

  • Orginal Article
    Bin Yu, Yan Lu, Juxin Zeng, Yuanyuan Zhu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2017, 37(3): 375-385.

    In the context of both contemporary human development transformation and humanism booming, ‘living space’ has become a new perspective for human geographers to investigate the change of human-environment relationship, and the spatial view of integrating ‘pattern-connotation-implication’ has also become a new thinking to interpret the interaction of human activities and environment. So far, the researches on living space have focused mainly on the urban areas and their element space and space form. In contrast, little attention has been paid on the rural areas, juxtaposition space and three-dimensioned research. Rural living space refers to a polymer formed by the overlapping of everyday activities for rural residents in a certain territory, such as dwelling, employment, consumption and leisure, and also an organic body where spatial form, spatial implication and spatial meaning are inherently associated with each other. Due to differences in development environment and concrete national situations, post-modernization and counter-urbanization in developed countries has contributed to the post-rurality in rural space. There have been two highlights on rural living space in western academic circles. One indicates the diversification of living subjects in rural area in the context of post-productivism and the heterogenization of living space, and the other refers to life experience and spatial construction with respect to vulnerable groups who are “otherized” by urban social living or marginalized in space. Rural region in China has kept going through function transformation and spatial reconstruction, so it is a unique significance for the livable construction of rural living space. At the present stage, there are also two distinct characteristics studying on rural living space at home. From the view of contents, studies on changes in dwelling space and employment space of rural residents have been played more attention, while studies on consumption space and leisure space are as sparse as morning stars. From the view of methods, the empirical analysis in spatial forms has occupied a leading position, while the structural analysis in spatial implication and humanistic analysis in spatial meaning are expected to carry forward. Notably, it is hard for western studies on rural living space to be standardized. Studies on China’s rural living space own their distinct context. Effective analysis framework can be made from the view of space mutually unified by form, implication and meaning, applying the rational of deconstructing spatial pattern by environment, perceiving spatial connotation by relationship and interpreting spatial implication by impacts, and powerful analysis tools can be created based on various methods of spatial behavior analysis, employing the research methods of combing quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis, spatial analysis and statistical analysis; Which will focus on mainly exploring the features, mechanism and effects of the changes of the rural living space to reveal the change laws of rural human-environment. The expected achievements might amplify the research viewpoints, contents and methods of rural geography, and provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of the rural areas.

  • Yi Fuke, Li Chonghao, Zhao Kuiyi, Zheng Xuangfeng, Ding Shouqin
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 1982, 2(4): 375-384.
    The Sanjiang Plain is situated in the Northeast China,it’s a low alluvial plain formed by three rivers:Songhuajiang,Helongjiang,Wusulijiang.The plain is one of concentrated distribution areas of marshland and swamp meadows in our country. The vegetation type in the Sangjiang Plain is comprised of forest,meadow and swamp vegetation,in which vegetation of swampy meadow and marshland is dominant,about 74% of natural vegetation.This paper introduced the classification system of vegetation and describes the costituent,construction and distribution of all vegetation types there (figures and photographs of main types),and the formation and succession regularity of swamp vegetation as well,finally comprehensive utilization and necservation of reginal vegetation resources.
  • Orginal Article
    Jie YIN, Er-fu DAI, Shao-hong WU
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2013, 33(11): 1370-1376.

    Under the background of global climate change, extreme events occur frequently which can cause intensified natural disaster risk. China characterized with high population density and intensive economy in east-central areas, as one of the countries influenced frequently by typhoon events, the agriculture, population, buildings and economy are threatened significantly by typhoon disasters. The quantitative risk assessment on disaster-bearing bodies and regionally integrated zoning are not just a theory study in risk management, also can offer practical guidance on mitigation and prevention in typhoon disaster. In our study, on the basis of the typhoon disaster mechanism, the vulnerabilities of disaster-bearing bodies were evaluated according to typhoon disaster loss criteria established by applying historical typhoon loss data. In addition, the probabilities of typhoons in each country region were analyzed comprehensively using the indices of landing frequencies and track line lengths. Then applying risk assessment model, the typhoon risks caused by the different intensities were evaluated quantitatively. Synthesized on the risks of the same or the different intensity typhoons for disaster-bearing bodies, the typhoon disaster risk zone for China was divided into nine areas and belonged to three classes (respectively is high, medium and low risk). The high risk areas are located in southern part of Guangxi Province, most of Guangdong Province, coastal areas of Fujian and Zhejiang Province, Yangtz River Delta area, most of Jiangsu Province, some inland counties of Jiangxi and Anhui Province. Based on the above results, the helpful suggestions on prevention and reduction in regional typhoon disaster were put forward.

  • Orginal Article
    Gang Li, Ran Tan, Huijuan Wang, Xiang Yan, Yan Shao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2017, 37(7): 1049-1058.

    Based on over ten thousand pieces of relative-seeking data from a certain online public platform, the basic laws of crime activities of trafficking in children in China during 1980-2015 were examined through a variety of analytical methods like GIS and SPSS from the perspective of geography of crime. It was found that: 1) The main purpose of trafficking is for forced adoption, and the total trafficking amount of the male is more than that of the female. High trafficking frequency occurred at low ages. The female were trafficked more at adolescence stages while boys were trafficked more at baby, infant and children stages. It can be divided into four trafficking types: “family control type”, “adoption tricking type”, “integrated transition type” and “pre-adult labor type”. 2) The amount of crime since 1980 presented a “Pour Spoon” pattern of fluctuations and reached the peak stage during 1989-1998. The crime was significantly affected by the strike policy and population policy with a “seesaw” type of response. Compared to promulgation of legal foul, a direct blow from the public security department was still the most effective way to curb. 3) The number of monthly changes in criminal cases showed two-inverted “U” pattern, with two peak stages from May to August and from October to January. Seasonal variation was not obvious. The crime occurred more frequently during the winter half-year (summer and autumn) than the winter half-year (winter and spring), which indicated temperatures could promote the occurrence of the crime. 4) The crime presented “centralized supply/trafficking-out from the west while decentralized demand/trafficking-in to the east” features: the core area of supply concentrated in Sichuan and Guizhou of Southwest China while the core area of demand concentrated in Fujian, Guangdong, Shandong and Henan. The whole migration pattern of “trafficking from the west to the east” had a linkage to the “push-pull” mechanism resulting from the regional economic difference between eastern and western areas. 5) The crime presented the main “field-flow” features of the spatial pattern as “three-area and two-route” and the two crime flows were formed between the three crime areas with certain driving effect: the south route’s flow was from Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan to Fujian with a certain collateral flow in Guangxi, and the north route’s flow was from Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan to Shandong, Henan and Hebei with a certain collateral flow in Shaanxi. 6) With the time went on, the spatial concentration degree of the crime of trafficking in children presented a descending trend. Gradually in future, the crime was sure to be developed from a regional crime to a national crime, and “Hollow Village” and “Urban Village” would be the potential high-risk areas, which would be a big challenge for future prevention and control. Several research prospects from the perspectives of data, contents, theories, methods and comparison are figured out.

  • Orginal Article
    Hui-ming ZONG, Peng-cheng WANG, Ji-cai DAI
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2015, 35(7): 831-837.

    The Chinese cities are experiencing the process of rapid globalization and urbanization, which makes the process of urban structure transforming more complicated. The relationship between the spatial layout of logistics and urban structure is meaningful to the urban theory and urban planning but less discussed. This article takes Chongqing’s urban area as a case, one of biggest cities and logistics center in western China, to analyze the influence of logistics parks to urban structure. We collected data by field work in all the logistics parks, especially by deeply interviewed with the managers of logistics parks and the officers from government. Firstly, we reviewed the development process of logistics parks in Chongqing City. Although it developed later, it has been experiencing a rapid industrialization process with a fast speed. Secondly, two location preferences of the logisitcs parks were found: one is near main road or main transportation terminal; the other is far from the urban center area; Thirdly, we argued that logistics parks have close relationship with the urban spatial structure. On the one hand, logistics parks locating outside of the urban area had led the sprawl of urban area through the transportation oriented development; on the other hand, they brought changes to the urban internal structure and function by guaranteeing the logistics land space and promoting the development of surrounded area. Fourthly, an interaction mechanism framework was conducted with urban governance factors and economical impacts. Finally, this article suggests that the direct and indirect interaction between the logistics park and urban structure should have different performance with different logistics parks. The future direction of research should be more cases study about the logistics parks and urban structure.

  • Orginal Article
    Jing-hu PAN, Yi-bo CONG
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2012, 32(11): 1321-1327.

    Transit route system is link between tourist destination and tourist market, so the good transit system will provide an important theoretical support for optimizing the distribution of scenic spots for planning-making. Scenic spot is a very important carrier of tourism activities. The study of the spatial structure of tourism is receiving increasing attention but methodology so far has used qualitative rather than quantitative methods. The criterion of A-grade scenic spot is a tourist ranking classifiable system in China, consisting of almost all the most popular and important tourist destinations in China. Based on an investigation on 1 063 tourist scenic spots with National AAAA grade (4A for short) and using GIS and some quantitative analysis methods, the spatial structure of scenic spots is investigated, with their characteristics and distribution for different strategies being discussed. Based on the matrix raster data, this article calculates the spatial accessibility of all counties in China using cost weighted distance method and ArcGIS as platforms. Then it discusses the spatial differences of county accessibility of scenic spots by ESDA (Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis). The results show that general scenic spots exhibit an aggregated distribution. Considering the accessibility, it can be found that the human scenic spots are more centralized. The average accessibility is about 60.5 min, and the area where the accessibility of scenic spots within 120 min reaches 63.29%, while the area where the accessibility within 30 min accounts for 19.84% and the longest time needs 595 min which is located at central Tibetan Plateau. The values of the average accessibility of natural scenic spots and human scenic spots are 67.7 and 63.01 min, respectively. And then, the distribution of the accessibility coincides with traffic line. At county level, the estimated values of Moran’s I are all positive using the analysis of spatial association. All the test results indicate that scenic spots and adjacent areas show the strong positive correlation. The distribution of hot spots regarding the accessibility shows a obvious zonal distribution pattern of hot spots-sub-hotspots-sub-cold spots-cold spots from east to west, which the hot spots are in the eastern and southern China, Central Liaoning, Chengdu-Chongqing, Kunming-Guiyang and Hainan. Cold spots are distributed in the border zone of Tibet, Xinjiang and Qinghai Province.

  • Orginal Article
    Xin-wei ZHANG, Yue-min NING
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2015, 35(6): 665-673.

    The cities in China are the administrative regions of different scales, and they are actually a kind of the city-region. So, the population size of a city in China can not represent the city’s real urban size. Based the concept of metropolitan area and the urban-rural definition from the 6th National Census, and adopted the related indices of population density and urbanization rate at the same time, the article firstly identified 128 metropolitan areas of China in 2010. Secondly, the article studied the characteristics and change of population size and spatial distribution of metropolitan areas of China. Structurally, the scale of population size in urban China obeys the rank-size rule, while the index of q rose from 0.787 to 0.891 in past 10 years which indicated the concentration of metropolitan system in China; nevertheless, the model of mega metropolitan areas has been seen since 2000, and there remains to be some developing space for those advanced metropolitans. Spatially, most metropolitan areas concentrate in the Eastern China, and three metropolitan interlocking regions have been emerging; the number of metropolitan areas is increasing in Middle China, but the population proportion accounted for the total population of metropolitan areas is lower; the development of metropolitan areas in the Western China lags behind other areas, with a characteristics of polarization. Lastly, the paper put forwards some suggestions.

  • Orginal Article
    Xiaoying Zhang, Xibo Wu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2016, 36(2): 231-238.

    Commercial space is typical of concentration of various activities, and thus always has great impacts on urban development and the evolution of spatial structure. The research on commercial space is a very important domain in Urban Geography, among which the impacts of shopping malls on the structure of urban commercial space has gradually been focused on by some scholars recently. Employing the software of ArcGIS and SPSS to conduct spatial and statistic analysis, respectively, this article explores the spatial -temporal patterns of the development of shopping malls in Guangzhou City and their relationship with the change of urban commercial spatial structure. The following conclusions have been drawn from the research: Firstly, the increase in the number and scale of shopping malls takes on a cyclical and jumping pattern, which is closely related to urban development. As to the spatial pattern, they originally concentrated in the urban center and gradually diffuse outward to the urban outskirts over time. Analysis of the elements underlying the spatial-temporal evolution of shopping malls reveals that population size is positively correlated with the number and scale of shopping malls, while correlation between population density and distribution of shopping malls is not obvious. Their locations almost coincide with the places with good transportation accessibility. The location of metro stations greatly influence the spatial distribution of shopping malls. Secondly, the spatial-temporal pattern of shopping malls is also greatly determined by the government’s strategy over urban spatial structure and the change in land uses. Thirdly, the rising of the commercial style of one-stop and experiential consumption also imposes large impact on the pattern. Finally, the paper examines the impacts of the development of shopping malls on urban commercial spatial structure. A flat ranking system of urban commercial centers has been brought about by the development of shopping malls, promoting the formation of polycentric urban commercial system and the upgrading of commercial levels. Based on the above analysis, the paper has some implications for the location choice of shopping malls in Guangzhou. Constrained by limited land, traffic congestion, etc., the number of shopping malls in Guangzhou will not increase too much. The growth of population size and improvement in traffic infrastructures will be conducive to the development of shopping malls in the inner side of suburb area. In the outer side of suburbs, the strong radiation of shopping malls can be taken advantages to advance the commercial environment. The city government can guide the orderly development of shopping centers based on different regional characteristics.

  • Orginal Article
    Qian CHENG, Su-pei LING
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2013, 33(10): 1166-1172.

    :Intangible cultural heritage is defined as a spectral cultural heritage that has important historical and art values. Research on the geographical distribution and affecting factors of the intangible cultural heritage in China is important for the improvement of heritage protection and management. Data from 2 376 items concerning intangible cultural heritage in China are collected on a national level and analyzed based on the Geographic Information System. Research shows that the structural types of intangible cultural heritage in China can be divided into three classes. The first class includes traditional craft and traditional opera. This class is considered the most predominant class among the intangible cultural heritage classes in China. The second class, which is less predominant, includes traditional music, customs, dancing, art, and literature. The third class, which is the least predominant among the classes, includes traditional physical education, medicine, and drama. Numerous types of intangible cultural heritage exist in China that were influenced by the nationality and rationality of the population. Most of these types of heritage can be found in the rich history, popular culture, and minority regions of China. The structural level of the heritage is unbalanced and exhibits zone and block shapes. The intangible cultural heritage in China is mainly distributed in the Eastern and Middle regions, whereas only a few are distributed in the Western region. The number and density of intangible cultural heritage in Southern China are bigger than that in Northern China. Intangible cultural heritage in China is also preserved by communities along the Changjiang River. Heritage distribution has a certain correlation with big river systems. The number and density of intangible cultural heritage is greatly unbalanced in the Eastern, Middle, and Western regions of China. Eastern China has the highest density of intangible cultural heritage followed by Middle China and Western China. Intangible cultural heritage is highly dense in Eastern China and sparse in Western China. The factors that affect the distribution of intangible cultural heritage are as follows. First is the geographic environment. More intangible cultural heritage can be found in areas rich in products and human activities. Second, the distribution of intangible cultural heritage has certain correlations with livable environmental conditions and minority regions because these areas are characterized by long histories and rich cultures. Third, minority regions along border areas are subjected to less cultural invasion. Although intangible cultural heritage items are divided in this paper to assess their precise spatial distributions, distinguishing these items is difficult because of carrier movement. The evaluation of intangible cultural heritage by the National Cultural Relics Administration is also limited. Thus, research on evaluation of intangible cultural heritage should be reinforced in the future.

  • Orginal Article
    Yao-guang ZHANG, Kai LIU, Gui-chun LIU
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2012, 32(9): 1033-1040.

    Many islets and reefs in South China Sea are main parts of China. The nine-dotted line is China’s maritime boundary line. To study the formation and evolvement of the nine-dotted line is not only a matter of maritime geopolitics, but also a matter of maintain sovereignty, protection of islets and reefs and resources management. How the nine-dotted line came into being is an academic topic that has not been studied much. Map is one of the means by which a country claims its territory. Besides demonstration in words, map-reading is used in this article to study the formation and evolvement of the nine dash lines to deline the South China Sea. The whole formation process is divided into three phases, namely the initial phase, taking-shape phase, and the final phase. Time before the 1930s witnessed the appearance of the maritime boundary line in South China Sea. The boundary line took shape in the 1930s, and its evolvement came to the final stage in the 1940s-1950s. The original continuous line demarcation and the dotted line demarcation in this sea area can all be found on maps in that period. The maps clearly showes how the eleven-dotted line demarcation changes to the current nine-dotted line demarcation. With the formation and evolvement of the nine-dotted line clarified, the historical fact could be confirmed that China has sovereignty over the islets and reefs within the line. The nine-dotted line is the final maritime boundary line of China.

  • Orginal Article
    Jialing Zou, Weidong Liu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2016, 36(11): 1629-1636.

    Since the proposition of “Belt and Road Initiative”, researches on trade between China and countries along the Initiative area have increased. However, it is relatively rare to study trade network taking China and those countries as a whole. In this article, we utilize a social network analysis method to analyze the characteristics, trade groups as well as core-periphery structure and its evolution of this trade network. Then we analyze the structure of sub trade network of China and the Southeast Asian countries. The results show that density of the trade network established by China and countries along “Belt and Road Initiative” areas has increased, coupled with growing number of core countries. Meanwhile, China’s core degree in this trade network has increased with China being the most important core country in 2013. What’s more, China becomes the core country in the sub trade network of China and the Southeast Asian countries as well. Based on this analysis, we propose that during the process of promoting “Belt and Road Initiative” construction, China should rely on policy communication to reduce trade barriers and improve trade facilitation with countries along the Initiative area. In particular, it should be set as the priority to facilitate trading conditions with core countries in the Initiative area trade network for further enhancing China’s core position in this network. What’s more, China should make good use of the advantage of being the core position in the network, play an active role of being the area core country and promote the construction and development of “Belt and Road Initiative”.

  • Ta Na, Zeng Yutian, Zhu Qiuyu, Wu Jiayu
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2020, 40(1): 60-68.

    Research on urban vitality has drawn more attention from different disciplines and perspectives such as urban geography, urban planning and urban government. Urban vitality is not only an important symbol of urban sustainable development, but also an important factor for cities to retain high-skilled talents, which could improve the competitiveness of the city. Studying urban vitality is conducive for us to re-understanding the city in a new perspective and improving urban human-oriented planning and management for the government, especially for some megacities and international cities which contain a large population. Urban vitality, consisting of economic vitality, social vitality and cultural vitality, reflects the level of urban development capacity and quality of life, which is also closely related to the citizens. In order to discover the urban vitality in Shanghai, this paper uses multi-source data, including dianping’s data which counts the number of businesses in the studying area to reflect the economic vitality, urban taxi arrival data in one week to reflect the social vitality and cultural facilities data in the studying area to reflect cultural vitality, to measure urban vitality from two scale: both block and sub-district level. Based on this comprehensive measurement, this article intends to analyze the spatial outcome characteristics of urban vitality in different blocks and sub-districts. This article also establishes a regression models for analyzing the impact mechanism of urban built environment which consists of multiple elements on urban vitality. It is found that the urban vitality of Shanghai is higher in the central area, decreasing from the central area to the surrounding area in the city. In the meanwhile, the value of urban vitality in Puxi area is higher than Pudong area, which means the daily activities and communication in Puxi area are more dynamic than these in Pudong area. Apart from differences between Puxi and Pudong areas, there are also distinctions regarding to the factors of built environments effecting the urban vitality between block level and street level. On the block level, it is found that the built environments effect significantly to different types of urban vitality and the comprehensive vitality. What’s more, for each vitality, the effect shows in different ways. Specifically, the increase of population density will influence the urban vitality by firstly in an active way then in a passive one. Especially for social and cultural vitality, the high density of population is not beneficial. For the facilities, increase of POI density and road network density presenting completeness and POI mixing degree presenting the variety of land use will promote all kinds of the vitality and comprehensive vitality. In the respect of the design, the increase of average building layers and building density will reduce the social vitality and cultural vitality, but will enhance the economic vitality and comprehensive vitality of the block at the same time. And in terms of the access to public transportation, the distance to the nearest bus station will increase the economic vitality of the block. According to the discoveries about the spatial pattern and the effecting factors of urban vitality, this article proves improving the built environment is meaningful to the development of urban.

  • Orginal Article
    Lu Lu, Ye Wei, Ruiqiu Pang, Xin Gao
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2019, 39(4): 550-559.

    Based on big data of flights of 37 aviation enterprises in China (data of Hongkang,Macau and Taiwan are exluded), using external linkage degree, assortativity /disassortativity index, hierarchical analysis and dominant niche analysis, the spatial organization mode and competition mechanism of China air passenger transport network were studied in this paper. Findings are as follows: 1) China’s domestic aviation network has developed to a relatively mature level where obvious hierarchy and core-periphery structure are formed, all aviation enterprises could be divided into 6 hierarchies based on the number of nodes, routes and the number of flights. 2) From the aviation enterprise perspective, network scale, hierarchy and assortativity/disassortativity as indexes, organization mode (stage of development) of aviation enterprise in China could be divided into 4 stages including core cultivation stage, core competition stage, transition stage and steady growth stage. 3) Most of aviation enterprises’ aviation network are core-periphery and assortative/disassortative whose competition focuses on ‘core competition’. 4) Referring to the judgement method of aviation network’s organization mode, there are two convergence laws in China aviation network namely hierarchical convergence andassortative/disassortative convergence. 5) Aviation enterprise with strong strength and large scale has high niche and a uniform distribution proportion in navigable cities. In contrast, aviation enterprise with weak strength and small scale has a low niche which leads to regional and uneven distribution in navigable cities. In order to optimize the structure of aviation network and avoid the malignant competition, aviation enterprises need to take actions. On the one hand, aviation enterprises have to optimize the organization mode according to distinctive features of different stages of development and explore the dominant niche which is adapted to the grade of enterprises. On the other hand, aviation enterprises need enhance the cooperation with each other for avoiding saturation of airlines and improving the whole aviation network’s resilience and efficiency.

  • Orginal Article
    Jian-ke GUO, Zeng-lin HAN
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2013, 33(11): 1285-1292.

    With economic globalization further development and wave of cosmopolitan industrial transfer continuously flowing, the heavy chemical industry accelerated transfers to China, Southeast Asia and other regions, which pluses new science and technology revolution, port development reform as well as the industrialization, urbanization, population employment in developing countries. Many factors are intertwined, so that the spatial relationship between the port and city has become increasingly complex. How dialectically look on the separation and integration of port and city? What does the dynamic trend of their interaction show? These issues are the important subject in port geography and urban geography. Closely around the new changes of the modern seaport city’s spatial evolution in China and taking revealing the dialectical relationship and dynamic changes of interaction between port and city as mainline, this study divides the evolution process of Chinese-style port-city spatial system into 4 stages: the early formation of primitive accumulation, spatial concentration, moved outside the port city of fission, and the bidirectional network development of port-city groups’ classification interaction. It deeply analyzes and depicts the spatial characterization of port-city on various stages. It emphasizes that the inevitable trend in advanced stage of port-city system development is port relocating, and then fission to port-city bidirectional network. Secondly, this article makes a system analysis on the dynamic mechanism of port-city interaction and its spatial system evolution from 4 aspects, that is, the dialectical relationship between relationship evolution and the geographical spatial influences of port-city, the urban geographical spatial impacts on port are endogenous impetus, the impacts of port on urban geographical spatial are in the dynamic changes, as well as the ultimate aim of port-city development in the globalization era. The article considers that the interaction among three forces (action of port on city, reaction of port on city and self-growth effect of city) promotes the evolution and cycling regeneration of port-city system ,and the spatial effect of the port evolution on city is the dominant factor. Finally, the article takes empirical study by investigating some Chinese large coastal port cities to verify the proposed “port-city spatial system” evolution theory of Chinese coastal cities, in order to reflect the new changes on port-city spatial relationship in new era, perfect regional system evolution theory of port city and provide scientific reference for port city’s development.. This article points out that the port-city system of main regional hub ports in current China is in the early stage of port-city bidirectional network development.

  • Orginal Article
    Hong-bo LI, Xiao-lin ZHANG, Jiang-guo WU, Bin ZHU
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2014, 34(4): 438-446.

    Based on the land change survey data of Southern Jiangsu in 2010, by using the related spatial analysis method, the rural settlement spatial pattern characteristics of Southern Jiangsu were analyzed, and on the basis of the district and county aspects the rural settlement spatial pattern was discussed, the driving mechanism of driving force mechanism was constructed. Some conclusions are drawn as follows: The overall distribution of rural settlement is concentrate, Su-Xi-Chang area has a higher density, Ningzhen area is sparse distribution, the overall distribution of rural and landform types has higher correlation. The main factors of rural settlement spatial pattern were summarized. The dynamic mechanism of rural settlement spatial pattern in southern Jiangsu is the formation of many factors. Country renewal development and external factors lead to reconstruction of rural settlement space. In the different stage of transformation development, action condition and function efficiency that influence the rural settlement spatial pattern are different. The quantitative analysis to rural settlement space reconstruction driving force in the regional level and county level indicates that the driving force of influencing rural settlement space reconstruction is mainly economic conditions, urbanization, and industrialization and transportation development. On that basis, the article has constructed dynamic mechanism of the rural settlement space reconstruction, and cleared the dominant force in various stages, as well as the rural settlement spatial morphological characteristics. At last, the main power and the rural settlement spatial mechanism were analyzed.

  • Orginal Article
    Li WANG, You-hui CAO, Ke-wen LIU, Cong WANG
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2012, 32(3): 301-307.

    The questionnaires are surveyed including the passengers’ travel destination, traffic mode choice and the travel distance, etc., in the Nanjing Station of Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity high-speed railway. Collecting the address, industry category, set-up time of 6 145 companies surrounding station within 3 000 m as the study samples, using spatial analysis methods, this article analyzes the distribution of industries and spatial clusters by high-speed railway station. The resluts are as follows. 1) Generally speaking, industry location has obvious circle structure around high-speed station. The company density shows a circle structure with the Nanjing Station as the center and 500 m as the buffer radius. The company density ascends to the top at 1 500-2 000 m, and has break in the point of 2 000 m far from the Nanjing Station. The wholesale and retail industry has the largest number, business service industry in second, science and technology service industry in third. Comparing industry proportion in each circle, we come to the conclution that business service industry, accommodation and catering industry increase gradually at 0-1 500 m, reduce significantly at 2 000 m, which confirms the high-speed railway passengers on business service industry and accommodation and catering industry needs a 1 500 m-radius concentration. 2) The trend of spatial industrial concentration is similar, decreasing with the distance. Owing to the different spatial scales, the location of wholesale and retail industry has most options; transportation industry and real estate industry tend to have a significant traffic location. The accommodation and catering industry, computer service industry, science and technology service industry as well as the resident service industry show homogeneous distribution based on the cluster distribution. 3) There is a significant difference in the spatial distribution of the industry, featured by “higher in the west and lower in the east”. The spatial distribution patterns are generally identified in three modes of concentration. The transportation industry and real estate industry have a "small scatter, large cluster" mode, that is, the spatial distribution of companies show relative concentration and form a single hotspot. The resident service industry, wholesale and retail industry as well as accommodation and catering industry present a “large scatter, large cluster” mode. Business service industry, science and technology service industry and computer service industry have a “large scatter, small cluster” mode. The results above confirm the Ripley' s K function analysis.

  • Orginal Article
    Jie FAN, Ya-fei WANG, Qing TANG, Kan ZHOU
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2015, 35(1): 1-10.

    It is an innovative work of comprehensive deepening reforms of China to establish the mechanism of monitoring and early-warning of carrying capacity. Based on the scientific connotation of the carrying capacity of national resources and environment and oriented to regional sustainable development, this article explores the “pressure-state-response” process of the interaction between the carrying body: the natural foundation (which consists of resources, environment, ecology and disasters) with the carrying object: the human production and life activities, and presents the academic thought that the early-warning of the national resources and environment carrying capacity is an overload early-warning according to the cap of the constraints of resources and environment or the population and economic rational scales or other key thresholds, and also presents a process early-warning in terms of the changes of the natural basic conditions or the tendencies of the impact of resource utilization and environmental changes. According to the exploration on the principles of early-warning carrying capacity, this article constructs the differential indicator system and the overall technical process of early-warning of marine and terrestrial resources and environment carrying capacity. Land resources stress index, water resources use intensity index, environmental stress strength index and vegetation coverage change range index are chosen as basic indicators to conduct an overall regional evaluation, and different specific indicators, such as the pollution level of dust-haze, the increase and decrease of arable land, equilibrium index of grass and livestock and the variation of eco-environmental quality, are chosen to conduct the specific evaluation respectively for the urbanized areas, major grain producing areas, pastoral and semi-pastoral areas and ecological function areas, and then the key thresholds of these indicators are determined to conduct classifying evaluation. Finally, this article integrates all the evaluations and puts forward an evaluation method which shows the differentials in terms of major function oriented zone and evaluation results of consistent expression, and then carries out the process evaluation using two indexes of resource utilization efficiency and environment pollution pressure to reflect auxiliary the early-warning state of China's resources and environment carrying capacity and sustainable development abilities, thus providing a scientific basis for the proposed recommendations for restrictive measures and the improvement of monitoring and early-warning mechanisms.

  • Orginal Article
    Gang BAO, Yu-hai BAO, Zhi-hao QIN, Yi ZHOU, Shiirev-Adiya
    SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA. 2013, 33(5): 613-621.

    The change trend of vegetation cover in Mongolian plateau and its response to seasonal temperature and precipitation were analyzed by employing MODIS NDVI in 2001-2010, composed by 16 day maximum value synchronous climate variables and MODIS land cover product MCD12Q1. The result indicated that the area of vegetation cover increased which was similar to that of vegetation cover decreased, reaching 43.75% and 42.22% of the total area of Mongolian plateau, respectively. In recent 10 years, the vegetation cover decreased in spring and summer, while increased in autumn. The correlation analysis between seasonal NDVI and corresponding seasonal climate factors showed that the correlativity between NDVI and precipitation was significant in spring and summer (P=0.02 in spring, P=0.003 in summer), and the correlation coefficient between NDVI and precipitation in autumn also reached 90% confidence level, indicating that precipitation was a main factor of influencing vegetation cover changes in Mongolian plateau. It was found that five different vegetation types experienced increasing trend in autumn, vegetation changes in Gobi-desert experienced increasing trend in all 3 seasons.NDVI of forest, grassland and shrub decreased in spring and summer, while farmland decreased in spring and increased in summer.