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Table of Content

    20 December 2014, Volume 34 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Intercity Financial Exclusion in Guangdong with an Exploration of Its Spatial Pattern
    Guo-jun ZHANG, Chun-shan ZHOU, Xue-qiang XU
    2014, 34 (12):  1409-1417.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.011.1409
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    Regarding the three dimensions of penetration, usage and effectiveness of financial services, we constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system of financial exclusion and measured the intercity financial exclusion in Guangdong Province of China in 2002, 2007 and 2012 respectively by using Human Development Index, and then analyzed the spatial pattern of its evolution by integrating the ArcGIS spatial analysis mode. The research showed that: 1) While the disparity of intercity financial exclusion in Guangdong was large, and relatively stable, the financial exclusion was far lower in the Zhujiang River Delta than the surrounding areas; 2) The intercity financial exclusion showed significant spatial correlation and spatial gathering characteristics, with obvious spatial disparity between the Zhujiang River Delta and the surrounding areas and basically stable evolutionary pattern. 3) The evolution pattern of financial exclusion disparity in Guangdong was affected by many interacting factors such as the strategy of the financial provider, the objective demand of the real economy development, the guidance of government economic behavior, social culture and institutions etc. This article argues, to reduce the financial exclusion, what is important is to speed up the regional economic development, reinforce governmental regulation, to develop micro-finance, and to cultivate good institutional and cultural environment.

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    Comparative Analysis on Poverty Degree of China′s 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas: with View of Comprehensive Development Index
    Jian-jun DING
    2014, 34 (12):  1418-1427.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1418
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    It is very important that to know the poverty degrees of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas in China for implementing the Contiguous Destitute Areas′ development and poverty alleviation strategy effectively. As development and poverty are the two sides of a coin, moreover, the development connotation has broadened from economic growth to comprehensive development and the poverty domain enlarged from single dimension to multi-dimensions, this article adopts a new way to assess poverty from the perspective of comprehensive development. Firstly, the author constructed a comprehensive development index system which covered 24 indicators of economic development, social service and ecological environment. Then, assessed and compared the poverty degrees of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas. The results showed that: 1) Among of the three dimensions of economic development, social service and ecological environment, economic development performance was the worst and became the poorest dimension of the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas in China at present, the performance of social service had improved but still very poor, the ecological endowment was rich and ecological pressure was low so far, but the ecology was rather fragile and needed to pay more attention to it ; 2)The spatial distribution characteristics of poverty degree were that the poverty degree of Contiguous Destitute Area was more and more serious from eastern part to northern part and to southwestern part gradually, and southwestern hinterland was the poorest area of China, where covered 5 Contiguous Destitute Areas such as Wuling Mountain Area, Qinba Mountain Area, Wumeng Mountain Area, Border Area of Western Yunan and Rocky Desertification Area of Yunan, Guizhou and Guangxi, in these areas, there were lots of poor families and the poor degree was the most serious one; 3) Besides some common characteristics of the indicators which revealed the economic development level and regional self-development ability such as per capita GDP, per capita revenue, rural per capita net income, average years of education and scientific and technical personnel number in ten thousand people, there were obvious differences of indicators such as cement road ratio of administrative village, population density, nine-year compulsory education achievement ratio, village clinic coverage ratio and illiteracy rate of young adults among the 11 Contiguous Destitute Areas.

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    The Process and Spatial-temporal Feature of Tourism Destination Network Evolution:A Case Study of MT. Huangshan Scenic Area and Tangkou
    Fa-jian LIU, Jie ZHANG, Jin-he ZHANG, Dong-dong CHEN
    2014, 34 (12):  1428-1437.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1428
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    Tourism destination networks have been the key field of tourism destination studies. They refer to certain network structures of the industrial sectors, organizations, governments, residents and tourists et al., that focus on the tourism activities inside or outside of destination, which is attached by some relations. The relations are built on tourism value chain, which contain tourist flow, capitals, information, technologies, products et al. The relations may be horizontal or vertical, formal or informal, short or long. Thus, the networks could be the lens of destination development, how the tourism destination network evolved is vital to understand the multiple actors in the destination to be a complex, pluralistic, intersectional and overlapping destination tourism industry system. Based on the theories of resort lifecycle and social network, this article takes MT. Hungshan Scenic Area and Tangkou Town (the tourist reception center of MT. Huangshan) as the subjects. After defining and classifying the actors and relations, collecting data from various sources, this paper analyzes the changes of networks and the impact effect in MT. Hungshan Scenic Area and Tangkou Town, and divides their development process into 5 stages, which are Temple management models, Foreign affairs and the hospitality model, Government leading development model, Stock enterprise management model, Multi-actors community participation model, and then draws and analyzes the characters of the network structures, and then tries to reveal the process and mechanics of destination network evolution. It points out that the networks have been going through a series of 'no connection networks', 'government-sponsored star-shaped networks', 'government and community double-drive networks' and 'multi levels elements networks that the communities participated extensively', as the strengthening of communities power in the future, this paper proclaims that the Huangshan tourism destination network would enter into an era of community-sponsored destination networks, and the capacity of sustainable development has been further enhanced. In addition, this paper assigns the evolution of the networks to the life-cycle stages, policy and planning adjustment, location and transport, local culture and path dependence.

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    Spatial-temporal Pattern of Prefecture-level Innovation Outputs in China: An Investigation Using the ESDA
    Chun-yang WANG, Chao ZHANG
    2014, 34 (12):  1438-1444.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.013.1438
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    With the development of the new economic geography, spatial structure study of regional innovation becomes more and more important. Using the methods of exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA)and spatial analysis software Geoda, the article analyzes the spatial distribution of innovation outputs in China, measured by the number of patent applications examined, throughout 341 prefecture-level cities from 1997 to 2009 of China. A significantly high level of spatial concentration and regional difference of innovation outputs among Chinese cities has been captured by the exploratory spatial data analysis, and the concentration level has increased steadily over the past years. Different from the significant polarization characteristics of innovation within the provincial spatial scale regions, prefecture level regional innovation showing a diversity local spatial dependent model. On the whole, the output of innovation in the prefecture level spatial scales naturally formed two distinct spatial clusters, named the eastern H-H cluster and the western L-L cluster. The eastern H-H cluster gradually transferred to the Shandong Peninsula, the Huanghe River Delta and the Zhujiang River Delta from the northeast and North China in the study period, while the western L-L cluster spatial development maintains relatively stable. The H-L clusters and L-H clusters are mainly distributed in the middle and join area, which shows an obvious characteristic of transition. This study can provide a scientific basis for the spatial correlation of innovation outputs among prefecture-level cities, and reflects the knowledge spillover and its spatial limitations of regional innovation which make a significant contribution to the evolution of Spatial-temporal pattern of innovation in China. Finally, on the basis of empirical analysis, policy suggestions and future research direction are proposed.

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    Exploring Urban Migrate Intention of Rural Residents in Traditional Agricultural Area Undertaking Urbanization Process: Based on Questionnaire Data of Zhoukou, Henan
    Li-wei WANG, Chang-chun FENG, Shun-cai XU
    2014, 34 (12):  1445-1452.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1445
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    :Rural-to-urban migration has been research hotspots since the 1950s. Perspectives of migration research diversify from econometric model to application of social theory during the last sixty years. Most of researches focus on regional migration and migrant workers′integration into urban life from city perspective.Up to now, few studies pay attention to rural residents′intention of migrating to towns. Recently the "new-type national urbanization plan (2014-2020)" reemphasizes on people-oriented basic urbanization ideas. In the realistic context of difficult integration of floating population into the city, increasing value of agricultural land and added assets, increasing volume of agricultural land transfer of use right, it is of great significance to analyze rural residents′ migration intention and its influencing factors from a bottom-up perspective. It also has far-reaching influence for the potentiality of future urbanization and the choice of urbanization path. In this article,Zhoukou in Henan Province is taken as a research example, rural residents′intention of migrating to town and its influencing factors are analyzed. Logit econometric model is utilized to study the influences on rural residents′migration intention of rural residents′attributes and comprehensive evaluation of urban environment. Altogether 514 questionnaires samples were collected from 17 traditional agricultural villages distributed in 10 administrative unit of county level.There are two important findings: 1) There is an obvious relationship between rural residents′ attributes and migration intention. The results show that three groups are more inclined to migrate to town, who are under 40, graduated from high school ortechnical school and have annual income over 30000 RMBS.2) The satisfaction evaluation of urban comprehensive environment has a strong influence onrural residents’ migration intention. Teach quality,consumption service andemployment opportunities of urban environmental factors are more important to rural residents than medical care and urban appearance.Finally, the following suggestions helpful to promote traditional agricultural areas′sustainable urbanization process are given according to rural residents′migration influencing factors.1) Promoting those urban functions of education quality, business services and employment opportunities to create a more attractive environment for rural residents′ settlement in towns.2)Strengthening rural residents′ training of technical skills and improve their ability to afford the cost of urban life.3) Improving the institutional environment to push forward rural residents′ migration into towns, such as hukou system, family planning, rural land transfer, housing security and public services.4) Improving the invest and life environment to attract those migrant workers′ returning and starting ventures to enhance the degree of local urbanization; 5) Choosing suburban locations as ideal places for constructing new rural communities to guide rural residents′ smooth local urbanization.

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    Tourist Perception Measurement Model and Empirical Analysis in Water Tourism Destinations
    Lei DING, Xiao-gen WU, La-chun WANG, Jin-he ZHANG
    2014, 34 (12):  1453-1461.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1453
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    Learning tourist perception has important implications for system construction of sustainable development of water tourism destinations. This article constructs tourist perception measurement model in water tourism destinations and conducts empirical analysis of three different water tourism destinations in Nanjing. The study implies that: 1) Different structural variables are fairly consistent with observed variables in the three cases, showing the strong explanatory power of the constructed model. 2) Tourist satisfaction has a significant positive impact on tourist loyalty in water tourism destinations, that is, satisfaction directly affects the revisiting and recommending intention of tourists, and perception of tourism resources is the most important factor to affect tourist satisfaction. 3) Regional conditions have an insignificant influence on tourist perception differences. Improving traffic conditions and exploring tourism thematic features help to enhance tourist satisfaction. On the contrary, severely damaged water quality will lower tourist satisfaction. Human culture and hydrological landscape are core elements of water tourism resources. 4) The tourist gender and source have insignificant impacts on tourist perception differences, and the satisfaction and loyalty of higher social class groups are inferior to that of lower social class groups.

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    The Reconstruction of Literary Tourist Destination: A Case Study of Fenghuang
    Ning AN, Hong ZHU, Chen LIU
    2014, 34 (12):  1462-1469.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1462
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    Drawing on the qualitative research methods, especially the methods of observation, interview, and textual analysis, this article focuses on the study of the ancient town of Fenghuang. This article concerns on its space “encountering” between tourism and literature and analyzes how Fenghuang achieves its space reconstruction through the interaction between them. Based on the conceptual understanding of space that is proposed by Henry Lefebvre, Edward Soja, and David Harvey, this article discusses the process of space (re)construction in Fenghuang, including how “the material space” (re)produces “the conceived space” or/and “the space of power” which is governed by the power from the principal parts, and how it construct the “poetic space” which affected by human behavior in social practice. These findings indicate that: 1) the development of tourism changes the socio-economic structure of Fenghuang rapidly, and then the focus of its spatial attributes shifts after that, through which it achieves the reconstructing process from the original ecology of the paradise-like substances to the space full of power games. In this process, the local government and the developers have played the pivotal roles, in which they integrated and reproduced the space of Fenghuang and (re)constructed it as a “space of power” through their negotiations and gaming with civilians, retail managers and tourists. 2) Accompanied with tourists’ geographical imaginations, Shen Congwen, and his literary have constructed the ‘real’ images of Fenghuang. This process achieves the “poetical” construction of Fenghuang through which both the labels of literary tourist destination are produced and the “poetical” constructed space which is consumed by tourists through an imaginative way. 3) The (re)construction process of “space of power” and “poetic space” interacts with each other. The construction of the “poetic space” is included in the process of the construction of space of power; on the contrary, the construction of space of power is also affecting the construction of the “poetic space”. Literary promotes the development of tourism, and on the contrary, the development of tourism affects the image of tourists’ imaginations directly and indirectly. On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that the space (re)construction of Fenghuang is affected by the literary and tourism through which the material space of Fenghuang is viewed as space of literary destination with the attributes of materiality, scope of power, and symbolism. As an entry point, literary tourism is explored in this study, which on the one hand enriches the understanding of the meaning of space, and expands the existing theories of space construction; on the other hand, it develops a positive value and significance for tourists’ behavior, tourism developing and other researches.

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    Overview and Prospect of Research on Human Settlement of Chinese Geographers
    Ren-feng MA, Wen-zhong ZHANG, Jian-hui YU, Dai WANG, Li CHEN
    2014, 34 (12):  1470-1479.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1470
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    Bivariate Probability Distribution of Meteorological Drought Characteristics in the Aksu Basin Using Copula
    Yu-hu ZHANG, Kai-li LIU, Qiu-hua CHEN, Xin-xin HU
    2014, 34 (12):  1480-1487.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1480
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    Based on the daily precipitation data of 9 meteorological stations within and around the Aksu River Basin from 1960 to 2010, the distribution function of drought duration and drought severity were analyzed using Pa index by Curve fitting method and the Run theory. Though 4 statistical methods(eg.RMSE、AIC、BIC and Bayes), 3 kinds of Archimedean Copula were respectively employed to describe the joint distribution of the two drought characteristics variables. Finally, the spatial distribution status of the drought return periods of the 9 meteorologic stations were analyzed. The results are shown as follows. 1) To describe the joint distribution , the fitting effect of GH Copula is the best, Frank Copula’s is following. When using the curve fitting method to get the distribution function of drought duration, we can define the empirical frequency formula as experience frequency of the two-dimensional Copula function edge distribution. It can make the analysis based on the frequency of Copula function's result more objective and reliable. 2) The drought risk across the Aksu River Basin is very high. The estern and southern drought risk are higher than the western and northern. 3) The results also show that long-lasting droughts are highly probably the severe droughts. The results can provide theoretical support for the basin drought risk response and mitigation.

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    Temporal Variation of Hydrological Rhythm in Poyang Lake and the Associated Water Exchange with the Changjiang River
    Xue DAI, Rong-rong WAN, Gui-shan YANG, Xiao-long WANG
    2014, 34 (12):  1488-1496.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1488
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    Watershed hydrological cycle has been changed along with the intensifying frequency of extreme water events due to the influence of climate change and human activities. Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, is a lake naturally connected with the Changjiang River. The complicated river-lake interactions impact the hydrological rhythm of lake, which will further influence water security associated with flood control, drinking water usage, water pollution and water ecology in the lake basin. In the case, it is of great importance for maintaining watershed water security to understand the characteristics of hydrological rhythm variation in terms of river-lake interactions. In this study, temporal variation of hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake and the associated water exchange with the Changjiang River were analyzed based on the measured hydrological data of 4 gauge stations in Poyang Lake area along with other data from the Hukou station at the intersection between the Changjiang River and Poyang Lake in 1951-2011. The major findings are shown as follows: the span of dry season increased since water level remains low in November and April. Meanwhile, the span of flood season decreased in 2000s. The lower water level in rising season and retreating season make Poyang Lake rising later but falling earlier than they did in 1980-2002, thus shortening the conversion time of the lake from flood situation to dry situation. Further, the peak flow in the annual hydrograph has been shifted. The primary cause of hydrological rhythm variation is the water exchange between the main stream of the Changjiang River and Poyang Lake. In 2000s, changes in the water level of the Changjiang River altered the interaction between the river and Poyang Lake through the slope of water surface, disturbing the lake basin hydrological processes and resulted in disordering of hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake. The increasing discharge from the lake to the river in retreating season lead to the lake enter dry season earlier. And the declining water level of Changjiang River in rising season lead to the addition of lake water continued to leak river, thus the lake rose slowly. For the reasons given above, the variation of water supplement of Poyang Lake on the Changjiang River mainstream in 2000s altered the hydrological rhythm in Poyang Lake. Results of this study improve our understanding of Poyang Lake hydrological rhythm consequences of river-lake relationship changes, and it provides knowledge for long-term planning for effectively restoring nature's innate rhythms for sustainability and productivity in the Poyang Lake Basin. In addition, the results will help further explore the coordinate and healthy river-lake relationships.

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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Wind Resource and Its Simulation in Northeast China
    Jin-fan XIE, Yu-ying LIU, Yu-kun WANG, Liang ZHANG, Xiu-jing YU
    2014, 34 (12):  1497-1503.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1497
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    The data of 104 meteorological stations during 1991-2010 and the data of 70 wind towers from June 2009 to May 2010 in Northeast China were used to study the spatially distributing laws of wind energy resources, and the numerical simulation WRF were applied to simulate the spatially distribution of wind energy resources. The results showed that: 1) The strong wind regions that the observation data of meteorological stations and wind towers revealed is mainly distributed in plains and high mountains . 2) The mesoscale numerical weather prediction system WRF model performs well in the simulated the wind speed distribution in Northeast China, and the large-scale strong wind regions in plains and the spatial distribution differences of wind speed caused by the mountainous terrain can be simulated. 3) The simulated results of wind energy resource parameters have been corrected with aititude to further improve the accuracy and reliability.4) The annual wind energy density of 70 m in Songnen plain, the Liaohe plain and the Sanjiang plain is between 300-500 W/m2 which belong to the regions of available or relatively abundant, and that on the hills of the west of Liaoning Province ,the middle of Jilin and Heilongjiang Province and in mountain areas of the southeast in Northeast China is above 300 W/m2, and in parts of mountain areas is above 500 W/m2, belong to the abundant areas of wind energy resources.

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    Evaluation of Ecological Effects in Land Use Planning:A Case Study of Ecological Barrier Zone of Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    Ying-bin FENG, Jian HE, Qing-yuan YANG
    2014, 34 (12):  1504-1510.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1504
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    This article takes Yunyang County of Chongqing, which is located in the hinterland of the Three Reservoir Area, as a case study area. And based on the Costanza’ study theories and ecosystem service value coefficient set by Xie Gaodi, correction coefficient of ecosystem service value in different land-use types is constructed, such as paddy field, dry land, woodland, shrub land, other woodland, garden, construction land and other land, and then a quantitative analysis of the ecological effects of ecological barrier zone in land use planning is made from the aspects of ecosystem service value and landscape pattern. The results can be shown in the following aspects: land use planning, guided by ecological functional construction, can develop the ecosystem service value of ecological barrier zone rapidly, and strengthen the ability to adjust climate, maintain land soil, and protect biological diversity. The whole ecosystem service value in Yunyang ecological barrier zone would be rising from 1.552 billons in 2010 to 1.998 billons in 2020, and average annual change rate would reach to 2.87%. In 2020, Yunyang County ecological barrier zone can be built a ecosystem service pattern, which is taking forest as the core land type, while cultivated land, garden, grassland as supplement. The ecosystem service value, regulation value and supporting value of ecological barrier zone in Yunhyang County have been shown an obvious spatial diversities. The ecosystem service value of the Modao River Basin has been rising largest, followed by the Pengxi River Basin, and the ecosystem service value of the Changjiang River has been maintained steadily, while little change has been in the Changtan River Basin. It should clarify the adjusting direction of land use structure and improve the scientific decision-making level in land use planning and ecological protection practice by making an evaluation of the structural adjustment of different land-use types and its ecological effects.

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    Characteristic Scales and the Multi-scale Correlation Between DEM and NDVI Factors: A Case Study in the Mongolian Plateau
    Yun-feng HU, Zhi-ying XU
    2014, 34 (12):  1511-1517.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1511
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    As one of multi-scale analysis methods, wavelet analysis can effectively solve multi-scale problems in geo-sciences research. In order to effectively analyze the spatial distribution pattern and identify the multi-scale features of DEM and NDVI, four sampling lines were set up along the longitudinal and latitudinal transects (43°N, 47°N, 100°E, and 110°E). And then supported by wavelet transformation using db6 as wavelet base, the wavelet variances and multi-scale relationships of DEM and NDVI were calculated to identify the characteristic scale and analyze the coupling relationship between DEM and NDVI. The results showed: 1) In Mongolian Plateau, the spatial variations of DEM in northern and western parts were stronger than that in the southern and eastern parts. Along the latitudinal and longitudinal transects, there existed one characteristic scale around 20 km. 2) The spatial variations of NDVI was similar to that of DEM in the whole Mongolia Plateau. While two characteristic scales of NDVI distribution were identified, with a small scale of 2-4 km and a larger scale of 20 km. 3) As to the DEM and NDVI factor, there existed a coupling relationship in the 20 km scale. As a great change of the topography(DEM) had taken place in the specific scales, a large change of vegetation (NDVI)then occurred correspondingly. Generally, the terrain factors tended to affect the spatial distribution of NDVI in macroscopic scale, instead of microscopic scale. This article finally summarized that the wavelet analysis method had the abilities indeed to recognize the characteristic scale and to quantitatively analyze multi-scale correlation among different factors. At the same time, the authors also pointed out that the method had some incapacities for the two-dimension spatial data analyses, including continuous scale analysis, the multi-scale correlation analysis in a specific position and two-dimensional analysis.

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    Surface Pollen Assemblages and Vegetation Relationships in the Bortala River Basin of Xinjiang, China
    Yu-mei LI, Zhen-jing YANG, Yun ZHANG, Qing-hua YANG, Lin-jing LIU, Zhi-wei BI, Cheng-min WANG, Zhao-chen KONG, Long ZHAO
    2014, 34 (12):  1518-1525.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1518
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    :The Bortala River Basin is a distinct vertical gradient distribution area of vegetation and soil types at the arid region of the northwest China. According to the data of vegetation plots and pollen assemblages of 49 modern pollen samples,which were collected along an altitudinal gradient from 210 to 3 235 m belonging to the Bortala River Basin (Xinjiang, China), we analyzed the relationship between vegetation and surface pollen assemblages. The 49 surface samples were divided into six pollen zones (alpine meadow zone, subalpine meadow and steppe zone, forest-shrub zone, shrub steppe zone, desert steppe zone, desert vegetation zone) based on modern vegetation data and characteristics of the surface pollen spectra. Desert vegetation zone was separated into two subzones (desert vegetation subzone and desert with intrazonal vegetation subzone). The valley wind might help to improve the pollen transportation, but the percentages of Picea pollen in the upper limit of the forest-shrub zone were higher than those detected in the lower limit, suggesting that the upslope wind had a stronger impact on the transportation of Picea pollen than the downslope wind. Moreover, there was a good relationship between elevation, the climatic factors (temperature and precipitation) and the typical pollen taxa (Picea, Betula, Chenopodiaceae and Ephedra).

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    Experimental Study on the Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on the Tundra Vegetation of the Changbai Mountains
    Ying-hua JIN, Jia-wei XU, Sheng-wei ZONG, Peng WANG
    2014, 34 (12):  1526-1532.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1526
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    In order to explore the effects of increased nitrogen deposition on alpine tundra vegetation change, especially the herb invasion, in Changbai Mountains, the experiments of simulated increased nitrogen deposition were conducted over four years in the alpine tundra zone of the Changbai Mountains. The experiment included three nitrogen deposition treatments. The changes of growth and community structure were measured for Rhododendron chrysanthum, Vaccinium uliginosum and Deyeuxia angustifolia. The main results were as follows: 1) Compared to the Rhododendron chrysanthum, Vaccinium uliginosum and other tundra native species, the increase of nitrogen deposition is more conducive to the growth of Deyeuxia angustifolia, it was no significant response to increase of nitrogen deposition for growth of Rhododendron chrysanthum, it was significantly suppressed by increase of nitrogen deposition for growth of Vaccinium uliginosum. 2) The structure of Rhododendron chrysanthum and Vaccinium uliginosum community with no Deyeuxia angustifolia invasion did not change obviously. That shows that the increase of nitrogen deposition is not the direct reason of invasion of Deyeuxia angustifolia to tundra communities. 3) When Deyeuxia angustifolia invades the Rhododendron chrysanthum and Vaccinium uliginosum community, the increased nitrogen deposition contributes to the competitive ability of Deyeuxia angustifolia. And it promotes the transformation of alpine tundra to alpine meadow. With the increasing amount of nitrogen deposition, the tundra zone of the Changbai Mountains may face degradation and transform into tundra meadow.

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    Experimental Study of Aquifer Hydrogeological Parameter Acquisition in Coastal Wetlands of Liaohe Delta
    Quan-sheng ZHAO, Shu-ya HU, Xin-min WANG, Si-yuan YE, Xi-gui DING
    2014, 34 (12):  1533-1537.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.012.1533
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    Pumping test is an important way of obtaining the hydrogeological parameter. In order to exactly get the permeability coefficient of unconfined aquifer in coastal wetlands in Liaohe River Delta, we gave an extractive test on-site with one pumping well and two observation wells. According to the single hole pumping test and the porous pumping test data, we used the calculation formula non-complete well of dive, the Babushkin formula and the integral transform method to solve the permeability coefficient. The results showed that the value of the permeability coefficient getting by different method had little difference. By analyzing the experimental data,we determined the permeability coefficient of unconfined aquifer of PJ01 well group was 1.15 m/d,and the PJ03 well group was 0.74 m/d.

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