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Table of Content

    20 October 1997, Volume 31 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Roles of Text in Placeness Construction:Analysis on Core Literature of Cultural Geography in Recent Years
    TANG Shun-Ying, ZHOU Shang-Yi
    2011, 31 (10):  1159-1165.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1159
    Abstract ( 93 )   PDF (375KB) ( 47 )   Save
    Place is one of core concepts of cultural geography. Placeness is the distinctivity of place. Many cultural geographers lay emphasis on the emotional significance of place for subject since the 1970s. New cultural geography is a knowledge system established by a group of British cultural geographers in the 1980s. New cultural geography concernes about place representation by films, literature, paintings and other kinds of text, however, traditional cultural geography does not pay attention to this. The placeness is the join point that cultural geography binding other subdisciplines of human geography. In recent years, many articles in core journals of cultural geography studied placeness represented in text. Cultural geographers can read the understanding of different creative subjects to space and place, such as directors, screenwriter, artists, writers, poets and so on. This article cards some literature in order to summarize the role of text in place construction. Some conclusions come out. 1) Texts construct placeness by representing three kinds of contents, which are local existing landscapes, everyday life practice and lost elements in local culture. The representation of landscapes in text is more vivid than that of the other two. Daily practices recorded into texts are handed down more easily than that of oral form. Lost culture of place can be saved by text. 2) The mechanism of place representation by text comes from people’s ideological needs. SELF and OTHER have different spiritual pursuits such as loving their hometown, longing for a place far away from home and so on when they represent place. So the representations of a place in texts are different. 3) Text representation of a place can not only strengthen the placeness, but also weaken the placeness. If the authors of some texts have respected subjects and history of place, their works can reinforce placeness. However, if the authors of some texts are outsiders of place and their representation of place is selective and not completely true, their texts weaken the placeness. This article leads to a question for further discussion whether text is necessary in placeness construction. If it is, cultural geographers have to study the placeness represented in all kinds of text. The authors think that placeness only represented in the form of text can be shared by people of place.
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    Circulation and the Localness: Geographical Brand of Yixing Purple Sand Cultural Change
    QIAN Li-Yun, ZHU Hong
    2011, 31 (10):  1166-1171.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1166
    Abstract ( 99 )   PDF (350KB) ( 64 )   Save
    With a growing awareness of space in human geography, the geographical brand of local geography is necessary, espacially in the context of globalization. Standing at the intersection of new Cultural Geography and Brand Geography, the authors study the special cultural production of Purple Sand tea-pot of Yixing, Jiangsu Provice, China. In this article, qualitative analysis is employed, such as field work, depth interview and vivid text content, to represent the Yixing cultural purple-sand production activities. Using new cultural geography perspective to explain the geographical brand phenomenon, dynamic analysis on purple sand cultural features are made to confirm the characteristics of branding process. Main study focuses on how the meaning of place gives to the geographical brand of local handicraft in order to increase its historical and cultural value. Firstly, by examining the Yixing cultural purple-sand production activities, this study finds that characteristics of region have created the unique local brand. Secondly, the entangled geographical meaning of brands reveals the deep action of the brand's role in the making mechanism. The peculiar significance of this article is to explore the geography of "local" meaning of brand, which lies on the judgment that place is a meaningful object. In addition, it proves that the branding procedure is a distinct social and cultural process, with disclosing the geographic change of the cultural soul within the region. In short, the case study in geographical brand of Yixing purple-sand production has explored the local cultural studies of cultural production in China, which expresses the culture brand with a relative new vision.
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    Spatial Organization of Production Networks in City-Region Based on Enterprises Relationship: A Case of Apparel Production in Urban Agglomeration of Eastern Guangdong Province
    MA Hai-Tao, FANG Chuang-Lin
    2011, 31 (10):  1172-1180.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1172
    Abstract ( 115 )   PDF (932KB) ( 54 )   Save
    Spatial relationship of geographical actors is one of the core topics of geography. In urban geography, the internal industrial relationship between cities or towns, the same as spatial relationship, is also a significant part of the urban agglomeration study. A great many geographers engage themselves in studying the internal socio-economic relationship between cities by using macro-statistics. However, enterprise is the principle part of the relationship, lacking micro-perspective when studying is hard to explain the intricate relations between different cities. Recently, some of the geographers have efficiently used network analysis method to explain cluster network, transportation network, logistics network, and industrial network. Network analysis method, which is widely used in the subject of sociology, is good for researching on the perplex relations between objectives. By this method, it is possible to visualize and quantitatively analyze the spatial structure of urban agglomeration production network. This article takes urban agglomeration of the eastern Guangdong as a case study, which is a relative small area but with strong internal socio-economic relationships. For the reason of significant impact of the industry and obvious feature of network organization, this article specifically focuses on the study of apparel production industry in the urban agglomeration of eastern Guangdong Province. Based on the first hand data from depth interviews of 115 enterprises in 15 cities (towns), this article builds up the enterprise relational database, visually simulates the spatial structure of apparel production network in internal urban agglomeration with the software of social network analysis, and analyzes the intrinsic links between the spatial structure of urban agglomeration and production networks. The conclusions are as follows. Firstly, among the one-circle and two-zone spatial structure of the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong Province, there are close economic links within the metropolitan area of Shantou, Chaozhou and Jieyang, while few industrial links in two towns zones. Furthermore, the apparel production of Shanwei is isolated from the metropolitan area. Secondly, all level towns play different roles in the apparel production networks of the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong. There are two factors to promote the formation of the production networks, one is the urban specialization, the other is the diversification of the region. Thirdly, in the future, the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong should improve the agglomerative economies effect of urban agglomeration by taking steps to develop the characteristic function and enhancing industrial links between the towns.
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    Urban Space Production: Urbanization of Wujiaochang Area in Jiangwan Town of Shanghai in 1900-1949
    ZHANG Xiao-Hong, SUN Tao
    2011, 31 (10):  1181-1188.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1181
    Abstract ( 146 )   PDF (738KB) ( 25 )   Save
    The evolution of landscape in urban area is able to show the disturbing process of the impact of mankind's activities on the succession of natural ecosystem. Due to the discrepancy in intensity, frequency and manner of mankind's activities, there were different looks in the changing from semi-natural agroecological landscape into urban ecological landscape where artificial structures dominated in. The study is to recover the spatio-temporal course of the landscape changes in Wujiaochang area in Jiangwan Town of Shanghai from 1900 to 1949 by using the GIS which based on the data collected from historical archives and old maps. The research has discovered that the evolutional transformation from rural landscape to urban landscape had created fragmentation of landscape and declination of ecological accessibility in the study area. This process laid out the multiple urban spatial structure of Shanghai City under the semi-colonial political pattern and the spatial typical structure in the opening ports of modern China. Urbanization in Wujiaochang area in Jiangwan Town was started by the Chinese local capitalists who grew up in Shanghai during the World War I, because the colonial capital was drawn back to their European motherland. However, in this area, large scale construction was brought up by National Government since 1929, as the area was chosen as the core of Shanghai Special Administrative City. This was included in the Metropolitan Shanghai Plan which was stirred up by the rising of nationalism in China. So the aim of the construction was to antagonize the settlement government. However, the urbanization of Wujiaochang area in Jiangwan Town was altered by the breaking out of war against Japan. During war time, the city center in the Plan was abandoned gradually, while in the southwestern part of the area, some Japanese military installations and residential quarter began to build up. In a word, base on the study of urbanization in Jiangwan area, it is found out that, in modern China, the production of urban space was deeply dependent of the modern transportation system after blending into the global trade system and under the influence of unique historical events. The change presents the characteristics of dualistic spatial structure in modern China: the urban politics based on nationalities had played an important role in the urbanization and production of urban space in this area.
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    The Characteristics and Impact Mechanism of Region Cooperation in Cross-border Tourism
    YANG Xiao-Zhong, ZHANG Jie, PENG Min
    2011, 31 (10):  1189-1194.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1189
    Abstract ( 128 )   PDF (342KB) ( 23 )   Save
    Cross-border tourism region is a special type of tourist destination which has large tourism development potential, complexity of problem and obvious contradiction. Now it becomes a new research focal point in regional tourism development. The study sums up the six characteristics of cross-border tourism region cooperation based on its space attribute, functional attribute, supply and demand attribute, the content of cooperation, border attitude, and organizational attribute. And taking Tiantangzhai of Dabie Mountain, a mountainous resort cross-border tourist region in China, as an example, this study reveals that the influence mechanism of cross-border tourism region cooperation is a complex feedback system with an interaction among macro, medium and micro factors. The macro-view impact factor is the regional level, including regional economic factors, regional socio-cultural factors, regional institutional factors and regional location factors. The medium-view factors is the organizational level, including organizational values and culture, organizational structure, organizational history, organizational systems and organizational networks. And the micro-view factors is individual stakeholders, including the stakeholder values, professional background, personality traits and the awareness, attitudes and behavior to the scenic area development and environmental protection.
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    Spatial Features and Agglomeration of Producer Services in Xi'an City, China
    XUE Dong-Qian, SHI Ning, GONG Xiao-Xiao
    2011, 31 (10):  1195-1201.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1195
    Abstract ( 81 )   PDF (642KB) ( 7 )   Save
    In the modern world, fast-growing producer service industry is gradually replacing manufacturing industry as a core force and innovation sources of economic growth in the metropolitan area and main force of urban spatial structure remodeling in western countries. In the context of economic restructuring and globalization, China's cities are facing with development chance of producer service, and the status of producer service in national economy will be enhanced. Xi'an, as the regional centre of Northwest China and the important financial and economic city in the western China, is the core city of Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region and important equipment manufacturing industry base. It has a predominant regional advantage. At present, urbanization of Xi'an turns into an accelerated stage, and the city enters into a quickly gathering term. According to the judgement index system of the regional economic growth stages, Xi'an is at the key transitional stage from the take-off stage of industrialization to maturity stage of industrialization phase. Xi'an has tremendous demand for producer service industry and also has good foundation for developing producer services. The research on the present developing condition and spatial distribution features of Xi'an City's producer service industry contributes to the development of manufacturing industry and industrial structure upgrade. It can effectively affect spatial pattern of the city and reconstruction at the same time. With the development of the world economy, producer services separated from manufacturing and have become the main force to help manufacturing upgrade and industrial structure change instead of traditional consumer services. This paper, taking Xi'an as an example, according to correlation theory of industrial economics, regional economics, economic geography and urban geography, based on industry statistics of producer services in "Xi'an Statistical Yearbook"(1998-2010)and related enterprise information in "Xi'an Yellow Pages"(2002, 2008)and by using methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, statistic analysis and dynamic analysis and the software of ArcGIS, studies the development condition based on the proportion of gross production value of producer services, number of employed persons of producer services in tertiary industry, and spatial distribution characters of producer services. The results show that spatial distribution of producer service presents relative low agglomeration degree at present, but has agglomeration trend, and producer services by sector have diverse agglomerate degrees. The overall producer services industry presents multi-core agglomerate pattern. This study has an important practical significance for upgrading of industrial structure, the determination of reasonable industrial development direction and reasonable planning of urban industrial spatial distribution, and the promotion of economic growth and urban competitiveness in Xi'an.
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    The Characteristics of Urban Residents’ Place Attachment to Recreational Block: A Case Study of Nanjing Confucius Temple Block
    TANG Wen-Yue
    2011, 31 (10):  1202-1207.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1202
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (332KB) ( 20 )   Save
    In the process of rapid urbanization, how to build an urban outdoor recreation space with local characteristics and historical and cultural meaning is a practical and significant issue worthy of further research. Understanding the meaning and value of urban space and the relationship between people and urban space is the prerequisite and basis for the construction of this kind of urban space. Place attachment, an emotional attachment to a certain place, is a kind of special phenomenon of man-land relationship and a hot topic of western recreation geography and environmental psychology. Residents’ place attachment to urban recreational block research provides a new perspective for understanding the relationship between residents and urban recreation space. This paper takes Nanjing Confucius Temple block, an urban residents’ outdoor recreational place and 5A tourism area, as a study case, and estimates its recreationists’ place attachment with 5-point likert scale. The result shows that Nanjing residents’ place attachment to Confucius Temple recreational block is constructed by two dimensions: place dependence and place identity. Place identity is more important than place dependence for Nanjing residents. Time and economic condition are the main factors in the formation of residents’ place attachment to Confucius temple block. Place dependence is mainly affected by residents’ economic condition while place identity by time. Confucius temple block as a popular recreational block primarily meets medium educational level and the middle income class recreationists’ demand. This study also demonstrates the validity of the measurement scale and the applicability of this measurement technology in the research of urban residents’ place attachment in China. Study on urban residents’ place attachment to recreational block provides not only practical guidance and reference for the planning and construction of urban historic district and recreation space, but also a new perspective for the theory and method of modern urban recreation space planning and design.
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    Neural Network Ensemble for Chinese Inbound Tourism Demand Prediction
    ZHANG Chen, ZHANG Jie
    2011, 31 (10):  1208-1212.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1208
    Abstract ( 156 )   PDF (334KB) ( 30 )   Save
    Accurate prediction of the tourism demand is important for tourism management. The state-of-art methods for predictive modeling used in tourism research include traditional statistical methods, soft computing methods, and artificial intelligence methods. Note that artificial intelligence methods, which were introduced to tourism research in the 1990s, have greatly improved the predictive accuracy of modeling methods. Machine learning is an important area of artificial intelligence, which has been widely recognized as a powerful tool for intelligent data analysis. BP neural network, as one of the traditional machine learning technique, has been widely used to construct predictive model for intelligent data analysis. However, BP neural network suffers from several drawbacks, such as overfitting, difficulties in setting parameters, and local minima problem, and hence the performance of BP neural network is very unstable in practical applications. This paper combines an advanced machine learning paradigm named ensemble learning with BP neural network to build neural network ensemble for tourism demand prediction. This study conducts predictive modeling for tourism demand of three important tourist source countries of US, Britain and Australia for travel to Chinese mainland. The results show that, by combining a number of diverse neural networks, neural network ensemble significantly improves the predictive accuracy over traditional statistical methods and traditional machine learning methods including single BP neural network. Such method provides a better choice for more accurate predictive modeling for tourism demand.
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    Contribution Ratio Measurement of Water Use Efficiency Driving Effects and Spatial Driving Type in China
    SUN Cai-zhi, XIE Wei, Zou Wei
    2011, 31 (10):  1213-1220.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1213
    Abstract ( 154 )   PDF (485KB) ( 20 )   Save
    Five factors respectively named industrial water use efficiency, industrial water use structure, economy development level, water endowment and water resources development ratio are comprehensively considered as the main factors that impact on the water use efficiency, and the factor decomposition model under the extended Kaya identity was established, the decomposition model was solved by the method of LMDI(Longarithmic Mean Divisia Index), then the driving effects of the five factors were calculated and the main factors were determined, which may useful for the understanding of water use efficiency change from 1997 to 2008 in China. The relative contribution ratio of the five factors were calculated to measure their function degree and direction. The result shows that the industrial water use efficiency and economy development level are the most significant factors to affect water use efficiency in China. This paper calculated the absolute contribution ratio of the five factors, then the 31 regions of China (Hong Kong,Macau and Taiwan excluding)were divided into four spatial driving types by applying the minimum variance method, and the distribution characteristics of driving effects were further analyzed. The result is of significance for exactly understanding the relation of the water use efficiency and economy development, and also has certain reference significance for the regulation of industrial water use structure and sustainable development.
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    Characteristics of Climate Change and Its Driving Forces in the Tourism Area of Lushan Mountain Since 1955
    YE Zheng-wei, WU Wei
    2011, 31 (10):  1221-1227.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1221
    Abstract ( 163 )   PDF (509KB) ( 21 )   Save
    Mann-Kendall trend test and abrupt change detection methods are utilized to analyze the climate change in the tourism area of Lushan Mountain. Results show that the temperature and the precipitation are undergoing an increasing trend in the tourism area of Lushan Mountain. The annual mean temperature is detected to have a significant increasing trend since 1955, and abrupt change occurred in 1996. The annual extreme maximum temperature increases slightly while the annual extreme minimum temperature has a relatively higher increasing trend with lager amplitude. The annual precipitation demonstrates a relatively slow increasing trend, and frequent abrupt changes occurred in the 1970s, the 1990s witnessed the highest precipitation since 1970s in which it has more precipitation than ever. The maximum daily storm rainfall and the annual total storm days also show an increasing trend, and the precipitation in 1990s proves to be the highest decade. Storm occurs frequently, most storm days and heavy storms occur in June and August respectively, and the storm rainfall in summer and autumn might be the main contribution for the annual precipitation increase. As for the possible driving forces of the climate change in the tourism area of Lushan Mountain, it is a typical regional response to the climate change which is demonstrated to be a response process of the influence of global warming and the effect of anthropological activities.
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    The Relationship Between Urban Reconstruction and Urban Heat Island Effect Based on Remote Sensing Technology: Cangxia District of Fuzhou City, China
    TANG Fei, XU Han-Qiu
    2011, 31 (10):  1228-1234.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1228
    Abstract ( 206 )   PDF (778KB) ( 15 )   Save
    With the urban development, replanning and reconstruction of the old urban area have become key issues of the urban development. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian Province, Southeast China, has paced up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia District, located in the southwestern Fuzhou, was therefore replaned and reconstructed to improve people’s living conditions because the area was full of intensively-built shanties. In order to study the thermal environmental changes of the Cangxia District before and after the reconstruction, three Landsat TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2006 were utilized to perform feature extraction of thermal-related information of the area, such as land surface temperature (LST), impervious surface area and vegetation coverage. The quantitative analysis on the relationship between impervious surface and LST suggested there is a positive exponential relationship between the two factors. With the assistance of the Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index (URI), digital image processing on the three multi-temporal images has revealed the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat island effect (UHIE) in the study area from 1986 to 2006. The results show that after the launch of the reconstruction project for the shanty-dominated area, the UHIE in the area has been greatly mitigated. In the past 20 years, the URI has been decreased from 0.648 in 1986 to 0.245 in 2006 owing to the significant decrease in high-density impervious surface areas and notably increase in vegetation covers. Obviously, the reconstruction is beneficial to the UHI mitigation of the Cangxia District.
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    Evolution of Soil Erosion Degree in 30 Years in Granite Hills, Southeastern of China —A Case Study of Changting County,Fujian
    LIN Chen, ZHOU Sheng-lu, WU Shao-hua
    2011, 31 (10):  1235-1241.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1235
    Abstract ( 191 )   PDF (597KB) ( 7 )   Save
    Monitoring the soil erosion dynamically is an important part in soil erosion research.The studies in China always adopt the quantitative model which were developed abroad, so the shortage is existed in factors selection and commonality of the model, and such studies are also considered less in erosion potentiality. As a result, a concept of erosion degree is proposed in the study, which is a consolidated representation of actual erosion intensity and potential erosion risk. Based on human-land relationship system, the erosion degree were calculated by quantification of multi index, and the spatial and temporal soil erosion degree transition tendency in Changting County, Fujian Provience was analyzed. The results show that characteristics of concentration and contiguous are existed in erosion distribution, the highest erosion degree is existed in central of Changting County, and gradually decay to the surrounding area. On the other wise, although the uncertainty is existed in transition of soil erosion degree, the soil erosion had improved in the passed 30 years, the proportion of safe area in 1975 was 3.87%, and it rose quickly to approximately 56.38% in 2006.In contrast, the decrease rate of extremely dangerous area is less than the other areas, the proportion only reduced from 12.3% in 1975 to 6.66% in 2006.The phenomenon is closely related with the region differences in habitats, economic development and policy orientation. In generally,the result not only certify the suitability in the selection of erosion factors, but also indicted that the erosion degree can characterize the transition tendency of soil erosion.
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    Growing-season Trends Determined from SPOT NDVI in Changbai Mountains,China,1999-2008
    LI Ming, WU Zheng-fang, DU Hai-bo, ZONG Sheng-wei, MENG Xiang-jun, ZHANG Lian-zhi
    2011, 31 (10):  1242-1248.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1242
    Abstract ( 217 )   PDF (848KB) ( 15 )   Save
    A wealth of remotely sensed image time series is now available to monitor vegetation dynamics over large areas.In this papert,he spatial pattern of three key vegetation phenological metrics,the start of growing season(SOS)t,he end of growing season(EOS),and the length of growing season(LOS)were inferred from the time series SPOT/NDVI data based on double logistic model in Changbai mountains,and the trends of them are assessed.The results show that the SOS of forests focus on dekad 10-12,that of grasslands and crop-lands start relatively late,they are in decad 13-14 and decad 14-15,respectively.The EOS of forests and grasslands range from 275th to 285th dayt,hat of croplands are early relatively,which are between 265th and 275th day.Therefore,the LOS of forests,grasslands and croplands are 160-180 days,140-160 days and 110-130 days,respectively.The trends of phenophases have certain spatial discrepancy,which express that the LOS prolong in middle-eastern areas and shorten in northwestern areas.Then the derived phenological met-rics were validated by a few field observed data and some previous research achievements in the same area.
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    Dynamic Chang of Land Use in Yanji City Based on TM Images
    JIN Shi-zhu, LIU Zhi-feng
    2011, 31 (10):  1249-1253.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1249
    Abstract ( 175 )   PDF (514KB) ( 38 )   Save
    The dynamic change of land use in Yanji City was computed and analyzed by using the geometric correction, supervised classification and change detection statistical methods based on 3 Landsat TM/ETM+ images taken in 1991, 2001 and 2006. The results showed that, the area of residential land has increased significantly. On the contrary the area of agricultural land and grassland has decreased. The grain problem and the environment problems due to the changes of the land use would seriously affect the daily life and the ecological environment of Yanji City. The result of the study could provide a theoretical basis for the effective management and sustainable development of Yanji City.
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    Conversion of Different Soil Texture Triangle Based on Fractal Theory
    GUO Zhong-ling, ZHANG Ke-li, DONG Jian-zhi, WANG Ying, LIU Hong-yuan, WANG Wei
    2011, 31 (10):  1254-1260.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1254
    Abstract ( 231 )   PDF (783KB) ( 38 )   Save
    The soil texture is one of the most important indicators to reflect soil physical properties.It is the key input to many models,just as calculating the Erodibility K of the RUSLE and Pedo-Transfer Functions,which needs the soil texture of USA textural triangle.However,despite a number of recognized international stan-dards,soil data are rarely compatible across national frontiers.Therefore,interpolation of the soil texture in dif-ferent textural triangle is very necessary.Researches have shown that the soil has the fractal characteristic.In this study a fractal model is used for solving conversion of different soil texture triangle.For testing the stabili-ty and accuracy of the fractal model,60 soil samples with different profiles and land-use were taken at South-ern Loess Plateau.At first,0.02mm particle data,0.005mm particle data and omitting 0.02mm and 0.005mm particle data were omitted at the same time.Then the omitted particle data was predicted by the fractal model.The results indicate that the predicted particle-size data and the number of known particle-size data have little influence to the accuracy of the fractal model between the 0.002~0.1mm soil fractions;it is demonstrate that the model is much better for predicting the particle-size data than Logistic growth model,WEIBULL model and Log-normal distribution model,the accuracy of the fractal model is satisfying and there are no significant errors about the predicted particle-size data.The fractal model can be used for conversion of different soil tex-ture triangle.More studies should be carried out.
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    The Basin Features of El’ing Lake in the Head Area of Yellow River,Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    SHEN De-fu, LI Shi-jie, CHEN Wei, JIANG Yong-jian, NIE Xin
    2011, 31 (10):  1261-1265.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1261
    Abstract ( 131 )   PDF (788KB) ( 9 )   Save
    El’ing Lake is located in northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,and it is the largest freshwater lake with the surface elevation of 4 272.5m a.s.l in the headwater area of Yellow River.Because of its unique natu-ral and geographical conditions,the El’ing lake is considered to be a ideal study object for the paleo-environ-ment,regional ecological systems and modern processes of the lake.In recent decades,the Yellow River water resources decreased,the number and area of the lakes in the Yellow River source region dropped,which made water resources and the ecological environment in the Yellow River upper reaches became the focus of atten-tion.Through GPS-RTK technology and submerged topographic survey instruments,adding to relevant histor-ical data and remote sensing data analysis,the basin features of El’ing Lake had been investigated from 2008 to 2009.The results show that the lake area is 628.47 km2,the maximum water depth of the lake is 33.2 m,and its average water depth is 15.55 m.The maximum length and width of the lake is 37.49 km and 32.3 km separately,and the lake’s shoreline is 226.3 km.The total volume of water storage is up to 97.76×108m3,which is an important freshwater resource for the regional ecosystem and the Yellow River.The shape of the lake bottom is quite flat,close to a parabolic body with the analysis of data.Subject to the new tectonic move-ment,El’ing Lake is a tectonic rift lake,but its formation time is inconclusive and it needs further study.
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    Storm Flood Risk Assessment in the Typical Regions of Asia
    LIU Jia-fu, LI Jing, LIANG Yu-hua, LIU Xiang-nan
    2011, 31 (10):  1266-1271.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1266
    Abstract ( 183 )   PDF (908KB) ( 11 )   Save
    Based on the basic principles of flood risk,this study took the coastal areas in southeastern Asia(SEA) as the study area.By integrating the indicators including the rainfall,topography,land use,vegetation,river density,population,and the economic strength,the flood risk over the chosen study area was evaluated through both qualitative and quantitative methods.The indicators used were firstly normalized to obtain stan-dardized multi-source raster data by the GIS(Geographic Information System) techniques.The AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) technique was then utilized to estimate the weights of those indicators,and used to devel-op a model for risk assessments.The map algebra in GIS was finally employed to generate the flood zoning map over the typical Asian areas.The results show that the high risk regions of flood storm primarily include the southeastern,northeastern,and coastal areas of China,the eastern India near Bangladesh,the eastern Ban-gladesh,and the northeastern Myanmar;the medium risk regions are mainly located in Japan,South Korea,the most parts of southwestern India,the northern India and the Luzon Island of Philippines;the low risk ones principally are located in most parts of northwestern China.
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    Changes of Spring Maize Potential Productivity under the Background of Global Warming in Northeast China
    CHEN Chang-qing, LEI Cheng-xia, WANG Chun-chun, ZHANG Wei-jian
    2011, 31 (10):  1272-1279.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1272
    Abstract ( 152 )   PDF (875KB) ( 21 )   Save
    Under the background of global warming,climate change including mean temperature,solar radia-tion and precipitation of spring Maize growth period,were studied in Northeast China using mathematical sta-tistics method based on daily data from 101 meteorological stations from 1971 to 2007.The light-temperature potential productivity and the climate potential productivity of spring maize were also analyzed using the geo-graphical information system(GIS) techniques in different areas and different times.It was showed that the mean temperature of spring Maize growth period went up in Northeast China,and the increase amplitude was larger than the national average.While the solar radiation was declining,and the precipitation showed a de-scending trend too.The light-temperature potential productivity of spring maize increased on the condition of elevated temperature.While the climate potential productivity of spring maize varied greatly because of the variation of precipitation in different areas.Compared to 1970s,in 2000s the climate potential productivity re-duced in the south but rose in the north.Some measures were proposed to make better use of the increase of potential productivity looking forward to a high spring maize yield.
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    Land Use/Land Cover Change and Its Environmental Effects in Wuhan City
    ZHANG Yang, LIU Yan-Fang, GU Jian-Ping, DING Qing
    2011, 31 (10):  1280-1285.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1280
    Abstract ( 148 )   PDF (404KB) ( 18 )   Save
    As land use/cover change (LUCC) has been recognized as a key element of global environmental change, it draws increasing attention of researchers concerned with environmental and socio-economic well-being. Land use/cover is an important process which is widespread and accelerating. However, traditional analysis of LUCC is not sufficient to provide systematic signals of ecological environment change caused by LUCC. This paper analyzes the details of the matrix to compute the quantity, allocation, and dominant signals of land use/cover (LUCC), based on which the eco-environmental quality is evaluated. With the interpretation results of the Landsat TM 5 image of Wuhan City in 1996 and 2006, this study applies statistical and GIS analysis to the land use/cover change in Wuhan City. The effects of land use transformation has on the change of eco-environmental quality are assessed by calculating the regional eco-environmental indices and the contribution proportions of land use transformation types. The results show that: 1) The area of cropland, grassland and unused land decreased while the area of forest, water and construction land increased in Wuhan city from 1996 to 2006. 2) The regional eco-environmental quality index increased from 0.451 in 1996 to 0.468 in 2006. The overall quality of regional eco-environment has maintained relatively stable with a rising trend. However, the trends of both improvement and degradation in eco-environment coexisted. 3) It should also be noted that the local ecological environment presents a negative evolution, and the urbanization could be the most profound factor to influence the regional land use/cover change.
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