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    20 November 2004, Volume 24 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Spatial-temporal Evolvement of Growth and Distribution of Population in Guangzhou in Recent Twenty Years
    ZHOU Chun-Shan, LUO Yan, CHEN Su-Su
    2004, 24 (6):  641-647.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.641
    Abstract ( 172 )   PDF (815KB) ( 17 )   Save
    It is well known that the growth and distribution of population have great influence on the city growth, which is more distinct in big cities in China after opening and reform policies were taken out. Furthermore, this phenomenon is more obvious in Guangzhou. Using the recent data of the third, forth and fifth census, the authors try to find some laws of the distribution of population in Guangzhou. First of all, the characteristics of population growth in Guangzhou are analyzed and the spatial models of population growth of different district are developed. Secondly, the distribution of population in Guangzhou tend to be regularization, equilibrium and the density of population change into more centers. Finally, the spatial-temporal models are developed out based on growth and distribution of population in Guangzhou.
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    An Ecological Appraisal of Industrial Structure and a thoughtfulness of designing models of Circle Economy in Shandong Province
    REN Jian-Lan, ZHANG Shu-Min, ZHOU Peng
    2004, 24 (6):  648-653.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.648
    Abstract ( 107 )   PDF (837KB) ( 12 )   Save
    Ecological appraisal of industrial structure and design models of circle economy are two important ways to implement regional sustainable development. Based on the judgment of the phases of industrialization and the characteristics of industrial structure of Shandong Province, according to the relationship among economic benefit, environmental capacity and resources support, the paper set up the model of ecological appraisal of industrial structure. And by analyzing the problems of the existing industrial structure, the paper put forward new ways to adjust it and the corresponding countermeasures under the thoughtfulness of circle economy. It has important guidance functions to push the sustainable development of Shandong Province.
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    A Spatial Analysis on China's Regional Economic Growth Clustering
    WU Yu-Ming, XU Jian-Hua
    2004, 24 (6):  654-659.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.654
    Abstract ( 233 )   PDF (1067KB) ( 41 )   Save
    At present,the study on China's regional economic growth focuses mainly on spatial pattern, but the study on spatial correlation and the cause of formation of growth clustering and disparity distribution is seldom. This paper introduces the spatial correlation index method of Moran I and the computational and test results show that the provincial regional economic growth has an obviously spatial correlation. And the economic growth has an obviously cluster in the geographical space. We also uses the spatial econometric analysis model of spatial-temporal data(Panel Data),and the computational and test results show that the regional economic growth during time and in space takes on a distinct spatial effects. The frequent extension to economic activities produced by international and domestic trade and foreign capital etc. brings spatial correlation,and to a great extent results in the inequalities of 31 provincial economic growth. Spatial cluster makes the spatial cost which is produced by geographical location(distance)decrease during the economic growth process,but the geographical characteristics will deeply affect the relationship between core and periphery of spatial clustering in regional economic growth。At last,the econometric test show that the factors such as international and interregional trade,foreign direct investment,human capital,technological innovation have an extraordinary contribution to China's regional economic growth. But those factors cannot change the regulations of economic geography easily. The non-equilibrium clustering of regional economic growth factors in geographical space results in widely distinct patterns of regional economic growth.
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    Landscape Features and Mechanism of Huizhou Ancient Village
    LU Lin, LIN Shan-Jin, JIAO Hua-Fu, WANG Li
    2004, 24 (6):  660-665.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.660
    Abstract ( 115 )   PDF (1061KB) ( 20 )   Save
    Surrounded by continuous unbroken mountains, Huizhou, which abounds in bright mountains and limpid waters, is an important settlement for people migrated from the northern China for 3times in Chinese history, as well as the hometown for Cheng-Zhu Idealist Philosophy and Hui Merchants. The geographical environment of the Ming and Qing dynasties in Huizhu boasted beautiful mountains and rivers and flourishing style of writing, and thus, had created glorious regional culture of Huizhou characteristics. As one of the center of agricultural production and living place for Hui people, ancient villages are the major carrier of Hui Culture. Inhabitants of the same clan, city-like villages and the many high-rise ancestral halls and archways scattering in the villages, together form the directly perceived cultural landscape, exaggerating greatly the patriarchal clan concept and system in ancient Huizhou. Rich cultural atmosphere are reflected in such educational architecture as academy schools and old-style tutorial schools scattered in ancient villages as well as local people's residential architecture decorated with elegant and meaningful carvings and antithetical couplets. Gardening is a major feature of the residential environment in Huizhou villages. Shuikou garden, academy school garden and residence garden, the various kinds of gardens together set off more gardening atmosphere to Huizhou ancient villages.
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    Some Features of Physical Geography in Transitional Region Between Qinling Mountains and Huanghuai Plain
    MA Jian-Hua, QIAN Huai-Sui, GUAN Hua, SHI Qi-Ren
    2004, 24 (6):  666-673.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.666
    Abstract ( 80 )   PDF (1292KB) ( 10 )   Save
    The boundary of the transitional region between Qinling Mountains and Huanghuai Plain was divided first in this paper, then some features of physical geography in the transitional region were discussed. (1) The east boundary of the transitional region is at the contour about 100 m, and the west boundary is at the contour about 500 m. The area of the transitional region is about 26 000 km2,which makes up 15.9% of total area in Henan Province.(2) The natural features in the transitional region possess transitional characters evidently in two directions, one is from the western mountain to the eastern plain and the other is from southern subtropical zone to northern temperate zone. (3) Torrential rain especially for strong torrential rain is frequent in the transition region, and there are many torrential rain centers, such as Lushan torrential rain center, Biyang torrential rain center, and so on. A majority of torrential rain is distributed among 100-200 m above sea level. (4) The winter temperature at 100-400 m above sea level in the transitional region is not only higher than in Huanghuai Plain where its altitude is lower than the transition region's, but also higher than in Qinling Mountains where its altitude is higher than the transitional region's. The highest temperature in January appears at 350-400 m above sea level in the transitional region. The warmer belt in the transitional region is called warm slope belt, of which thickness varies from 100 m to 250 m above sea level. (5) Torrential rain and warm slope belt in the transitional region were formed by atmospheric circulation and local terrain. Frequent torrential rain and warm slope belt had tremendous influence on soil properties, plant distribution and local climate in the transitional region.
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    Features of Autumn Climate Change in Tianshan Mountainous Area for the Recent 40 Years and Comparison with Those in the Southern and Northern Xinjiang
    YUAN Yu-Jiang, WEI Wen-Shou, MU Gui-Jin
    2004, 24 (6):  674-679.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.674
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (725KB) ( 19 )   Save
    Using the autumn temperature and precipitation dada during 1959-1998 in Xinjiang, the basic features of autumn climate change in Tianshan mountainous area are analyzed and compared with those in the southern and northern Xinjiang. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The similarity of warm-cold stage of autumn mean temperature between Tianshan mountainous area and the northern Xinjiang is better than those between Tianshan mountainous area and the southern Xinjiang. But the wet-dry stage of autumn precipitation in Tianshan mountainous area and the northern Xinjiang is different from those in the southern and northern Xinjiang. (2) The synchronous change of spatial distribution of autumn mean temperature is the best in the northern Xinjiang, the worst in the southern Xinjiang and better in Tianshan mountainous area. The synchronous change of spatial distribution of autumn precipitation is the best in the southern Xinjiang, the worst in Tianshan mountainous area and better the northern Xinjiang. ⑶ From the 1960s to the 1990s, autumn mean temperature shows wavy warming in Tianshan mountainous area and continuously increasing trend in the southern and northern Xinjiang. Autumn mean temperature is the highest in the 1990s,and 1.0℃,0.7℃,0.2℃ above the mean for 1961-1990 for Tianshan mountainous area, the southern Xinjiang and the northern Xinjiang respectively. Autumn precipitation in the 1980s is the most for the three large regions, and 17%, 16%, 34% above the mean for 1961-1990 for Tianshan mountainous area, the northern Xinjiang and the southern Xinjiang respectively. Autumn precipitation is all bellow the average for 1961-1990 for the three large regions in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1990s.
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    Response and Adaptation to Climate Change Indicated by the Relationship Between Revolt and Drought-flood in Shandong Province During Middle and Late Qing Dynasty
    YE Yu, FANG Xiu-Qi, GE Quan-Sheng, ZHENG Jing-Yun
    2004, 24 (6):  680-686.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.680
    Abstract ( 135 )   PDF (947KB) ( 33 )   Save
    The paper analyzed the spatial-temporal relationship between revolt and drought-flood, and influence of factors such as population, land tax and policy, in Shandong Province during the middle and late Qing Dynasty (1800-1911AD), in order to understand the regional adaptation to climate change. The results indicated that there was good spatial-temporal relationship between revolt and drought-flood. During 1800 to 1850, the relationship was the best, when climate change was the main factor that arose the revolt as an extreme and drastic response by peasants to the intolerable climate change in feudal society. During the 1850s-1870s, disasters occurred frequently, revolt broke out continually, and society contradiction became intensified. After then, the corresponding relationship between revolt and drought was not as better as before. It may be contributed to that Qing government's policy that abolished the ban of migration to Northeast China in 1861AD, which provided a new way to respond to the climate change for the people in Shandong Province and weakened the impact of climate change on revolt.
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    Proxy Environmental History in Cele Oasis, Southern Margin of Tarim Basin in Southern Xinjiang in Recent 4000 years
    ZHONG Wei, XIONG Hei-Gang, Wang Li-Guo, TEYIP·Tashpolat
    2004, 24 (6):  687-692.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.687
    Abstract ( 274 )   PDF (761KB) ( 40 )   Save
    Based on two sediment sections obtained in Cele oasis, which is located at the southern margin of Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang, by applying the pollen combination and geochemical elements as the proxy records of environmental changes, this paper revealed 4 relatively (cold) wet periods, which occurred at 4.0-2.0 ka B.P., about 2.0-1.0 ka B.P., 550-300 a B.P. and around 100 a B.P. respectively. Three possible important boundaries of environmental changes in the research area, which occurred at around 1500 a B. P., 1000 a B. P. and 200 a B. P. respectively, have also been found. The coupled relationship between environmental changes and the human's activities, taking the abandonment of ancient towns as example, shows that climate and environmental changes may be one of the most important factors affecting the man-land relationship in arid area.
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    Paleohumidity Evolution in Loess Plateau Recorded by Organic Matter in Xifeng Loess Section
    JIA Rong-Fen, PENG Xian-Zhi
    2004, 24 (6):  693-697.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.693
    Abstract ( 129 )   PDF (612KB) ( 21 )   Save
    Here pHC2-1 is hydrocarbon pyrolyzed at 300-500℃, which presents organic matter combined with organism residue in sample and correlated to supergene water, rain or other surface water in the area, pHC2-2 is hydrocarbon pyrolyzed at 500-600℃, which presents organic matter combined with special secondary carbonate and correlated to evaporation water. The calculated result shows that the paleohumidity is bigger in the paleosol layer than that in the adjacent loess layers. The range of paleohumidity in the section is 47%-80%, the highest is in S5-1, the secondary is in S1, the lowest is in L6, the secondary is in L4. The paleohumidity change of L2-S1-LI in Xifengg section could correlate with the same layers in Weinan section of Shaanxi Province, Which could compared with the results of mineral partial size, content of CaCO3, iron changes of Fe, as well as susceptibility used often in the research on loess section. The paleohimidity evolution in Xifeng section shows that during L6-L4 layers, the paleohumidity changed intensively, it means that the general circulation of atmosphere was very activity and may be reflect an event of hot-humidity or the climatic boundary of the dry and humid general circulations. After L4, special in L4-L2 layers, the amplitude of paleohumidity changes to gentle, and the trend of humidity to decrease, but since S2 the trend of the humidity have changed to increase.
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    Analysis of the Granger Causality Between the Scouring and Silting and the Coefficient of Incoming Sediments of the Lancang River
    ZOU Gao-Lu, LUO Huai-Liang
    2004, 24 (6):  698-703.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.698
    Abstract ( 152 )   PDF (898KB) ( 14 )   Save
    The Lanchang-Meikon River is an important international river. In recent years, the basin of this river has gradually become the region where some countries or regioanl groups, located along both of its banks, have stressed research and development and invested a lot. The river is one of the most active factors in the environment of physical geography of the Lanchang River basin. Water flow and its bedload have important impact on shipment development, construction of water power stations, and land use. There Thus, a placement of stress on research of the impact of changes in the natural incoming sediments on the scouring and silting changes of the Lanchang River will provide an important basis for its terrace development. Using Granger causality model, the ADF time series stability test technique, and the available on-site collected data within a period of 23 years, this study conducts an analysis of whether or not changes in the incoming sediments of the Lanchang River will lead to scouring and silting changes. This study finds that: (1) the variable of the yearly coefficients of incoming sediments of the Lanchang River is a non-stability time series process; but in the contrary, the variable of the yearly scouring and silting changes is a stability one; (2) there are no Granger causal relations, or predictive relations, found from the changes in the incoming sediments of the Lanchang River (Yunjinghong Section) to those in the scouring and silting. Thus, an increase (or decrease) in the coefficient of incoming sediments of the Lanchang River will uncertainly lead to an increase in the section silting (or an increase in the section scouring). This does not accord with the suggstion in the past research. Thus, we suggest that the former study's suggestion may be discussible.
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    Fluxes of Persistent Organic Pollutants from Humen Tidal Channel of Pearl River to Lingdingyang Estuary
    YANG Qing-Shu, MAI Bi-Xian, FU Jia-Mo, SHENG Guo-Ying, LUO Xiao-Jun, LIN Zheng
    2004, 24 (6):  704-709.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.704
    Abstract ( 100 )   PDF (1027KB) ( 13 )   Save
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface water samples from Humen tidal channel were identified and measured quantitatively, based on USEPA 8000 series methods and under quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC). The total (particulate plus dissolved phase) concentrations of PAHs in surface water from Humen tidal channel in both high flow season and low flow season were 786-964 ng/L and 11 360-19 603 ng/L respectively, and the total concentrations of OCPs in both seasons were 9.68-26.29 ng/L and 41.65-96.23 ng/L respectively. The average of concentrations of the 4 water samples from Humen tidal channel both in high flow season and in low flow season was used to estimate the annual fluxes of PAHs and OCPs. The results are as follows: the total PAHs (particulate and dissolved phase) flux from the Pearl River Artery to the Lingdingyang Estuary was 438.4?103 kg/a,and the flux of the particulate phase PAHs was 52.5?103 kg/a; the flux of 16 PAHs was estimated to be 247.9?103 kg/a. The total OCPs flux was 2.6?103 kg/a,of which the HCHs, DDTs and other OCPs were 1.1?103 kg/a,0.3?103 kg/aand 1.2?103 kg/a respectively.
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    Changes in Organic Matter and Total Nitrogen of Black Soils in Jilin Province over the Past Two Decades
    YANG Xue-Ming, ZHANG Xiao-Ping, FANG Hua-Jun, LIANG Ai-Zhen
    2004, 24 (6):  710-714.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.710
    Abstract ( 135 )   PDF (442KB) ( 44 )   Save
    Black soils are main agricultural soils in Northeast China and the organic matter content of these soils has been one of the hot research topics for many years. By referencing the data and sampling locations in the Second National Soil Surveys of Jilin Province conducted in the 1980s, we re-sampled 27 black soils along the Jing-Ha (Beijing-Harbin) railway in central Jilin. The contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen of those soils were determined and compared in pair with the data measured 20 years ago on an equivalent depth. We found that 2-decades intensive farming affected differently the contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen, with increasing for some soils and decreasing for others. However, there was no significant difference in overall average of soil organic matter. By comparing the results with other studies, we believe that the present corn dominated production has balanced soil organic matter level of black soils through roots alone in areas where soil erosion was not a problem. However, the soils that organic matter decreased during the past two decades might be subject to severe soil erosion. During the same time, some black soils gained organic matter.
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    Flood Events Since 5000 a B.P. Recorded in Natural Sediments of Zhongba Site, Chuanjiang River
    ZHANG Qiang, YANG Da-Yuan, SHI Ya-Feng, GE Zhao-Shuai, JIANG Tong
    2004, 24 (6):  715-720.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.715
    Abstract ( 84 )   PDF (704KB) ( 14 )   Save
    Field investigation was performed on Zhongba site, the Chuanjiang River, and at the same time, sampling for grain size analysis and 14C dating were also collected for the research of flood events and its possible influences on the human activities in the study region. For exact determination of the flood sediments of Zhongba site, modern flood sediments along the Changjiang River were taken for comparison research. Grain size analysis is performed on these samples along the bank of the Changjiang River for determining the sedimentary environment. Research results indicate that the grain size characteristics of the modern flood sediments along the Changjiang River are similar when compared to those samples from the natural layers of the Zhongba site, which means that the natural layers of Zhongba site were the results of flood events in different periods. Geomorphological investigation in the study region also provides evidences for this viewpoint. On-the-spot investigation of the site indicates that natural layers characterized by flooding alluvium interrupted the cultural layers. It can be said that floods of different periods exert great influences on human activities, interrupting the sequence of the sedimentation of the section. The main phenomenon is the cultural hiatus of the site section. Large amount of broken keramics and utensils for salt producing and the large kiln were excavated near the site indicating that the salt production was the main economic activities. Large amount of burned trees were found in the natural layers. People here destroyed forest for making keramics and utensils or for salt production, which leaded to the great loss of loss and water and resulted in deterioration of ecological environment in the study region, which in turn leaded to the deteriorating and more serious flood disasters. That is the main reason for the phenomenon that the natural layers were interrupted by the natural layers (flood alluvium layer). Frequently occurred flood inundation caused fast evolutions of the riverbed. Floods and evolution of the river channel cut the site off from the riverbank, making the site the geographically isolated island. Therefore, the human economic activities along the bank of the Changjiang River are receiving tremendous impacts from the floods. And at the same time, improper human activities exert negative influences on ecological environment. In the near future, under the influences of the global warming, stress should be put on the research of the influences from the occurrence of the flood events and riverbed evolution on the local human social economic activities.
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    Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Weather Disasters in Yunnan Province
    XIE Ming-En, CHENG Jian-Gang
    2004, 24 (6):  721-726.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.721
    Abstract ( 254 )   PDF (749KB) ( 34 )   Save
    The major characteristics of weather disasters in Yunnan Province is analyzed by using weather disasters data in the period of 1950-1999, weather disasters in Yunnan Province have characteristics of multi-kinds,high frequence,overlapping,wide distribution,obvious seasonality and regionalization,few disaster formation area and serious accumulated losses. The formation mechanism and occurrence background of weather disasters in Yunnan Province has also discussed. The results show that geographical environment,climate and human activities are main factors to form weather disasters in Yunnan Province. The geographical environment elements to form weather disasters in yunnan include low latitude plateau,approaching tropical oceans,complicated topographical features,cliffy mountain,few vegetation,concentrated rainfall,complicated geological structure and strong fault actions. The strong or weak monsoon activities and the difference of general atmospheric circulation in winter and summer over Yunnan are the climatic background to form weather disasters. Population increase,excessive wasteland reclamation,denudation forest,serious water and soil erosion are main human factors to intensify weather disasters occurrence frequently and loss seriousness in yunnan. At last countermeasure of weather disasters prevention and reduction were put forward.
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    Application of Ecological Services Evaluation in Environmental Assessment of Land-use Policy
    YU Shu-Xia, SHANG Jin-Cheng, GUO Huai-Cheng
    2004, 24 (6):  727-732.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.727
    Abstract ( 149 )   PDF (764KB) ( 10 )   Save
    Being one type of strategic environmental assessment (SEA), policy environmental assessment (policy EA) is to analysis, predict and assess the significance of the potential environmental impacts of policy and its options or alternatives, both negative and active, in a systematic, comprehensive procedure, and then to make sure the results are considered by the policy makers and integrated into decision-making process as early as possible. Being in the higher hierarchy of decision-making, and because of the complexity and uncertainty of the proposed policies, policy EA are falling behind that of program and planning EA both in the academic researches and practices. The effective, systematic and universal methodology to policy SEA is still not formed, which is the main obstacle for its application in practice. In this study, the environmental assessment of land-use policy in Jilin Province is navigated using the possible changes of ecological service values as criteria. The ecological service values were considered to be the combined, quantitative exhibition of the conditions of ecosystem. The changes of ecological service values can reflect the impacts of land-use policy execution. It is shown that the land-use policy of Jilin Province proposed during the process of constructing ecological province is generally rational from the environmental and natural resources preservation perspectives, while the common land expansion should be controlled strictly. It is significant to apply the ecological services evaluation theory to quantitative policy SEA methods in the further studies.
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    Calculation of Groundwater Allowable Withdrawal Based on Blind Number Theory
    LI Ru-Zhong, QIAN Jia-Zhong, WANG Jia-Quan, SUN Shi-Qun
    2004, 24 (6):  733-737.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.733
    Abstract ( 131 )   PDF (1049KB) ( 11 )   Save
    Groundwater is an important water supply source for the northen cities in China. Because of without scientific evaluation and management on groundwater withdrawal in the past years, the phenomena of over-mining of groundwater resources are universal in these cities. In groundwater allowable withdrawal evaluation, the traditional method is based on determination model. In fact, there are some uncertainties in groundwater system. Based on the characteristics of objective randomness and subjective uncertainty of it, the blind number theory in unascertained mathematics is applied to groundwater resources evaluation. On the basis of defination of hydrogeological parameter blind numbers, a model for groundwater allowable withdrawal calcualtion is proposed. Using the model established, not only the possible interval values of groundwater supply but also their corresponding faith degree can be obtained. According to these useful information, the risk results of groundwater allowable withdrawal evaluation can be carried out. Case study shows that the results derived from the unascertained mathematics theory accord closer with practical situation than that of traditional method of groundwater allowable withdrawal calcualtion.
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    A Review on Researches in Earliest Departure Harbor of Silk Road on Sea in Ancient China
    HAN Hu-Chu, YANG Shi-Hong
    2004, 24 (6):  738-745.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.738
    Abstract ( 120 )   PDF (2282KB) ( 64 )   Save
    This paper provides a review on the researches in the earliest departure harbor of the Silk Road on Sea in ancient China, and concludes three opinions of consensus: (1)Though Pan-yu(Guangzhou) is a famous city in South China, it was not the earliest departure harbor of the Silk Road on Sea in ancient China. (2)Before being moved to Pan-Yu City in Wu-Jun dynasty, the center for traffic and overseas trade is always in Beibu Gulf in western Han dynasty, so the coastal cities in Beibu Gulf, like He-Pu City,Xu-Wen City and Ri-Nan City (in Viet Nam today), were the earliest departure harbors of the Silk Road on Sea in ancient China. (3)Though being the same earliest departure harbor as Xu-Wen City, He-Pu City was superior to Xu-Wen City in geographic position and natural conditions, and being more prosperous in Han dynasty.
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    A Summary of Loessial Researches in Shandong
    ZHANG Zu-Lu, XIN Liang-Jie, NIE Xiao-Hong
    2004, 24 (6):  746-752.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.746
    Abstract ( 141 )   PDF (1003KB) ( 23 )   Save
    The loess of Shandong, located in the margin of Eastern China,shows some stripes as a whole,especially on the windward slopes,the terraces of the central mountainous region and northwest coastal zone of Jiaodong hills.Among the loess sections distributed in Shandong,the Fujiazhuang section(30m)at Qingzhou is the best,and can be regarded as the typical section of Shandong.TL dating results of Fujiazhuang loess show that the lowest layer of Shandong loess is L9,with the age of 0.8 Ma B.P.,which accords with the third borderline determined by Liu Dongsheng.Many sections have the tertiary red clay layers. Based on the main researches on loess spreading all over Shandong enumerated in this paper,the authors conclude that the grain sizes, composition and origins of loess between Shandong and inland regions is obviously different,and the same within Shandong. Based on the characters, two areas can be allocated: the coastal district, islands and islets of the Bohai Sea and the central district of Shandong.The former loess in which many tiny marine fossils have been found and whose grain sizes are much coarser, however,the latter has more complex material sources and characters.According to the analytical results of grain sizes and spore,the sea level of Shandong has been known to have several fluctuations between transgression and regression since the middle Pleistocene,so bald Bohai shelf was the main material sources for the continental loess during ice ages,and it severely influences the loess of Qingzhou,Weifang etc,the districts of the central district of Shandong. But the loess of Zibo and Jinan,the west of the central district, mostly originates from western Gobies and deserts.
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    Superposition Function of Physical Factor in Super-Huge Flood along the Changjiang River in 1954
    FENG Li-Hua, CHEN Xiong
    2004, 24 (6):  753-756.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.753
    Abstract ( 99 )   PDF (585KB) ( 8 )   Save
    Super-huge flood along the Changjiang River refers to extra large flood in the entire drainage basin of the Changjiang River. Known from the measured records on floods at Hankou Station since 1865, the largest flood is occurred in 1954 (highest flood level 29.73m). Based on current available studies, major physical factors for the formation of super-huge flood along the Changjiang River in 1954 include: (1) sunspot activity, (2) El Nino event, (3) strong earthquake in the south of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, (4) solar eclipse, (5) cross eclipse year of perihelion, (6) astronomical cycle, (7) inter-star gravitation, (8) subtropical high of West Pacific, (9) anomalous field of sea temperature at previous winter. The effect of these physical factors on super-huge flood along the Changjiang River is strong also weak. Example, the effect of sunspot activity, El Nino event, strong earthquake in the south of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau on super-huge flood along the Yangtze River is relatively strong which belongs to strong signal, while astronomical cycle, inter-star gravitation to weak signal. As they result in super-huge flood along the Yangtze River in the light of large-scale anomaly of general circulation, sunspot activity, El Nino event, strong earthquake in the south of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, solar eclipse may be named sun-air interaction, ocean-air interaction, land-air interaction, eclipse-air interaction respectively. The general researches are mainly focused on the impact of single physical factor on super-huge flood along the Changjiang River in 1954. In fact, super-huge flood along the Yangtze River in 1954 is the superposition result of these factors. Because of the most physical factors and the strongest superposition in 1954 compared with the other floods in the 20th century, the grade of super-huge flood along the Changjiang River in 1954 is the greatest.
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    Spatial Structure of Rural Tourism Attractions in Suburban Areas of China
    WU Bi-Hu, HUANG Zhuo-Wei, MA Xiao-Meng
    2004, 24 (6):  757-763.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.757
    Abstract ( 213 )   PDF (1078KB) ( 65 )   Save
    Rural tourism development in China has witnessed a rapid growth in the last decade, and many authors went to deep understanding about definition of rural tourism, rural tourism product programming and planning, and other aspects of agro-tourism. But according to literature review, we need more knowledge about spatial structures of rural tourism development around cities where main markets are located. Seventy four rural attractions around 69 Chinese cities are randomly collected and processed by employing geographical techniques to explore spatial structure of those attractions by the authors. Under some definite assumptions, several findings could be observed: All rural attractions distributed around cities demonstrate distance decay, although with some fluctuations, which could described by a simulative equation of 6th order as:
    y =-4E-0.6x6 + 0.0004x5-0.0145x4 + 0.2622x3-2.3527x2 + 8.4049x + 2.1296
    There are as high as 88% rural tourism attractions that were built up within a distance of 100 km from their primary origin city, while two concentrated sections could be identified at about 20 km and 70 km respectively away from the central city, but the 20 km section is more higher clustered one for rural attraction development. At about 50 km section away from the central city, which is just located between the two attraction clusters, a less developed area for rural tourism appears where only a few of attractions have been built. Spatial analysis tells the story behind the curtain: sub-central cities/towns around the major origin city are often allocated at that distance and bring interference to recreational activities there.
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    Spatial Structure of Tourism Industrial Development in Jilin Province
    CAO Yi-Min, Yuan Jia-Dong
    2004, 24 (6):  764-766.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.764
    Abstract ( 141 )   PDF (363KB) ( 14 )   Save
    Jilin Provice is a large ecological province in China, and it is rich in both nature and human tourism resources. Tourism industry has become a promising sector for adjusting regional industrial structure and developing Jilin ecological province. Spatial structure of tourism industry development becomes a key part for designing tourism industry strategy planning that how to develop tourism resources, tourism product, touring line and key tourism project is made up of the main content. This paper analyses development conditions for tourism industry of Jilin Province, and discusses overall strategy and master spatial structure, key sectors, key products and key projects etc.
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    Reference Value of Presenile Men's Hemoglobin and Geographical Factors in China
    GE Miao, XIAO Yan-Fei, LIU Kun, LI Xin-Yan, LIANG Wei, CHEN Hong-Fei
    2004, 24 (6):  767-770.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.767
    Abstract ( 91 )   PDF (692KB) ( 9 )   Save
    This paper aims at supplying a scientific basis for uniting the normal reference value standard of hemoglobin of Chinese presenile men,a research is made about relationship between the reference value of Chinese healthy presenile men's hemoglobin and five geographical factors in 161 areas in China, the normal reference value is determined by the hemoglobincyanide method. The ages of the volunteers range from 46 to 59 years old. It is found that the correlation of geographical factors and the reference value of Chinese presenile men's hemoglobin are quite significant (F=192.81) from the following equation:
    Ŷ=150.7+0.005 880 X1-1.452 X4+0.0113 1 X5±17.9
    F=192.81
    In the above equation, is the normal reference value of presenile men's hemoglobin (g/L); X1 is the altitude (m); X4 is the annual average temperature (℃); X5 is the annual precipitation (mm); 17.9 are the value of the 1.96 residual standard deviations. If geographical values are obtained in some areas, the reference value of Chinese presenile men's hemoglobin of this area can be reckoned using regression equation. For example, in the Beijing area, the altitude is 31.2 m, the annual average temperature is 11.5 ℃, and the annual precipitation is 644.2 mm. By means of the regression equation, the following can be calculated:
    Ŷ=150.7+0.005880×31.2-1.452×11.5+0.01131×644.2±17.9=141.5±17.9
    So, the calculated normal reference value of presenile men's hemoglobin can be obtained, the normal reference value of presenile men's hemoglobin is 141.5±17.9 g/L. Furthermore, according to the similarity of the reference value of Chinese presenile men's hemoglobin, taking the altitude as the main dividing basis and considering effects of other geographical factors and population distribution, China can be divided into six regions: Qinghai-Xizang, Southwest, Northwest, Southeast, North and Northeast regions.
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