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Table of Content

    20 March 2001, Volume 21 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Diagnoses and Remedies of the Symptoms in Compiling and Implementing the Regional Development Planning in China
    FANG Chuang-lin
    2001, 21 (2):  97-102.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.97
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1828KB) ( )   Save
    By analyzing the questionnaires about the effects of compiling and implementing the regional development planning in China, it is considered that the effects are well on the whole, but there are six symptoms existing respectively in planning intents as follows. Planning intentions are to complete plans and seek achievement. Planning line-ups are for all time or unabiding. Planning procedures follow unitarianism from up to down. Planning appraisements implement the integration of compiling and censoring. Planning targets seeks ivory-towered "a skyrocketing rise". Planning service objects are fruit and officer conciliarism. In view of these planning symptoms, it is wise to suit the remedy to the symptom. convert the operation mechanism, advocate the venture planning, track and supervise the implementation of the planning, improve the implication-oriented foreground of the planning.
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    Analysis of Comparative Advantages of Cotton in Major Cotton-producing Provinces in China
    SHENG Cheng-fa, WANG Hong-tuo, SU Jjian-wei, XUAN Wei-jian
    2001, 21 (2):  103-107.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.103
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2263KB) ( )   Save
    In 1992-1998, mean unit yield ratios of food grain to lint cotton and cotton-growing profits relative to other agricultural activities ranged from 1.94 to 7.24 and from 0.95 to 5.41 in 12 major cotton-producing provinces, respectively. By statistical analysis, every 1 increase in the ratio will probably cause a 34.0% decrease and 48.3% increase in the ratio of cotton yield in 1999 to that in 1992, respectively. Based on this analysis of comparative advantages in the 12 provinces, under the nation-wide condition of reducing cotton production, it is reasonable to maintain the production levels in Gansu and Xinjiang, reduce the production to rational levels in 5 provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Hebei and Sichuan, and adjust properly the production levels in the other 5 provinces of Jiangxi, Anhui, Henan, Hunan and Hubei. Considering the change in international market in the near future, the authors believe that cotton yield in Xinjiang and Gansu will further increase, and keeps the pace with the national production in 2001.
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    Structure of the Zonal-Mean Circulation Over the Northern Hemisphere and Its Impact on Climate of China in Winter
    GONG Dao-yi, WANG Shao-wu
    2001, 21 (2):  108-112.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.108
    Abstract ( )   PDF (244KB) ( )   Save
    As revealed by the empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF), the dominant modes of northern hemispheric zonally-mean wind (u) in winter show two centers of opposite sign, one center located near 30?-35癗 and another near 55癗. The prominent modes of geopotential heights also show two centers, one is at 40癗 and another at 65癗. These two modes connected tightly. So, the zonal index can be defined as the difference in geopotential height between 40癗 and 65癗. This kind of zonal index correlate with westerly of 55癗 at 0.96. The anomalous variation of the westerly can impact the winter surface temperature and precipitation of China significantly. During the high-index years, most of China become warmer, and the precipitation in the mid-eastern China will increase. Correlation between the zonal index and the 160-station mean temperature and precipitation is 0.63 and 0.38 respectively.The Siberia High and Eastern Asia Trough that show the powerful control of winter climate of China, usually become weak during the high zonal index years.
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    Researh on Debris Flow Prevention Priority
    LIU Xi-lin
    2001, 21 (2):  113-117.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.113
    Abstract ( )   PDF (223KB) ( )   Save
    Debris flow prevention priority (DFPP) is a part of debris flow mitigation priority (DFMP). DFMP is defined as in a given area and a period of time, the degree of priority for reduction of debris flows should be considered. DFMP is the sum of DFPP and debris flow relief priority (DFRP).Hence DFRP is an important component for hazard assessment.DFPP is directly related to regional hazard degree of debris flow, population density and regional development index. It is quantitatively expressed asP=H×E×M where P is DFPP(10 000 yuan/km2);H is regional hazard degree of debris flow (0-1);E is population density (person/km2);M is per capita GDP(10 000 yuan/person).H is a function of twelve variables relevant to natural characteristics of debris flow. The primary factor is distribution density of debris flow, the secondary factors are involved in environmental background, including geological, geographic, meteorological and climatic factors. Detailed findings are available in previous researches.E indicates the importance of people in the given region. The more the population density, the more important the region. M represents the situation of development in the region. The higher the per capita GDP, the more developed the region, and the more worthy to be prevented from natural hazards.Practice of this method in Aba Prefecture of Sichuan Province has demonstrated that it is significant and feasible. Assessment of DFPP could provide scientific references and decisions on debris flow management and master plan for policy makers of government agents. Furthermore, assessment of DFPP could provide assessment model for other kinds of natural hazards, so as to more widely popularize this methodology in the other parts of China.
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    Spatial and Temporal Variability of Soil Surface Properties in DanangouCatchment in Loess Hill and Hilly Region
    ZHANG Guang-hui, LIU Guo-bin
    2001, 21 (2):  118-122.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.118
    Abstract ( )   PDF (235KB) ( )   Save
    In order to establish the suitable soil erosion model for the loess hilly region of Loess Plateau, one typical catchment is selected, and a lot of experiments are carried out in this catchment. Soil surface properties are the basic input information and have very significance for establishing soil erosion model at catchment level. The spatial and temporal variability of soil surface properties of different land use system were analyzed by means of roughness meter, micro cohesion meter, and constant pressure head method. The results indicate that the random roughness (RR) change very largely due to the effect of tillage, fertilizing, plant, harvest and so on. The RR of farmland is the highest among 5 kinds of land use and is 1.05, 2.10, 1.70, 1.95 times to orchard, woodland, shrub and wasteland respectively. The soil cohesion of wasteland and shrub varied very sharply and had no significant change in woodland, farmland, and orchard. Wasteland had the highest cohesion and then is shrub, woodland, orchard and farmland, and the measured data are 0.222, 0.144, 0.097, 0.084, and 0.068 kg/cm2. Organic matter content is the main factor, which influence soil aggregated stability. The organic content is different in different land use and due to its impact, the variability of aggregated stability changed widely. From high to low, the turn was woodland, shrub, orchard, farmland and wasteland respectively. The average measured data were 6.38, 4.01, 3.64, 3.62 and 3.06. The measured results indicated that because the farmland had low soil cohesion and aggregated stability, the serious soil erosion is very easy happening when heavy storm takes place. Therefore, more attention should be paid to farmland for soil conservation purpose. Meanwhile, the wasteland also has low aggregated stability, when runoff covers waste ground, the soil is very easy to be disposed. So a great of attention need be paid to the wasteland at the same time when soil and water comprehensive control measure is designed.
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    Impacts of the Construction of Key Water Conservancy Projects in the Yangtze River and Sea Level Rise on Water Quality of Shanghai Water Intake
    YANG Gui-shan
    2001, 21 (2):  123-129.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.123
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1307KB) ( )   Save
    The Yangtze River mouth is a main headwaters of Shanghai, the water quality of the mouth is affected by both salt water intrusion and pollution from economic development and people's daily life. In recent years, decline in water quality of the mouth has resulted in serious problems of the shortage of water supply in this region. In constructing Three Gorge Water Control Project and in planning the Project of Transporting Water from the Yangtze River to North China, in addition, sea level rise caused by global warming will all affect water quality of the mouth through exacerbated salt water intrusion. Based on the analysis of the affected factors of water quality of the Yangtze River mouth, this paper emphatically studies the integrated impacts of the construction of key water conservancy projects and sea level rise on water quality of Shanghai water intake. The result shows that the construction of Three Gorge Water Control Project and the Project of Transporting Water from the Yangtze River to Northern China as well as future sea level rise will result in the decline of water quality of Shanghai water intake in both South Branch of the Yangtze River and Huangpu River, the obvious effects will appear in October and the dry season of the Yangtze River(from December of this year to March of the next year).
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    Distribution Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements in Water, Suspended Solid & Sediment of the Hanshui River
    YAN Bai-xing, HE Yan
    2001, 21 (2):  130-134.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.130
    Abstract ( )   PDF (224KB) ( )   Save
    This paper discusses systematically distribution characteristics,content levels,abundance modes, influence of suspended solid on element contents, effect of sediment granularity on enrichment and dispersion of eight rare earth elements in water phase (original water, filtrated water, suspended solid) and sediment phase in the Hanshui River.The results show the following laws. Eu,Lu are dissolved mainly in water column, and Sm is contained mostly in suspended solid;basically, contents of rare earth elements in the Hanshui River are within the range of average that of global fresh water;because of similarity of source and granularity of suspended solid and fine sediment, contents and abundance orders of rare earth elements in them are consistent basically; surface runofff affects on the content of suspended solid and rare earth elements in water. In all kinds of phases, the content of light rare earth elements(LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements(HREE).
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    Study on Acid-volatile Sulfide(AVS) of Sediment in Mariculture Region of Jiaozhou Bay
    HUO Wen-yi, Li Quan-sheng, Ma Xi-nian
    2001, 21 (2):  135-139.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.135
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1387KB) ( )   Save
    Acid-volatile sulfide is operationally defined for the analysis of sulfide in aquatic sediment. The AVS has been shown significance in controlling heavy metal partitioning between sediment and pore water and in explaining the bioavailability of metal toxicants. Also,it is an important index of sediment quality in mariculture. This paper describes apparatus that can be used in the evolution of sulfide from sediment and a method for the analysis of the evolved sulfide. The method was studied with respect to N2 gas flow rate,reaction time,acid concentration and sulfide amounts. The evolution of sulfide was determined by iodimetric methods of analysis. Using the apparatus and conditions described in this paper,the iodimetric method of analysis is capable of detecting AVS at concentration normally encountered with a recovery of sulfide of at least 90%. Meanwhile,samples of sediment were compiled from mariculture region of Jiaozhou Bay and shrimp ponds and the AVS concentration was determined by this approach. The average concentration of AVS in mariculture sediment was 11.41 μmol/L, which was higher than that in shrimp ponds and other natural marine sediment. The richness of AVS in sediment of northeast region of Jiaozhou Bay was likely resulted form the discharge of mariculture waste water. Furthermore, it was discussed for the method of normalization by AVS in predicting chemical activity and bioavailability of divalent metal.
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    A Study on Desertification of West Jilin Province Based on RS and GIS Technology
    ZHU Jin-hua, LI Jin-song
    2001, 21 (2):  140-144.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.140
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1066KB) ( )   Save
    The paper discusses the desertification of west Jilin Province, including its development trends, its forming causes and countermeasures by comparing the interpretations of imageries of the 1980s and the 1990s there. It is thought that the desertification there will develop still, the main reason is human activities suchas unreasonable land use and over depasturation.
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    Pedodiversity and Its Measurement——A case study from Hainan Province focused on parent rock-dependent soil variability
    CHEN Jie, ZHANG Xue-lei, ZHAO Wen-jun, ZHANG Gan-lin, LUO Guo-bao, ZHAO Yu-guo
    2001, 21 (2):  145-151.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.145
    Abstract ( )   PDF (980KB) ( )   Save
    Spatial soil variation is a fundamental notion of pedology, formally expressed in the hierarchical system of soil taxonomy and soil associations. Recently, a possible approach to systematically analyze taxonomic diversity of pedosphere by methods employed in ecological studies was presented, drawing a parallel with the concept of biodiversity in ecology. By introducing diversity concept and its measurement methodology, the padeotaxa diversity of the soils developedondifferent kinds parent rocksin Hainan Province was analyzed on the basis of data complied in 1: 200 000 SOTER database. Here, proportional abundance (Shannon Index) of pedotaxa were used to estimate diversity in terms of richness (number of taxonomic categories: main soil groups) and evenness (distribution of pedotaxa by areal abundance). The results show that peoddiversity of the soils developed on the different parent rocks followed such a sequence: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, loose sediments and metamorphic rocks (with diversity indices 2.02, 1.65, 1.25 and 0.96 respectively), while of all kinds of rocks, the highest diversity index was measured in the soils developed on seashore accumulations (with the value 1.99), and the lowest on rhyolitic rocks (with the value 0.42). Furthermore, the relationships between areas of parent rocks and richness, pedodiversity, evenness of the soils developed were discussed for a better understanding of the so-called area-diversity effect. Besides, the algorithms of object abundance model employed in ecological study were introduced to demonstrate distribution model of the soils. It was indicated that the area distributions of the soils developed on different kinds of rocks, at various degrees, seemed to fit the logarithmic normal distribution model. Although the most of the conclusions drawn from this case study concerning soil richness, diversity and distribution at a moderate scale were axiomatic or already known from general soil concepts and models, as an innovative methodology, pedodiversity should exert its impact on further assessments of regional soil system, land use and management and environmental protection. In fact, it was already suggested that pedodiversity could be useful in a number of practical applications and be expected to play an important role in exploring, quantifying and comparing the complexity of soil patterns in different areas and environments.
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    Constructing Long-Bai Rail to Meet of Sustainable Development of Great Southwest Economic Area
    CHEN Hang
    2001, 21 (2):  152-157.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.152
    Abstract ( )   PDF (267KB) ( )   Save
    Long-Bai Rail starts from the Longchang Station of Chengyu Rail in Sichuan Province to the north, going through Luzhou, Bijie of Guizhou to the south and linking at Huangtong to Gui(Guiyan)-Kun(Kunming)Rail. It further goes to the south through the east of Nanzhou of the west Guizhou Province and finally ends at Baise of the Guangxi Autonomous Region to Nan(Nanning)-Kun(Kunming)Rail. The total length is 800 km.From the view of regional conditions by comparing and analyzing, as well sa the actual demands of economic development of the great southwest area, the rail should constructed as soon as possible. The reasons are as follows:1. It is the main access of the southwest economic core area to the sea. It will provide better conditions for open door and various international economic and trade relationship.2. It is the short-cut of many provincial capital cities and major economic centres of the great southwest area. The rail would be convenient for the inter-linkages among them.3. Its construction will fasten the development of areas with advanced mining resources along the rail. It is the requirements to ensure the national economic sustainable development of the southwest area and certain parts of South China.4. The construction of the rail will decentralize the volume of nearby rails, which are at their saturation. It will be an indispensable major rail to improve the network of the great southwest area.5. It will play an important role in helping the poverty reduction along the railway.
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    Study on the City Orientation in Peripheral Areas of Metropolis in the New Era——A case study of the relation between Shanghai and Suzhou
    LIU Rong-zeng, CUI Gong-hao, FENG De-xian
    2001, 21 (2):  158-163.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.158
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1159KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of the theories of metropolitan area, location, comparative advantage and symbiosis, this article probes into the future orientations of Suzhou, which is located in the peripheral areas of Shanghai metropolitan area, under the background of economic globalization and market integration from the perspective of labor division and coordination between regions. It draws following conclusions: (1) In terms of city space orientation, Suzhou, as a subsidiary city, should lay particular emphasis on the construction of its processing function and manufacturing base. It should actively take part in international activities of Shanghai metropolitan areas, and share out the work and cooperate with Shanghai in tourism, banking and port construction. (2) In terms of industry orientation, Suzhou should give priority to high technology and export- oriented industries, and coordinate relationship among primary industry, secondary industry and tertiary industry. (3) In terms of urban feature, Suzhou should pay particular attention to its famous historical and cultural characteristics and the amenity of living environment. In the end, the article puts forward thinking on how to develop and how to carry out these orientations. The precondition of implementing these orientations is strengthening construction of regional infrastructure network.The key of implementing these orientations is enhancing labor division and cooperation between Suzhou and Shanghai. The impetus of implementing the orientation is constructing regional innovation network of integration of Suzhou and Shanghai. The basis of implementing these orientation is strengthening the harmony development of ecology and environment. The authos hope that the article can serve as a references to the sound development between other cities in the metropolitan area in the Yangtze River Delta.
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    Multi-Objective Decision in Coordinative Development among Energy Social-Economy and Environment——A case study of Jiangsu Province
    ZHAO Yuan, LIANG Zhong, YUAN Lin-wang, GUAN Wei-hua
    2001, 21 (2):  164-169.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.164
    Abstract ( )   PDF (540KB) ( )   Save
    Since the latter half of 1996, the contradiction between energy supply and demand in China has been moderating. The contents of energy development strategy have been changing from showing concern for balance between supply and demand of energy system to showing concern for the coordinative development among energy social-economy and environment. Taking Jiangsu Province for example, this thesis builds the multiobjective decision model in coordinative development among energy social-economy and environment. This model provides a useful decision method for the policymaker. The calculation shows as follows:(1) From the economic benefit point of view, nuclear power generation and wind power generation aren't able to compete with fossil fuel power generation in short term, because of the comparatively large investment in the early period of construction. In 2005, coal will still make up 72% of energy consumption in Jiangsu. Since then, the in crease of coal consumption will be tending to tardy along with the in crease of the expenses of preventing pollution and pollution emission limit. It is essential to lay equal stress on coal,oil and natural gas 、and nuclear energy in the energy structure of Jiangsu Province in 2020.(2) Coal still occupies an important place in energy consumption in Jiangsu. It not only tallies with the characteristics of energy resources in China, but also is economical. The key is to lay stress on developing domestic large-typed fossil fuel power plant and clean coal technologies.(3) After the year of 2005, oil and gas will increase in a rapid speed. In view of limited oil and gas resources in Jiangsu and limited average resources per capita in our country, it is necessary to expand imports of oil and gas, and to develop the outward oriented energy economy based on making full use of domestic or international resources and markets.(4) Nuclear power will play an important role in promoting the coordinative development among energy social-economy and environment in Jiangsu. Jiangsu possesses developed economy and technology, and has an advantage in developing nuclear power stations. But the developing speed is not at all quick. One of the most important reasons is to worry about safety, because Jiangsu has a large population, average 700 people per square kilometre. In fact the safety of nuclear power station is indubitable. Jiangsu should unswervingly develop nuclear power generation. While constructing Tianwan nuclear power station in Lianyungang, the second and the third phases of the project should be started as quickly as possible.(5) Jiangsu has comparatively rich wind energy resources. But their utilization is still in the lower degree. In China wind power generation has been main attack direction of developing new energy. Jiangsu should grab at this opportunity to quicken the tempo of construction of the large and middle-sized wind power stations.
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    Analysis on Characteristics and Distribution Pattern of Settlement in River Valley——A Case Study in Fuping County of Hebei Province
    WANG Cheng, WU Hong, XU Hua-cheng, ZHENG Jun-bao, ZHOU Huai-jun
    2001, 21 (2):  170-176.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.170
    Abstract ( )   PDF (716KB) ( )   Save
    Based on landscape theories, taking five rivers in Fuping county of Hebei Province as an example, the patch characteristics and distribution pattern are analyzed. The results indicate that the position of settlement are mostly near the piedmont and its shapes are mainly narrow and long; the area proportions of settlement to valley vary remarkably, but the proportion between different rivers is quite similar, and vary between 10%-17%; the positive correlations of settlement area to valley and farmland area in valley are found, these show that the inhabitants have strong reliance to valley land; the increase of settlements lead the rapidly reduce of valley forest, but there are many trees distributed in and surround the settlements and those trees provide security and comfort for settlement.
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    Voronoi Model of Geographical Space Image Schemata
    HU Zhi-yong, HE Jian-bang, KE Zheng-yi
    2001, 21 (2):  177-182.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.177
    Abstract ( )   PDF (979KB) ( )   Save
    Formalization of geographical spatial image schemata is one of the keys to realize GIS interoperability and standardization, ensures that geographical information sharing reaches agreement at cognitive level and on natural language understanding,and develops intelligent GIS. It is also an important element of spatial information theory. Voronoi spatial model is proposed to represent image schemata formally. The method unambiguously defines spatial neighbor relations, establishes topological networks which can encapsulate relations between objects. The model is used for map spatial prepositions into distinct topological structure. Adopting the model, GIS can implement fuzzy geographical information query and retrieval in terms of qualitative spatial relations described by spatial prepositions in natural language.
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    Study on the Classification of Science and Technology and Educational Urban Function and Spacial Distribution in China
    WANG Yan-rong, LIU Jie
    2001, 21 (2):  183-187.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.183
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    Using Anlytical Herarchy Process and the multi-index weighted averages method, the authors have calculated the composite evaluating index of the science and technology and educational urban function in China, according to which Chinese cities of science and technology and educational function have been grouped into 4 main categories and 6 sub-categories by applying the Nelson classification measure supplementarily.The object of study is 209 Chinese cities in 1995. In order to stress the science and technology and educational function of some cities, the authors have chosen 85 cities which have Master's degree authorities as the evaluated samples.The evaluating index consists of 5 variables of the 85 cities.Two of them represent the science and technology function.They are the members of scientific and technical staff and the staff members of the professional titles above middle rank.The other three variables represent the educational function.They are the members of the students in colleges and universities, the members of enrolled Masters, and the key discipline members of institutes of higher learning,which had been promulgated by the State Council academic degree committee. The general spatial features of Chinese cities of science and technology and educational function show that whether the quantity or the functional intensity decreases progressively from the east to the west in China and most of the cities center on the areas around Bohaisea and East China.The authors have found some existing problems. 1)The functional grade difference of the 85 cities is large. 2) The middle-sized and small cities of science and technology and educational function relatively develop slowly. 3)Some cities'science and technology and educational functions are not fit in with the their development.The relavent suggestions also have been given. It is necessary to speed up the development of the science and technology and educational enterprises in the middle and in the east in China.The local states should strengthen the investment and policies, encourage the science and technology and educational strength in the east to join the west development,attract talented persons in order to promote their development strength and competition capacity. All these measures will benefit narrowing the development gap between the west and the east in China.
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    Evaluation of Tourist Resources in Heilongjiang Province in China
    XU Shu-mei
    2001, 21 (2):  188-192.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.188
    Abstract ( )   PDF (742KB) ( )   Save
    Tourist resources are the material foundation of development of tourist trade. Good understanding and correct evaluation are a premise to develop and utilize tourist resources. Closely related to development model of the resources, to development contents, to utilization form, as well as to construction scope, evaluation of tourist resources has a directive effect on developing tourism.In the paper, in terms of tourist theory the synthetic studies are performed on evaluation of tourist resources in Heilongjiang Province using qualitative and quantitative tools, and the presented results in the paper will provide scientific basis for development of tourist resources in Heilongjiang Province. In the qualitative evaluation, the evaluation system of three values and six conditions is adopted in the paper. For the value assessment of tourist trade in Heilongjiang Province, it is pointed out that because of special geographical position, there are many natural landscapes in the province, such as original forests, ice scenery, etc. Also, because Heilongjiang Province is the origin of Man Dynasty, there are many historical sites in the province, such as Lingfu site, Angang site, etc. Besides, there are some sites for scientific investigation in the province, such as crane country, volcano, etc. for development condition aspects, it is pointed out in the paper that the geographical position of Heilongjiang Province has advantage and disadvantage. The disadvantage is that the province is far away from the center of China. However, advantage of the province is that there is a long boundary line and international tourist trade can be developed. In communication and transportation, the province has formed a transportation system including railway, highway and airline and formed a system of post and communication. However, there are severe shortage of communication and transportation in some remote scenery spots in the province. The combination condition of the scenery in the province is not quite good but a few of them are attractive, e.g. Jinpo River. In invesment aspect, financial support is not enough. Also, construction condition is not very good since there is frozen soil layer. In spite of the disadvantages, the potential of development of tourist resources in Heilongjiang Province is quite attractive and can produce great benefit for the economy of the province if some measurements are adopted adequately.The quantitative assessment on tourist resources in Heilongjiang Province is performed in the paper using the gradation analysis method. First, the model tree is established for various elements concerning the tourist resources. Then, a matrix is formed by the knowledge-based factors. The weights and order for the elements are finally obtained using computer calculation. From the results of analysis, it can be concluded that the sigh value is in first order, scientific value is in second, cultural value is in third. Some factors such as weather condition, management level, personnel quality are in last orders and it means these factors should be improved in great extent.
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