Table of Content

    20 January 2002, Volume 22 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Formation and Dynamics of the "Pole-Axis" Spatial System
    LU Da-dao
    2002, 22 (1):  1-6.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.1
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1947KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the author first clarifies that the theory of pole-axis spatial system is based on the well known central place theory, however, the two theories are different in terms of theoretical components and application objectives. The author analyzes the formation and dynamics of pole-axis spatial system mainly through the perspective of spatial agglomeration and diffusion effect, and compares pole-axis spatial system theory with growth pole theory and networked development model. Then the author elaborates on the rationality and effectiveness of the theory of pole-axis spatial system to China′s territorial development and regional development in the past decades.
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    On the Spatial State and Compensation Problem of Corresponding Tactics in China’s Process of Economic Globalization
    CHEN Chang-chun, YANG Hong, YUAN Kai-guo
    2002, 22 (1):  7-11.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.7
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    Regarding China as an important compositional unit of the huge system of the spatial structure of the economic globalization and viewing from the interaction among the economic communities, the present article discusses theoretically the spatial significance which indicates the acceleration of the state of the spatial evolution concerning domestic or foreign commodity, capital, technology and information. The study mainly focuses on the spatial span, the spatial convergence and the spatial interdependence. In order to adapt China to the spatial state of the globalization, the study advances simultaneously, starting from the analytic approach which compares the regional differences and focusing on the analysis of the regional spatial differences of the socioeconomic in the globalization, the framework of the contents of the compensation of related tactics in China’s opening process. This framework discusses the type of the regional spatial structure which is suitable for the international communities, stipulates the export oriented spatial strategy of the consolidated elementary domains, the domains of "risks", the potential expended domains as well as different regional strategies which follows the regional differences of the domestic export oriented economy, considers and implements the economic opening of China’s East and West Regions. Theoretically, the following three corresponding strategic proposals are given by the author in accordance with the spatial state of China’s participation of economic globalization: 1) to be fully aware of the phenomenon of the regional differences in the process of spatial span with attention to the relatively harmonious development in the overall expert oriented economic activity; 2) accelerate the process of export oriented conglomeration and diffusion of international economic element with a full efficiency of the functional effect of China’s export oriented economy; 3) conceive countermeasures for strengthening the ability and effect of international competition according to the research of spatial dependence of economic globalization in the process of China’s participation.
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    The Function of Waterside Related to Urban Development
    WANG Ying, SHENG Jing-fen
    2002, 22 (1):  12-17.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.12
    Abstract ( )   PDF (691KB) ( )   Save
    Compared with the patterns of water front planning among several cities both in China and abroad, it can be summarized that the waters function to urban developments as following: the function of ecology and landscape, water resources and living bodies, linkage and transportation, recreation and exercises, cultural business and historical loading. Waterside is a kind of precious resource to city development. It should take serious account on point view of to planning design city construction with point view of sustainable development, and the harmonic relationship between human and existent environment. Based on the principal idea, authors also support with several suggestions on the Zhujiang River Side planning. 1)Deepen and dredge the inner river to maintain transportation of the Zhujiang river and turn the mainstream into a multifunctional water route. With the river deepened, it will make important influences on the development of Guangzhou, i.e. prospering the transportation and construction, stimulating the booming of tourism and the last but not the least, decreasing the air pollution significantly. 2) Enlarge Humen seaport to make use of deep tidal channel. A port of 100-50 thousand tons can be constructed, serving as connection of Guangzhou Bay and inner river system. A the same time, high technology gardens and international leisure and recreation centers are to be built in areas around the seaport. In the downstream area of the Zhujiang river, advanced container processing centers should also been designed to increase the capacity of unit transportation. 3)Plan rankly and regionally. Detailed planning projects are to be planned on the basis of ecological principles and the function of hinterland. The ratio of greenland areas to exploited areas should maintained as a proper level. It is required that the ecological and resident living conditions should be prior to the economic benefit. 4) Set aside enough space for recreation place and green belt. According to the planning of Guangzhou City the area from Pazhou Island to Longxuewei Island together with its hinterland will become the CBD of Zhujiang delta, accordingly, a beautiful corridor should also be designed to separate the clamor and the tranquil. 5) Increase the level of levee to ensure the security of production and living condition. 6) Develop holiday tourism on the basis of agriculture and aquaculture. Various activities such as fishing, swimming, meeting and training are supported to encourage the flourishing of suburb economy. 7) Control water pollution along the Zhujiang river. Now the river seems like a sewer accepting all kinds of pollutants. In order to purify the water and better living conditions in nearby areas, water pollution controlling and dealing are imperative especially in the area of Huangpu.
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    Paleoclimatic Records of the Loess in the Vicinity of Beijing Region During the Last Two Glacial-Interglacial Cycles and Its Implications
    XIONG Shang-fa, LIU Tung-sheng, DING Zhong-li
    2002, 22 (1):  18-23.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.18
    Abstract ( )   PDF (671KB) ( )   Save
    The studies for the loess deposits of China have been obviously progressed in recent two decades and many paleoclimatic signals were detected by the analyses of a lot of climatic proxies. An important understanding by now is that the depositional features of the loess are mainly controlled by the paleomonsoon and the variations in summer and winter monsoon strength can be deciphered from the fluctuations of the grain size and magnetic susceptibility of the loess. However, the paleoclimatic proxies of the loess are not yet well understood and more loess sequences need to be studied in detail. Here we report the analysis result of three sections in the vicinity of Beijing region, focusing on the comparison of the variations in the grain size and in susceptibility along the sequence. The results show that the variations in the grain size and susceptibility are not simultaneous both during the deglaciation and glaciation. During glaciations (from paleosol to loess), the grain size exhibits lagged variations than that of the susceptibility. However, during deglaciations, the variations of the grain size either lead or lag that of the susceptibility. Meanwhile, the curve of the susceptibility from S2 to S0 (in Zhaogou section) is featured by 100ka cycles (ice volume variation pattern) but the grain size variation has the cycles of the orbital parameters in general. This may imply that the winter monsoon is relevant to the orbital cycles whereas the summer monsoon is cooperated with the ice volume changes. It’s not yet properly explained why the susceptibility and the grain size exhibited different patterns of variations along the loess sequences. The susceptibility of the loess reflected the variations in the strength of the summer monsoon which are controlled by the low latitudes machanisms, whereas the grain size recorded the fluctuations in the winter monsoon winds from high latitudes. The different patterns of variations in the susceptibility and the grain size may imply that the mechanisms that controlled the climate changes of the low latitudes and the high latitudes are different.
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    Study on the Marginal Productivity of Cultivated Land with Change of Soil Organic Matter in China
    WANG Wei, LI Xiu-bin
    2002, 22 (1):  24-28.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.24
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    Sustainable land use and management is becoming an important research aspect in China and abroad,and the response of land productivity to changes of land quality is one of the core studies. In this study,the authors construct the model of marginal productivity of cultivated land with the changes of land quality in China by the method of function of production in economics. The method of function of production is usually applied in calculating the change of quantity of cultivated lands to contribution of marginal gross productions of agriculture. The authors use this method in measuring marginal productivity of cultivated land with changes of land quality. The model is as follows: lnY=a0+a1lnL+a2lnF+a3lnQ+a4lnI+a5Z+a6TbiDi, where Y is the productivity of cultivated land(kg/ha); L is the factor of agricultural labors per hectare(men/ha); F is the factor of chemical fertilizers per hectare(kg/ha); Q is the factor of land quality which is indicated by soil organic matter of cultivated land(g/kg); I is the factor of irrigation ratio(%); Z is the factor of disaster ratio of the disaster lands to all lands(%); T is the factor of time that represents technology developing; D is the fictitious variables of provinces. According to the model, we devise three projects and get the calculated results using the data of 30 provinces from 1981 to 1990. The results are satisfying and show that the main impact factors on productivity are chemical fertilizers,land quality and irrigation ratio in China. It is emphasized that the coefficient of output elasticity of land quality represent the influence of change of soil organic matter to marginal productivity of cultivated land. The coefficient is 0.257 in the average condition in the whde country, and is 0.425 in the provinces with low soil organic matter,and is 0.154 in the provinces with high soil organic matter. The coefficient represents that if soil organic matter increase 1%,the productivity of land will increase 0.257%, on an average, in the whole country,increase 0.425% in the provinces with low soil organic matter,and increase 0.154% in the provinces with high soil organic matter. Based on the study,the authors come to the main conclusions:(1)Improving the land quality is one of effective ways of increasing the productivity of cultivated land in China,especially in some provinces with low soil organic matter.(2)It is not best indicator to use soil organic matter represent land quality,so this maybe affect precision of the results. This question need to be studied deeply.
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    The Water Cycles Between Land Surface and Atmosphere in Northern Part of Tibetan Plateau
    YANG Mei-xue, YAO Tan-dong, HE Yuan-qing, ZHANG Xiao-jun, MA Yao-ming
    2002, 22 (1):  29-33.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.29
    Abstract ( )   PDF (739KB) ( )   Save
    The water cycle processes in large scale were studied by many scientists. However, the studies of the water cycle processes between land and atmosphere are still not so much. This is especially true on Tibetan Plateau. Because the soil temperature and moisture distribution reflect the soil wet/dry and energy conditions, the variation of the temporal and spatial distributions of the soil moisture and temperature is one of the very important parts in the water cycle processes in land atmosphere system. In order to examine the water and energy cycle processes on Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet) Plateau and their roles in the context of the Asian monsoon system, the GAME (GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment) Tibet project was carried out. In this paper, using the high temporal resolution soil moisture and temperature as well as precipitation data of GAME Tibet, the water cycle processes between land surface and atmosphere in the northern part of Tibetan Plateau were analyzed. The results showed that the evaporation from the flat lan surface from July to August is 177.1mm(73.3mm) in the south(north) side of Tanggula Mt., which is 73.2%(57.7%) of the precipitation in the same period. The evaporation processes not only transport much water but also much energy from land surface to atmosphere, which can restrain the rising of the soil temperature. The difference of the evaporation between the two sides of Tanggula Mt. is mainly caused by the difference of precipitation in the two sides.
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    Tendency of the Quaternary Climatic Change in Qaidam Basin and Its Causal Mechanism
    WANG Jian, HUANG Qiao-hua, LIU Ze-chun
    2002, 22 (1):  34-38.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.34
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    It has been long believed that the Quaternary climate in Qaidam Basin evolved towards dry. However, evidence from lithofacies, sporo pollen, and organic carbon content has revealed that the general evolutionary trend of Quaternary climate in Qaidam Basin, i.e., glacial climate became drier and interglacial climate became wetter at about 0.8-0.6 Ma B.P. This phenomenon can probably be attributed to the uplift of Tibetan Plateau. The uplift of Tibetan Plateau made both the Asian High (Siberia High) and the Asian Low (India Low) strengthened, which consequently intensified the winter and summer monsoons, giving rise to much drier and colder glacial climate and much wetter and warmer interglacial climate in the East Asian monsoon region. The Quaternary climatic evolution of Qaidam Basin is probably influenced by Asian monsoon circulation as well. However, how to relate the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the intensification of the monsoon with the increase of the amplitudes of the humidity variations in Qaidamu Basin leave unsolved.
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    The Significance of Lake Sediments Geochemistry in Environmental Reconstruction of South Hongshan Lake, Northwestern Tibetan Plateau During the Past 150 Years
    CHEN Ling, ZHU Li-ping, ZHANG Qing-song
    2002, 22 (1):  39-42.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.39
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    A 107-cm piston core (SHC-2) was drilled with water depth of 5m in South Hongshan Lake, northwest Tibet in 1998. Based upon the 0.72cm/a of modern sedimentary rate that was tested by 210Pb method and also calibrated by 137Cs method as well as the 1cm interval sample cutting level, a lake sedimentary record with 150 yrs long and 1.4 yrs resolution was obtained. The values of TOC, TN, C/N, CaCO3, Sr/Ba and Fe/Mn had clear environmental significance and well reflected the environmental changes. Geochemical multi proxies of lacustrine sediments showed that the environmental changes during the past 150 years could be reconstructed as follows: Stage 1 (1850s-1880s) is a cold wet period, because it is affected by the climatic variation after the Little Ice Age. Stage 2 (1880s-) is a warm dry period. But the period from 1920s to 1950s is warm wet and cold dry type. After the 1990 the warming tendency is marked in the curve of TOC and TN. In the view of general trend in the past 150 years, South Hongshan Lake was shrinking gradually.
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    A Comparative Study on Distribution of 7Be and 137Cs in the Surface Soils in the Western Yunnan and the Central Guizhou Provinces
    BAI Zhan-guo, WAN Guo-jiang
    2002, 22 (1):  43-48.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.43
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    The analytical results of 7Be and 137Cs activities in the 28 surface soil profiles in the Yunnan Guizhou Plateau have shown that the 7Be/ 137Cs activity ratios on the topsoils reached 100-1000 in the western Yunnan, but only 10-100 for the central Guizhou region. The apparent activities and Maximum penetrative depth of 7Be in the soils of the two regions are totally close. However, 137Cs activities in the surface soils in the central Guizhou are overall a little higher than that in the western Yunnan. The phenomena that 7Be inventories in the soil cores at the most sampling sites in the central Guizhou were relatively low would just reflect the serious soil erosion in the region. 7Be inventories in the soil cores in the western Yunnan obviously differed from that in the central Guizhou, which mainly embodied that the 7Be inventories in the soil cores in the Lake Lugu watershed in Summer Autumn were apparently higher than that in Lake Hongfeng/Baihua watershed and also higher than that in Lake Erhai watershed as well. This could be related to 7Be high precipitation in summer and altitude. To explain the regional differences of 7Be/ 137Cs activity ratio on the topsoils between the western Yunnan and the central Guizhou, the accumulative characteristics of 7Be and 137Cs in the lake sediments should be further understood.
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    Analysis on Hydrological and Water Quality Character and Their Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Lancangjiang River
    LI Li-juan, LI Hai-bin, WANG Juan
    2002, 22 (1):  49-56.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.49
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    The Lancangjiang River is not only an important river to Yunnan Province, but also a significant international river in South East Asia since it flows through six countries, its hydrological characteristics and water quality are the decisive factors to the social and economic activities of adjacent areas and countries in the lower reaches. Thus it is important for us to understand the change and distribution of hydrological characters and water quality which can make a foundation for exploiting and utilizing water resources in this basin. Furthermore, the countermeasure against water pollution can be set down according to hydrological character and water quality assessment of this area. In this paper, the authors took the mainstream and tributaries of the Lancangjiang River drainage basin in Southwest China as a case, analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of hydrological character: precipitation, runoff, some hydro-chemical indexes, and the organic pollution status. From upstream to downstream, the authors found that variation of precipitation and runoff increased, but stability decreased, ion concentration gradually dwindled also. On time dimension, all ion concentrations of the sample stations demonstrated some increment, though difference existed in degree. At the same time, this paper analyzed some effective factors such as drainage area and volume of runoff that had important relationship with low flow characteristics and hydro-chemical change. But the spatial distribution in the tributaries was much more complicated because of azonality. As water quality is concerned, water quality status of the river is comparatively acceptable at present. But the deterioration trend is very severe. It’s obvious that water quality of the upper and middle reaches is much better and stable than that of the lower reaches. Water quality in the mainstream is much better than that of its tributaries. As the type of pollution is concerned, CODMn and TP have played the major roles in water pollution. The degree of contamination in rainy season is more serious than that in dry season. According to the research, the main reasons for the deterioration of water quality in the Lancangjiang River are shown as following: Firstly, the fast speed of population increasing in the basin has made sewage discharging augment greatly and most sewage has been discharged directly into the rivers without treatment. Secondly, accompanying with soil erosion and water loss in the basin becoming more and more serious, the increasing amount of fertilizers flowing directly into the rivers have resulted in the decreasing of water quality. Thirdly, wastewater from industrial enterprises was of growing on the one hand, while its disposal efficiency was not improved enough to deal with most part of the sewage. The author strongly suggested that pollution control should be carried out to improve water quality as soon as possible and no time to delay. Some measures such as soil and water conservation, sewage treatment, and water quality monitoring enhancement etc. should be effective prescription.
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    Variations in At-a-Station Hydraulic Geometry of the Pearl River Delta in Recent Decades
    JIA Liang-wen, YANG Qing-shu, QIAN Hai-qiang, LUO Xian-lin, LUO Zhang-ren, YANG Gan-ran
    2002, 22 (1):  57-62.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.57
    Abstract ( )   PDF (274KB) ( )   Save
    Hydrological data of Sanshui and Makou hydrometric stations were collected in the Pearl River Delta. Hydraulic geometry represents the regulation of flow and channel. Hydraulic geometry was used to analyse the at-a-station hydraulic geometry. It was shown that the change in discharge (Q) with river width (B), mean depth(h), mean velocity(U) at the Sanshui cross section differ from those at Makou cross section. The characteristics of the at-a-station hydraulic geometry in the Pearl River Delta indicated that the exponent value β1 is much less and β3 is much greater than that of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River.
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    Discovery of the Nanshatao Binary Structure and Its Study Significance
    ZHANG Sheng, ZHU Cheng, YU Shi-yong, DAI Dong-sheng
    2002, 22 (1):  63-66.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.63
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    In the field investigation, the authors discovered that a group of sediments, which is named Nanshatao binary structure according to the discovering place, are located on the highest terrace in the mouth of the Three Gorges at Nanshatao village, Honghu, Zhicheng, Hubei Province. The relative age is decided as Q1. The authors thinks that this group sediment can be employed to decide the age and mode of the cutting through and run-through of the Yangtze River, and also to decide the age and mode of the Neotectonic movement, the formation genesis and the forming environment of the reticulated soil in this region.
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    Variation Trends of Snowcover in the Middle Mountains of Western Tianshan Mts. and Their Relations to Temperature and Precipitation
    ZHANG Li-xu, WEI Wen-shou
    2002, 22 (1):  67-71.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.67
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    On the basis of observed records of daily snowcover depth,monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation at Tianshan Mountains Snowcover and Avalanche Station in the valley of the Kunes River,three trend estimates about the snowcover depth,cold season precipitation and cold season temperature by using the difference of average,least square fitting and slope AR(1)process are made. The results show that an increasing trend of the snowcover depth is very significiant in the middle mountains of western Tianshan in the last 30 years or so.The change trend coincides with the snowcover change trend over the Tibetan Plateau,and the snowcover accumulation increases in Antarctica and Greenland.The secular trend of cold season temperature and precipitation is increasing as well.In the last 30 years,the annual accumulation of snowcover increases 1.43%,the annual increasing rate of cold season precipitation is 0.12%,and the cold season temperature has increased 0.8℃.A significant positive correlation exists between snowcover and cold season percipitation,but the correlation between snowcover and cold season temperature is negative.The increases of snowcover mainly result from the increases of cold season precipitation,which occurred in the background of global climate warming.
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    Research on Inference Decider for Recognition of Soil Classification Remote Sensing
    FU Wei
    2002, 22 (1):  72-78.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.72
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    This paper presents design principle and realizable approach for Inference Decider for Recognition of Soil Classification Remote Sensing(IDRS) in arid land. On the basis of non-supervising classifying for soil classifications with TM remote sensing images, the author builds reasoning mechanism of direct inference combined with contrary reasoning for soil classification and recognition decision. The author also expresses soil classification and recognition knowledge of expert in soil with data structure of producing rule linking with frame rule for knowledge expression in the IDRS. Furthermore, the author structures rules of soil classification and recognition with image structure model, and builds decision tree of soil classification in the IDRS, and organizes file of decision for soil classifications with typical image case model. With the means, the author makes a test research on classification and distinguishing for soil in test region of Fukang County, situated on the northern foot of the Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang Region. And the test result shows that the approach mentioned above is a high reliable precision, and it reclaims a new way for classification and recognition of soil in arid land.
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    Study on Graphic Information Characteristics of Land Use Spatial Pattern and Its Change
    LIU Xiang-nan, XU Hong-mei, HUANG Fang
    2002, 22 (1):  79-84.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.79
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    Land use is a number of heterogeneous spatial pattern drived by complex force. Land use change displays not only quantity and quality change, but also spatial pattern change. In this article we discuss the method to describe spatial pattern of land use quantitatively. Furthermore, we select Qianguo County of Jilin Province as study area which lies in agro husb ecotone in north China and analyze spatial pattern change of land use change in this area based on geography graphic information theory and combined statistic analysis and spatial analysis of GIS. The results indicate that fractal dimension and circularity can reflect graphic information of land use patches from both the patch shape and coherence. The fractal dimension and circularity vary in different land use types and change with patch area. The fractal dimension of residence is the smallest while grassland largest, patch area have little influence on the fractal dimension of forest and residence which are almost unchanged during the study period, and the fractal dimension of grassland and farmland change significantly and this change is relative with patch area. The circularity of residence is largest among all the land use types while grassland smallest, and the circularity of grassland and farmland change small as patch areas become large. The circularity of residence is almost unchanged, but the circularity of forest, grassland and farmland decreased in different extent. The curve of variable distance buffer analyzing method can declare clearly the spatial distribution of patches by measuring the connectivity and concentration of patches. The VDM curve of farmland close to the left side of the scale and only has one peak, which show the patches of farmland close to each other. The VDM curve of both forest and grassland close to the left side also, by the patches of grassland closer than forest, and the VDM curve of residence has several peaks which mediate, and the patches of residence are disperse.
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    Regional Differences of Soil Impoverishment Supported by GIS——A case Study of Fujian Province
    QIAN Le-xiang, XU Shu-ming, QIN Fen, LI Bin, ZHU He-jian
    2002, 22 (1):  85-90.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.85
    Abstract ( )   PDF (759KB) ( )   Save
    The studies on regional differences are important basic works of regional development and ecological environment conservation. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in the study of regional difference of soil impoverishment is a main aspect of GIS in the soil geography. Taking Fujian Province as a case, the authors make the soil unit to be the regional unit, supported by GIS and multivariate statistical analysis methods, put forward a comprehensive index of reflecting the condition of soil impoverishment, calculate and output the grade maps of Fujian soil impoverishment. According to the shows of the map, the regional characters of soil impoverishment are analyzed. The conclusions are: (1) there are differences in area ratio of the soil nutrient in grade in Fujian Province, from small to middle to large, the area ratios in grade are 19.89%, 70.21% and 9.90%; (2) compared with two different land use types, the area ratio in grade of middle in forest land and dry land is higher than that in paddy field; (3) the regional distributions are the following: the grade of light impoverishment is mainly along the Daiyun mountains, middle mainly in the northwest and southeast Fujian Province, and large is mainly focused on several counties along the sea, such as Hui′an, Shishi, Yinjiang, Zhangpu, Yunxiao, Dongshan etc.. The study shows that the application of GIS in this field is advanced of application, efficient of the regional difference study and practical and credible of fruits.
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    The Electromagnetism Technology Application in the Sodium-saline Soil
    SONG Chang-chun, YAN Bai-xing, SONG Xin-shan
    2002, 22 (1):  91-95.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.91
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    The factors that determine conductivity of sodium-saline soil are analyzed. It is pointed out that the conductivity of sodium-saline soil in the west of Songnen Plain is mainly determined by the total charge of Na+ and HCO3- and transferred speed of them in the soil solutions. Furthermore, the content of clay mineral in soil can affect the conductivity because of different environmental conditions, such as ratio of soil moisture, which is the theoretic foundation to adjust the instrument according to different soil physical character. The theory by electromagnetism technology to survey the conductivity of sodium-saline soil is viewed, and the gaining method of conductivity data in different depths of soil is probed. Moreover according to above research, we contrasted the surveying results of analysis in laboratory for the conductivities of different types of soil section. Generally, electromagnetism technology can quickly, steadily, accurately survey the conductivity of sodium-saline soil in the field, and it has important guidance meaning to explore soil characteristics in the field.
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    Research on the Spatial Network Model of Tourism System
    WU Jin-feng, BAO Hao-sheng
    2002, 22 (1):  96-101.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.96
    Abstract ( )   PDF (894KB) ( )   Save
    The spatial network model of tourism system is discerned and analyzed in this paper. Since Leiper developed a definition of tourism using the systems methodology, there are a few of different definitions of tourism system presented by scholars inside or outside the country. But all those definition made a wrong in taking the tourist industry or its components as a subsystem of tourism system. Still using the systems methodology, a new definition of tourism system is put forward in part one. The elements of the system are destination, origins and travel route. Those elements are arranged in spatial and functional connections. Having the characteristics of an open system, the tourism system is the spatial pattern of tourist flows or the process of the tourist activities. There are two sections in part two. Section one advances that the spatial model of tourism system is a network composed of two types of nodes, destination and origins connected by travel route links centered with destination place. The characteristics of the model are described using six spatial elements for geographical model of P.Haggett. The six spatial elements are movement, path, node, nodal structure, field and, pervasion. The movement refers to the tourists moving in the network from different origin places to the destination along different transits routes. Path is the transits routes that tourists use. Nodes are the origins and destination. Nodal structure refers to the different origins that generate different mounts of tourists. Field refers to the spatial scope of the tourism system decided by the attractions of the destination. Pervasion refers to the field that is changing by the time. Section two analyzes the topological properties of the tourism network using several indexes such as β,α,γ indexes and the shortest path matrix. The values of those indexes and the shortest path matrix of the network in figure 1 are calculated separately. Those indexes give a way to estimate the network quantitatively. At the end part, the applications of the spatial network model in several areas and at many levels of analysis is discussed in details. In academic research it can serve as a reference point for general and specific studies. In the business world, the model and those indexes can be used in research for the tourist marketing, destination’s accessibility appraising, spatial competition analyzing of tourist places, tourism planning and, tourist industry developing. Further detailed work on the model of tourism system is studied with Jinggangshan town. The spatial network model seems particularly relevant as a guide for tourism planning and assessing the developing policies in some special destination tourist place. In summary, the spatial network model provides governments and planners a valuable approach to tourism policy and tourism planning. Meanwhile, the model is very useful for academic research, especially for synthetic tourism research using systems methodology.
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    The Utilization and Development of Hot Spring Tourism Resources in China
    WANG Yan-ping, YAMAMURA J.
    2002, 22 (1):  102-109.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.102
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    In this paper the evolvement of hot spring utility and the regional spa tourism situations of north, south and middle areas in China are discussed widely. Authors want to describe the overall spa tourism situation from time space dimension which will be useful for researchers who are interested in China spa tourism because there is not yet a comprehensive paper in this field until present day.
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    Hazards and Countermeasures of the Gangue in Northeast of China
    LIU Ru-hai, WANG Qi-chao, LIU Jing-shuang
    2002, 22 (1):  110-113.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.110
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    In the Northeast of China, the mining history is long and the accumulation of gangue is huge. The production of gangue is about 33Mt in 1996 and about 59.7% of gangue was used. The gangue hill has influenced the environments and people’s health around. In this paper, the features and the hazards of gangues were analyzed, then we give the methods of utilization of gangue in the Northeast of China,for example used as fuel of pulverized-coal boiler in gangue powder plant, the production of building materials, the chemical deep processing of gangue, ecological reclaim of gangue hill etc. At last, some policies were proposed to administer the gangue production.
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    The Principle and Method on Dividing the Soil Ecological Region Refer to the Geological Condition
    LI Xu-qian, JIANG Hui-zhong, ZHAO Xiao-bo, LI Hong-qing
    2002, 22 (1):  114-118.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.114
    Abstract ( )   PDF (237KB) ( )   Save
    There is a close forming relation between soil ecology characteristics and geological environment.To divide the regions (or inferior region) of soil ecology are based on geological structure and landform and to divide the slices of soil ecology are based on soil types, soil mother’s body, micro-topography, soil resources evaluation grades and society economy condition.Hence,to establish a more rank order and systematized information warehous,it will supply a reliable basis for optimize land use structure.
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    Study on Changes of Coastal Wetland Landscape in Shuangtaihekou Nature Reserve and Its Management Measures
    ZHANG Ming-xiang, DONG Yu
    2002, 22 (1):  119-122.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.119
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    In the history of wetland research at home and abroad, the study on changes of coastal wetland landscape and its management measures attaches more and more importance. This paper takes Shuangtaihekou Nature Reserve as research region, applies Geographical Information System (GIS) to analyze multi temporal remote sensing data in 1994 and 1997. From the changes in area of all sorts of landscapes, we can obtain the characteristics of changes of coastal wetland. On the basis of thorough analysis of reasons, this paper put forward some relevant management measures in Shuangtaihekou Nature Reserve, thus making a great contribution to wetland conservation and wise use of wetland resources.
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    The Application of TPC & DLC Theory on Tourism Product Redevelopment ——A Case Study of Kunming City
    DAI Guang-quan, WU Bi-hu
    2002, 22 (1):  123-128.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.01.123
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    From the view of tourism product redevelopment, this paper uses Total Product Concept (TPC) theory of Marketing and Destination Life Cycle(DLC) theory of Tourism Geography to analyses the case of Kunming City, Yunnan Province. According to the two theories, the paper gives the orientation, principles and emphases on the tourism product redevelopment of Kunming City. Firstly, according to the basic analyses of a survey of tourism routes, scenic regions & protected cultural relics of Kunming, its DLC of domestic and international tourism, the paper uses the tourists number to classify the DLC groups of representative scenic regions in Kunming City. Secondly, the paper defines the strategy direction as "one two three four": One is to make Kunming Tourism Cycle as one tourism product strategy center; Two is to make conference & hallmarks tourism and recreation & vacation tourism as its two strategy keystones; Three is to develop three kinds of tourism resources-natural, national and historical tourism resources; and Four is to construct four tourism regions-Kunming Urban Tourism Belt, Tourism Belt Arround Dianchi, Stone Forest Tourism Region and Jiaozi Snow Mountain Tourism Region. In the course of analyzing, the paper gives two theory conclusions. The first one is a model to optimize the total function of scenic region via adding its minor function. The second one is a figure of two distortional models of scenic regional DLC.
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