Table of Content

    20 July 2007, Volume 27 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theory of Global City and Establishment of Chinese Global City
    LÜ La-Chang
    2007, 27 (4):  449-456.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.449
    Abstract ( 162 )   PDF (821KB) ( 19 )   Save
    The paper reviews global city theory with some comments and examines the establishment of Chinese global city.First,the paper traces the history and analyses the paradigm of global city theory:Peter Hall is regarded as early pioneer of modern study of global city,the world city hypothesis created by John Friedmann is of great significance in the study of global city theory,Sassen has established a new view by case study of great city in the world,such as London,New York,Tokyo.The study of global city has turned to the paradigm of interaction of local and globalization from Maxims of political economics.Second,the paper reviews the main division patterns of world city system and gives some comments.World city hypothesis give a skeleton of world city,but lack the case study.Sassen failed to gave the division pattern of world city,but with her ideas of producer service as an important dynamics,Taylor and Walker give their division pattern of world city from the view of producer service,though their disadvantage were not located each city in the network of world city.Equipped with the information as the global force,Finnie worked out the division pattern of world city from World Telecom and information,but this may only showed the position of cities in the world of Telecom and information.Smith and Timberlake tried to identify the world city in the economic networks of cities in the world,but they just used the air passage to survey the connection of cites,the result may just reflected the city importance in the airline.Abrahamson established the world city pattern using the synthesized index of culture and economy,which may more show the nature of world city system.Nowadays,world city system studies have tended to use synthesized indexes of culture and economy instead of single one,however,it confronted many difficulties,such as,how to choice indexes to accurately present the nature of world city,how to survey some indexes such as the information and culture,how to evaluate the weight of each index,how to get more data and materials among the cities in the world,all of questions require to be solved in the later study of world city and also show some tendency of study of world city.Lastly,based on retrospect and comments of world city theory,the paper has some suggestions on the establishment of Chinese international or global city.With the development of Chinese economy,entry of WTO,China have speeded up its international urbanization,especially coastal area,government has great passion to establish the global city.It possible to build up the global city in the nesr future in China,but,Chinese global city establishment should rely on Chinese reality,and abide by the law of world city hierarchy,and steadily promote the establishment of global city,so as to display more roles in the world city networks.
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    Movement of Urban Agglomeration Gravity and Its Driving Forces in the Changjiang(Yangtze) Delta of China
    CHEN Zhi-Gang, WANG Qing, HUANG Xian-Jin, PENG Bu-Zhuo
    2007, 27 (4):  457-462.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.457
    Abstract ( 198 )   PDF (953KB) ( 36 )   Save
    It is important for the urban agglomeration of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River Delta to the regional development in China.In order to find out the characters of spatial changes of the Changjiang River Delta and give the guidance for the future development of this area,this paper firstly defines the urban agglomeration gravity,then calculates and analyzes the urban agglomeration gravity of the Changjiang River Delta and its changes from 1994 to 2004,according to the method of regional population gravity.Furthermore,based on the above analysis,the paper explores the driving forces of the urban agglomeration gravity changes in the Changjiang River Delta from three aspects,such as natural and spatial characters,economic development,social conditions and so on.The result shows that the urban agglomeration gravity has been moving more than 20 km to the northwest of the Changjiang River Delta since 1994,and the location of gravity moves from the boundary between Suzhou City and Jiaxing City to the vicinity of the center of Suzhou City.Moreover,the urban agglomeration gravity will still move toward northwest and locate at the boundary between Suzhou City and Wuxi City in the near future,from the direction of former changes of the urban agglomeration gravity in the Changjiang River Delta.In detail,all these changes mainly attribute to the following three aspects:First,the natural and regional conditions of the northwest cities in the Changjiang River Delta are better than those of the southen cities.Moreover,along with the rapid development of transportation,the northwest cities will be more important in the urban agglomeration of the Changjiang River Delta,and drive the urban agglomeration gravity to the northwest area of the Changjiang River Delta. Second,there are significant differences of economic development among cities in the Changjiang River Delta.From the values of main development indexes,such as GDP,structure of industry,investment in fixed assets,and place in urban development competition in China,it is clear that the northwest cities in Jiangsu Province develop with greater speed and have a higher position than the southen cities in Zhejiang Province of the Changjiang River Delta.Therefore,the economic development difference among cities in the Changjiang River Delta is considered one of the main forces driving the urban agglomeration gravity changes in the Changjiang River Delta. Third,as for the social conditions(including social development and environmental condition),they also have important effects on the movement of the urban agglomeration gravity in the Changjiang River Delta.During the past ten years,most of the social conditions of the northwest cities in Jiangsu Province were better than those of the south cities in Zhejiang Province,such as environmental quality,culture and educational development.As a result,the northwest cities develop with greater speed and larger size than the south cities and promote the urban agglomeration gravity to move toward northwest. In the end,some conclusions and suggestions are stated.The author emphasizes that it is necessary to give prominence to Suzhou City and Wuxi City and strengthen the relationship between these two cities and others of the Changjiang River Delta in the further development.
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    Distribution and Regional Difference of Food Shortage in China in 21st Century
    YIN Pei-Hong, Fang Xiu-Qi, Ma Yu-Ling, Tian Qing
    2007, 27 (4):  463-472.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.463
    Abstract ( 208 )   PDF (2044KB) ( 13 )   Save
    Based on the counties’statistic data in 2000-2003,this paper reveals new regional distribution and difference of food shortage in China in early 21st century.Considering impacts of climatic fluctuation and natural disasters,two types of food-shortage region are given out.One is the food-shortage region in average year that the per capita grain yield is lower than 300kg.Another is the potential food-shortage region that the per capita grain yield is lower than 430kg in average year,which would be lower than 300kg once grain yield is reduced 30% for natural disasters.In order to analyze main reasons of food-shortage and influential factors of grain supply-demand,two types of food-shortage regions are grouped into some sub-types by k-means cluster respectively.The main conclusions are as follows.(1) There are 583 food-shortage counties,about 28% of total 2075 counties and cities at county level in China,and 698 potential food-shortage counties,about 33.6% of total.The food-shortage regions in average year are mainly distributed in the planting area and semi-pasture area west to the sideline of population density near Heihe City in Heilongjiang Province to Tengchong City in Yunnan Province,namely Huhuanyong Sideline of population geography in China.On the contrary,the potential food-shortage regions are distributed widely in the area eastward to Huhuanyong Sideline.(2) Food-shortage regions in average year in China concentrate on the semi-humid and semi-arid area and the area southern to the Changjiang(Yangtze) River.The first area has the largest numbers,covers the widest range,and ranks the 2nd of population and quantity of food shortage.The second area,mostly located in hill area,has the largest population and quantity of food shortage.(3) In the semi-arid and semi-humid transitional zone,the distribution of food-shortage region in average year is dominated,and there are different sub-types of potential food-shortage region as well.More attention should be paid to this transitional zone,for that,in this region,grain security is strongly impacted by the environmental changes,conflicts among population,grain,cultivated land,economic development and environmental protection are distinct.(4) There are diverse reasons of food shortage and distinct regional disparity in food shortage region.Lake of cultivated land is the common and main factors to limit above food shortage regions to improving the self-support of grain.In the semi-humid and semi-arid area,poor natural conditions and lower grain yield per grain-sown area are another important limiting factors.In South China,the self-support of grain is influenced by comparative dominance of crops,and proportion of grain-sown area is lower.Therefore,it is very important to safeguard strictly basic cultivated land in China.At the same time,decrease trend of grain-sown area should be controlled strictly in South China and traditional grain-output region in North China.
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    Construction and Utility of a General-conversion Probability Model for Simulation of Built-up area Spatial Expanding in Nanchang City of China
    ZENG Hui, CHU Yan-Ling, LI Shu-Juan
    2007, 27 (4):  473-479.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.473
    Abstract ( 180 )   PDF (1189KB) ( 24 )   Save
    In the traditional research about the spatial dynamic modeling of urban built-up area,there are some unavoidable deficiencies derived from the limited image datasets for a certain time interval and the subjectivity in the determination of transitional threshold.In order to solve the aforementioned problems,the author established a general-conversion probability model which can consider the transition of all the pixels and improve the existing urban landscape dynamics models.In the case study of Nanchang City in Jiangxi Province,the author established a general transition probability model and conducted related dynamic modeling by taking into consideration of 4 urban landscape pattern factors including the urbanization gradient of non-urban pixel,the distance to the closest built-up patch,the size of the closest built-up patch,and the neighborhood level of peripheral pixel,and 2 socio-economic and natural factors including road and topography,which all together can strongly control the urbanization process in the region.The simulation result indicates that this model is more precise compared to the traditional models.It can simulate the expansion of urban built-up areas of Nanchang perfectly,and it is an important methodology supplementary of the research about the current spatial dynamics modeling of urban landscape.
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    Evolution of Theory on Regional Planning
    FANG Zhong-Quan, CHEN Lie
    2007, 27 (4):  480-485.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.480
    Abstract ( 177 )   PDF (925KB) ( 12 )   Save
    Because of the characteristics such as whole,comprehensive and complexity etc.of the regions,it is important for the regions to carry on reasonable planning,and the right theories are necessary to guide the regional planning.The article discussed the evolution of the regional planning according to the formation,production,development and different meaning of theories of regional planning.It also divided the planning theories into three stages:the formation stage of the classic regional planning thought,the creation stage of the traditional regional planning theories,the development stage of modern regional planning theories,then discussed the practice of theories on each stage.The paper thoug that regional planning theories do not become system at early stage.The traditional regional planning theories mainly was a medium promoting regional economic growth with its application in regional planning,mainly study how to carry out elements to optimize and integrate at the aspect of spatial structure,industry layout and development strategy mode etc.in order to carry out regional economic growth.Modern regional planning theories are applied on regional planning to realize economic growth by the coordinated development of society,economy and environment,but not just economic growth,or social progress and ecological environment protection.In the end,the paper approached:1) the perspectives of the planning theories in the future and thought sustainable development was an eternal theme;2) the theories,such as dynamic planning,regional control,will get a development;3) regional planning theories will get a creative application.
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    Assessment of Coordination Degree between Environment and Economy of Liaoning Province in China during 1990~2003
    LI He, ZHANG Ping-Yu, LIU Wen-Xin,
    2007, 27 (4):  486-492.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.486
    Abstract ( 178 )   PDF (1144KB) ( 21 )   Save
    The coordinative development between environment and economy is viewed as an important way to realize regional sustainable development.A quantitative assessment of the Coordination Degree between Environment and Economy(CDEE) can effectively identify whether the relationship between environment and economy is in the state of coordination.Although researchers have done a lot of studies in the area,it is still a disputable question how to make a reasonable quantitative assessment of CDEE.The article makes an attempt at the quantitative assessment of CDEE in Liaoning Province of China which used to be a typical area of "Northeast Phenomenon" in the 1990s.First,the article discusses the fundamental concepts of the coordinative development and coordination degree between environment and economy.Based on those,a method integrating Factor Analysis with Correlation Analysis is designed for the quantitative assessment of CDEE.In the second part of paper,the assessment procedure of the method and the classification of coordination degree is introduced in detail.The third part focuses on the quantitative assessment of CDEE in Liaoning Province from 1990 to 2003.The indicator framework,which contains 30 indicators,is set up accordingly.By using the method mentioned above,the characteristics of the trend of CDEE in Liaoning Province during 1990~2003 are revealed:1)The CDEE of Liaoning Province from 1990 to 2003 had undergone a transformation from discoordination to elementary coordination.It is evident that the development process of CDEE can be divided into two phases.The CDEE of 1990~1997 is 0.6119 which belongs to discoordination.The CDEE of 1997~2003 is 0.8539 which can be classified as elementary coordination;2) Taking five years as a circle to study the change of CDEE in Liaoning Province during 1990~2003,the result indicates that the trend of CDEE in Liaoning is almost in line with the "U-shaped" curve.The CDEE of 1993~1997 is-0.442 which is the lowest.The transition of CDEE from discoordination to elementary coordination can be seen during 1996~2000.After 1997,the CDEE of Liaoning Province keeps increasing.Although the CDEE of Liaoning province has been in the state of elementary coordination since 1997,some factors which curb the CDEE increase still exist all the time,and these factors can hardly be eliminated in a short time.They involves 1) the shortage of energy and water resources coexists with the low utilization efficiency of energy and water pollution;2) annual amount of industrial waste gas and solid waste still keep increasing;3) in some parts of Liaoning Province,especially the northwest of Liaoning,the degradation of eco-environment has become a problem;4) with the economic development,the economic disparities among different cities are becoming bigger and bigger.
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    Fractal Study on Urban System in Fujian Province
    WU Shi-Dai, WANG Qiang
    2007, 27 (4):  493-498.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.493
    Abstract ( 190 )   PDF (951KB) ( 19 )   Save
    Based on the fractal theory,the size distribution and spatial distribution of urban system have been studied.The paper made deep study on the urban system of Fujian Province,and proved that the cale and spatial distribution of urban system both take on fractal structure.The conclusions show that:firstly,the scale of urban system is at the primary first stage,the development of urban system is not yet mature.The biggest town is too big but just single one and the middle towns are absent,so the scale structure is loose;secondly,the spatial structure of urban system is regionally and locally discordant,the spatial distribution is linear,and most towns lie on geographic areas which are the river and road corridor;thirdly,although the spatial relating degree and spatial interaction among cities are generally rapid and intense,the balance of regional urban network waits for the enhancement;finally,the paper discussed the reasons of the urban system’s fractal features,then it pointed out how to improve the urban system by means of fractal theory in Fujian Province. During study on the urban system of Fujian Province with fractal theory,the process and results reveal the following questions:the first one is that to eliminate non-agricultural population to measure the size of towns fractal dimension,and we should access to the urban population census and county urban population size;The second one is that in measuring Town Center radius we should excluden the built-up area,and revise the center of gravity through its radius,as to prevent the fractal dimension calculated diverging from the actual value;Last,the fractal dimension of the measurement accuracy directly impact on the geographic data interpretation,and the theory system needs to be developed in the unity and comprehensiveness in the future.
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    Climate Change in Tropical Area of Southwestern China Since 1950s
    HE Yun-Ling, ZHANG Yi-Ping, YANG Xiao-Bo
    2007, 27 (4):  499-505.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.499
    Abstract ( 177 )   PDF (1368KB) ( 19 )   Save
    Up to now,studies on climate change are,more and often,concerned with global or national scale.It is noted that the climate change is not globally uniform.Regional variations can be much larger and considerable spatial and temporal variations may exist between climatically different regions.The climate of a specified location can not be considered a constant environmental factor.In addition,a climate change in a specific region or nation is of particular interest to that region and its economic activity.The aim of this paper is to present a responsibility of a region to global change by studying climate characteristics and change trends of a specific region,the tropical area of southwestern China.Based on long-term meteorological data of 6 meteorological stations in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province,the spatial and temporal distribution of change trend for temperature and precipitation are studied.The results show that the general trend of climate change in Xishuangbanna is basically the same with that in China and even in the world.The mean annual air temperature has been gradually increasing,and with an average trend of 0.0165-0.0334 ℃/a.Meanwhile,there are some differences on increasing rate between the mean maximum and mean minimum temperature.The annual precipitation changes complicatedly with an entire decreasing trend.The air relative humidity presents an obvious decreasing trend.In addition,the climate change trends show the differences that exist in the various regions and the notable seasonal variations,and the temporal and spatial distribution of climate characteristics and change amplitude is different in different regions.
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    Characteristics and Climatic Causes of Flood in the Yongjiang River
    HE Hui, QIN Zhi-Nian, PANG Fang, LI Yan-Lan
    2007, 27 (4):  506-511.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.506
    Abstract ( 163 )   PDF (856KB) ( 21 )   Save
    The analysis of the characteristics of flood in the Yongjiang River shows that the floods almost occur in July-September,the later rainy season in the southern China,and its variations correlate closely to the summer precipitation in the Yongjiang River drainage area by using the data sets of the flood peak and the annual highest water levels of the river,and the monthly precipitation over every observatory in the river drainage area.In this work,we analyse the climatic conditions causing flood in the Yongjiang River based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the Outgoing Longwave Radiation(OLR) data.The results are as follows:(1) The flood in the Yongjiang River is mainly caused by Tropical Cyclones.When the West Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone is more northward than usual,ITCZ(intertropical convergence zone) can more easily affect the Yongjiang River drainage area,associating with the frequency of Tropical Cyclones and the activity of convection.(2) Landform makes an important contribution to the flood of the Yongjiang River.(3) The flood occurs easily in negative sea surface temperature anomalies(SSTA) over the eastern equatorical Pacific.We also analyse the variation of the synoptic systems cuasing the flood,and changes of the annual highest water levels in the condition of climate warming to futher realize the climatic reasons causing the flood.
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    Representative Sedimentary Facies and Climate Sudden Event Occurred around 5700a B.P.since the Middle and Late Holocene in Ningzhen and Yili Region
    SHI Wei, ZHU Cheng, WANG Fu-Bao, TIAN Xiao-Si, XU Wei-Feng
    2007, 27 (4):  512-518.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.512
    Abstract ( 218 )   PDF (1551KB) ( 30 )   Save
    Through analysis of characteristics of representative stratums in Ningzhen and Yili region since the middle and late Holocene,estimating the climate change values with the method of R-Q factor analysis,combined with the formation periods of the turves and buried ancient trees,we establish the comprehensively comparable chart between parts of the sequences of sedimentary facies and the transformed climate curve through pollen-spore since the middle and late Holocene.According to the comparison and contrast between macroscopical and microcosmical characteristics in sedimentary facies,a climate sudden event occurred around 5700 a B.P.has been exposed.The comparative analysis between climate curve and sequences of sedimentary facies indicates that the light brown and yellow sand,clay stratum with angular gravel in Baohuashan is the result of a dry and low temperature event,which possesses the characteristics reflecting the global change,furthermore,it is also confirmed by the clay content and Fe3+/Fe2+ value in the same term miry soil stratums in Ningfengqiao.
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    High Resolution Stalagmite Records of East Asian Monsoon from 7 to 6 ka B.P.in Mid-Holocene
    LI Ming-Xia, WANG Yong-Jin, QIU Qing-Lun
    2007, 27 (4):  519-524.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.519
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (1348KB) ( 20 )   Save
    The Asian monsoon system,composed of the Indian and East Asian mosoon subsystems,is a dynamic component of the modern and paleoclimate system.Studies of different influence extent of solar radiation and coupled atmosphere-ocean system to Asian monsoon subsystems still remain complex.Some stuidies indicated the inverse phase variations between the Indian and East Asian mosoon,which is different to most of monsoon proxies results.Understanding the interactions among them and their sensitivity to internal feedback mechanisms requires high resolution proxies of monsoon climate. Qingtian Cave(110°22′E,31°30′N,1 630m above sea level) is located almost at 10 km NW apart Muyu Town,Shengnongjia Natural Reserve,Hubei Province.Here,most of peaks are higher than 1500 m and generally become lower from SW to NE.Mean annual precipitation and temperature are 1 500-2 000mm at 1 500-2 000 m above sea level and 15.5℃ in the cave(measured in Sep.2004).Two samples for ICP-MS dating were conducted in the Isotope Laboratory of Geology and Geophysics Department,Minnesota University,USA.The reported error is in 2σ.A total of 183 samples for δ18O measurements have been analyzed with on-line automated carbonate preparation system(KIEL CARBONATE DEVICE) linked to Finnigan MAT-253 ratio mass spectrometer at Isotope Laboratory of College of Geography Science,Nanjing Normal University.Reference standards have been used to ensure a precision better than 0.06‰ and results were reported to PDB standard. A 3-year-resolution stalagmite oxygen-isotope record from Qingtian Cave has been established based on 230Th dates and results of annual band-counting.The variation of oxygen isotope ratios with time,with amplitude as large as 1.8‰ in δ18O,reflects changes in the amount of monsoon precipitation for the period from 6.7 to 6.1 ka B.P.This high temporal resolution δ18O series enables us to reconstruct decadal-centennial scale variation of East Asian monsoon intensity persisting about 580 years in Mid-Holocene. Comparison of the stalagmite δ18O time series between QT9 from Qingtian Cave and Q5 from Oman,shows the close relationship on multi-decadal to centennial variations in monsoon precipitation,indicating that the East Asian monsoon intensity is in phase with Indian monsoon.This observation suggests that Indian and East Asian monsoons,two sub-systems of Asian Monsoon system,are controlled by common forcing mechanisms.Consequently,these two climate subsystems may be influenced by large scale water transporting from Indian and Pacific Ocean,reflecting the integrated Asian land,ocean and atmosphere interacting system.A comparison between the stalagmite δ18O record and tree-ring 14C provides strong evidence for solar forcing of East Asian monsoons on centennial even multi-decadal time-scales.Results of spectrum analysis of the stalagmite δ18O indicate statistically significant periodicities centered at 163,81,16 and 11 years.The 163-year cycle is close to the 148 years periodicity of the tree-ring 14C records,while 81 and 11 years are similar to Gleissberg and Sunspot periodicities respectively.This statistic analysis further reinforces our interpretation for the solar forcing of Asian monsoon.
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    Terrain-Revised Ground Surface Temperature Model of Mountain Area Based on DEM——A Case Study in Yaoxian County of Shaanxi Province
    YANG Xin, TANG Guoan, WANG Chun, DENG Feng-Dong
    2007, 27 (4):  525-530.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.525
    Abstract ( 186 )   PDF (785KB) ( 27 )   Save
    The geographical features,i.e.latitude,altitude,distance to large water area and mountain structure,etc.,are commonly accepted as the global factors impacting the spatial distribution of groud surface temperature.However in the mountainous area,local topographical features,such as slope gradient,aspect and terrain shading play a significant role to the redistribution of thermal energy.The traditional method for calculating the spatial distribution of surface temperature in rugged areas usually employs a model of statistic regression,namely a regression of temperature against latitude,longitude and altitude,etc.,which is suitable for revealing the regional surface temperature,but not for refined climatic source exploration and application.Taking Yaoxian County in Shaanxi Province as a test area,DEM dataset of 1:50000 map as basic information sources,the authors conducted a terrain-revised model for calculating temperature at local slope level.The key process is a cell by cell revising of traditional model by calculating the astronomical radiation based on DEM.A comparison between simulated temperature and radiation one from TM6 thermal infrared image shows that the new method gets more reasonable result which could reveal not only accurate local temperature,but also their finer distribution.It will be great helpful to improve the temperature simulation both qualitatively and effectively.
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    Dynamics and Spatial Distribution of Gully in the Typical Upland Region of Northeast China
    LI Xiao-Yan, WANG Zong-Ming, ZHANG Shu-Wen, YAN Ye-Chao
    2007, 27 (4):  531-536.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.531
    Abstract ( 148 )   PDF (1020KB) ( 24 )   Save
    Based on RS and GIS technology,spatial and temporal dynamics of soil erosion were explored by analyzing the change of gully density in 1954 and 2000,taking Keshan County,Heilongjiang Province,as an example.Furthermore,correlation analyses were conducted for related factors in different sub-regions according to change values of gully density.Results showed that,in the past 46 years,gully density in southeastern part declined and that in northwestern part increased.In sub-regions with lessened erosion,changes in gully density negatively correlated to elevation and slope.However,in sub-regions with enhanced erosion,the correlation is positive.Changes in gully density increased when slope length increased.The decision coefficient(R2) between gully density change and slope length,elevation and slope degree was 0.9743,0.6893 and 0.3437 respectively.Slope length plays an important role in affecting soil erosion in upland region of Northeast China.The change of land use has impact on soil erosion degree.In the study area,obvious increase in cultivated land and decrease in grassland accelerated formation of gully.
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    Dynamic Changes of Net Primary Productivity of Cultivated Land in Wind-drift Sand Region—A Case of Yuyang Area of Northern Shaanxi Province
    MO Hong-Wei, REN Zhi-Yuan, WANG Xin, HAN Yong-Shun
    2007, 27 (4):  537-541.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.537
    Abstract ( 175 )   PDF (385KB) ( 24 )   Save
    Based on the grain yield of Yuyang area from 1984 to 2003,the authors have chosen a suitable model to estimate net primary productivity of cultivated land of different regions to research the relation between ecological environment and NPP of cultivated land.Study has shown:(1) The total amount of NPP of cultivated land was on the rise generally in Yuyang area during 1984-2003.Its total amount has grown from 21.94?104 t/a in 1984 to 57.98?104 t/a in 2003.The annual increasing degree was 5.24%.(2) The unit area amount of NPP of cultivated land in the north was not only much more than that in the south but also increasing fast during 1984-2001.At the same time,the unit area amount of NPP of the cultivated land changed little in the south.(3) During 1984-2001,the unit area amount of NPP of cultivated land in urban was the highest and that in suburb was the second higher.The total amount of NPP of cultivated land in urban,suburb and outer suburb of Yuyang area was all on the rise generally,and that in outer suburb fluctuated at the largest range.(4)The increasing of the NPP of cultivated land was partly because of increasing investing in agriculture,but mainly because of ecological environment improvement of Yuyang area.
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    Integration of Multi-agent Systems with Cellular Automata for Simulating Urban Land Expansion
    YANG Qing-Sheng, LI Xia
    2007, 27 (4):  542-548.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.542
    Abstract ( 166 )   PDF (1431KB) ( 28 )   Save
    This paper demonstrates that urban land expansion can be well simulated by the integration of multi-agent systems with cellular automata(CA).There are increasingly studies on using CA models to simulate urban development.Very plausible results can be generated,although there are still some limitations by using CA models alone.CA models have limitations by taking human and social factors into account in simulating complex urban systems.Agents can be used to simulate complex urban systems more effectively because human factors can be considered.An agent has the ability to make decisions by interacting itself with the environment and other agents.It could embody the uncertainties and complex behaviors in the simulation process.In this paper,agents are used to make decisions for determining land use changes by considering their economic factors,family conditions and the profit of land use conversion.These behaviors of these agents influence the probability of urban development in the model. Based on this Agent-CA model,urban development of Zhangmutou Town was simulated from 1988 to 1993.The result indicates that the simulation accuracy is much better than those of the traditional CA models.Moreover,the uncertainties of urban development can be well explained by using the agents.
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    Strategic Environment Assessment of Land Use Program Based on Evaluation of Ecological Services Value
    WANG Juan, CUI Bao-Shan, LU Yuan
    2007, 27 (4):  549-554.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.549
    Abstract ( 189 )   PDF (691KB) ( 25 )   Save
    In this article,the service value of eco-system was taken as assessment index,and the strategic environment assessment on the general planning of the land use was carried out for Yi County in Hebei Province.The results showed that the eco-system services value of land use in this district were increased between 1997 and 2010.On the view of eco-environment protection and natural resources utilization,this planning was regards as reasonable one.However,some problems were still existed in this planning since the growth of eco-system service value was slower than that of GDP.Therefore some supplementary modification was necessary for this planning.The quantitative study on the eco-benefit of land use was studied on the view of service value of eco-system in this paper and the methodology employed might be instructive and referenced in the future sustainable use of land and SEA of land use.
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    Application of Synthetic Analysis Method in the Environmental Influence Assessment of Land General Plan
    HUA Wen, ZHOU Bin-Zhong, CHEN Yi, ZHANG Jian, PENG Bu-Zhuo
    2007, 27 (4):  555-560.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.555
    Abstract ( 161 )   PDF (775KB) ( 25 )   Save
    The environmental effect appraises of land utilization overall plan is an academic field to be strengthened on its theory and methodology research.This article researches the applied problem of double aggregate analysis methods in this field.The comprehensive and long-term attribute of the land utilization activity in a region determines that the environmental effect of the overall land plan is comprehensive and widespread.The environmental effect appraises of land utilization overall plan should have a view to the environment in a generalized way and emphasizes the ecological environment influence,in the meanwhile some attention should be gaven to the environmental effect of social economy.The overall quality of environment syntheses in the programming time reflects the reciprocity relation and coordinated degree of various environment subsystems.The environment condition in the land utilization overall programming time can be fully measured from a situation and harmony perspective.Analysis about set pair is applied for the measurement of state of environment in the programming time in the article.Weighing analysis is applied when we analyze the number of subsystem characteristics.The order of subsystem state is set up after expression of relation degree in common or different and in reverse part has been established.The overall quality of environment is appraised according to harmony degree index,and then we determine the character,extent and general trend of change of environmental system. Taking Lishui County in Nanjing City,Jiangsu Province as an example,the model research indicates that the use of double aggregate analysis in the environmental effect appraises of land utilization overall plan is effective and feasible.
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    Urban Biotope Mapping and Nature Conservation Planning in Typical Area of Xi’an City of China
    ZHAO Zhen-Bin, XUE Liang, ZHANG Jun, WEI Hai-Yan
    2007, 27 (4):  561-566.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.561
    Abstract ( 209 )   PDF (1160KB) ( 28 )   Save
    Urban nature conservation has come to be one focus of urban ecological construction.This work should rely on the advent of the approaches of the relevant data gathering,evaluation and planning.A typical study area is chosen on the border in the south of Xi’an City of China,and with RS and GIS,general ways and procedures of urban biotope mapping are studied in this paper.The work includes the following main aspects:the building of the urban biotope category system,the building of the urban biotope data base of study area,the evaluation of the biotopes relating to the value of nature conservation in urban area,and the planning of the urban biotope chain.The result shows that:1) the urban biotope mapping is an inter-discipline and comprehensive work in urban area,which provides a new data source for the urban ecological construction and researches;2) some biotope spatial patterns can be identified in the multi-purposed evaluation process,which provides the conservation potential in urban area;3) the biotope chain planning provides a very practical and meaningful approach to urban nature conservation.
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    Implication of Statistical Features of Terrace Pebbles to River Evolution from Baode County to Kehu Town
    LIU Yun-Ming, LI You-Li, LU Hong-Hua, LI Xin-Po
    2007, 27 (4):  567-572.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.567
    Abstract ( 247 )   PDF (963KB) ( 31 )   Save
    The lithology,grain size and orientation of the pebbles in different sites and on different river terraces have been studied along the Huanghe(Yellow) River from Baode to Kehu in the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge area.It is found that the pebbles are similar in lithology on different terraces in the same region,as well as on the same terrace from the upstream to the downstream.The grain sizes of limestone pebbles have a tendency of becoming smaller from upstream to downstream.This indicates the pebbles maybe the relics of the ancient Huanghe River.Because the highest pebbles are covered by late-Tertiary red clay,it is concluded that the Huanghe River run through this area at least in late Tertiary.
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    Agent-Based Model for Land-Use/Cover Change:A Review
    WU Wen-Bin, YANG Peng, SHIBASAKI Ryosuke, TANG Hua-Jun, CHEN Zhong-Xin
    2007, 27 (4):  573-578.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.573
    Abstract ( 102 )   PDF (957KB) ( 16 )   Save
    Land-use/cover change(LUCC) models have been playing a very important role in analyzing the process and its consequence of various land uses,understanding the ecological and environmental effects of LUCC,providing a great support service for land use planning and policy-making activities.This article presents an overview of Agent-based models for land-use/cover change(ABM/LUCC).The authors firstly review the development of Agent-based model in comparison with other alternative LUCC modeling techniques,and then summarize its basic concepts and core ideas.More attention is paid to discussing the main study issues of ABM/LUCC and reviewing the ongoing modeling efforts around the world in several research fields.Finally,this article outlines some important challenges and open research questions in this new domain,and concluded that,although significant challenges existing,this model offers a promising direction for scientists whose goals are to develop better LUCC models for simulating the complexity of human-environment interactions.
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    Research Progress and Reflection of Island Tourism
    LU Lin
    2007, 27 (4):  579-586.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.579
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (1002KB) ( 33 )   Save
    In recent years,island tourism has been being one of the most important tourism research fields at home and abroad.Based on a great deal of related references,the analysis of island tourism development could be classified into some aspects:the environment impact,economic impact,social-cultural impact of island tourism,the evolution of tourist resort,the planning and management and sustainable tourism development,and the following conclusion can be realched:the research of island tourism has been already in maturity and integrity slowly at abroad.The research of island tourism need be improved and expanded in theory,method and content at home.
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    Fundamental Conditions of Slope Spectrum Abstraction and Application
    WANG Chun, TANG Guo-An, LI Fa-Yuan, YANG Xin, GE Shan-Shan
    2007, 27 (4):  587-592.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.587
    Abstract ( 226 )   PDF (1585KB) ( 34 )   Save
    Slope spectrum is an original methodology to analyze terrain character of the Loess Plateau.Both1:10,000 DEMs of representative area in Loess Plateau and Qinling Mountains were taken as the test data,from which slope spectrums are derived.With the conception of "ε-band" from spatial data uncertainty,the variation character of different sampling area and position in different test areas were studied.The fundamental conditions of slope spectrum abstraction and application are geomophlogical similarity,rationality of study scale and the integrality of landform types.During the same time,the critical area in which the slope spectrum can exist stably is not only the foundation of derived correct slope spectrum,but also the reflection of the comparability of topographic feature between the local and globe.It makes great significance in many geography studies.
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    Ecological Function and Value of Buyun Mountain Nature Reserve
    YU Hang, DONG De-Ming, TAO Lei, WANG Xian-En, YU Lian-Sheng, YAN Zhen-Yuan, KONG Ling-Jin, YU Xin
    2007, 27 (4):  593-596.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.593
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (525KB) ( 20 )   Save
    Buyun Mountain nature reserve is an important region of water supply for Dalian City.In this paper sustainable development was used as the target,ecological principle was taken as the standard.By calculating conservative water,ecological value and ecological footprint,the ecological function of Buyun Mountain nature reserve was analyzed systematically.The amount of conservative water was 175?106m3,and ecological value was 2694692000 yuan(RMB).Moreover,the ecological value was still increasing.The total ecological footprint was 28.751 km2,there was certain distance with the demand of sustainable development.For protecting the ecological environment of Buyun Mountain nature reserve and resolving the tense situation of water supply in Dalian City,some measures have been presented in this paper,such as developing ecological immigration and increasing conservative forest.These measures can guarantee to implement tactic of sustainable development.
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    Spatial and Temporal Variation in Farmland Load of Livestock Feces in Jiangsu Province
    ZHANG Xu-Mei, DONG Yuan-Hua, WANG Hui, SHEN Dan, LIU De-Xiong
    2007, 27 (4):  597-601.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.597
    Abstract ( 213 )   PDF (744KB) ( 30 )   Save
    In the last eight years,the production of livestock in Jiangsu Province has been increased gradually.Based on the investigation data of 1997-2004,and according to the discharge rate of various livestock,this paper calculated the fecal pollution of livestock and its pollution load from 1997 to 2004.The result showed that the fecal amount of livestock was increased significantly,and the fecal pollution load had been increased from 12.5 t/ha in 1997 to 14.9 t/ha in 2004.Meanwhile,the higher fecal pollution load was mainly distributed along the coast and the Changjiang(Yangtse) River,which has already been exceeded the critical value.The results indicated that the fecal pollution of livestock in Jiangsu Province became a serious problem.Therefore,it is urgently needed to strengthen prevention and control of the feces pollution from livestock.
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    Spatial Differentiation of Tourism Impact Based on Residents’Perception and Attitude——A Case Study of Sanhe Town,Anhui Province of China
    LI Dong-He, ZHANG-Jie, ZHAO Yu-Zong, SHI Chun-Yun,
    2007, 27 (4):  602-608.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.602
    Abstract ( 184 )   PDF (1285KB) ( 22 )   Save
    Spatial differentiation of tourism phenomena is a long-time research topic in tourism geography,and spatial structure of tourism industry is its research focus.We noticed,however,most of existing studies pay more attention to spatial differentiation of factors of tourism development related to tourism resources and tourism market.Few of studies focus on the aftereffects of tourism development,namely spatial differentiation of tourism impact.In this paper,taking Sanhe Town,Auhui Province,China,as an example,we make a case study of spatial differentiation of tourism impact in ancient town.Since the local residents’perception and attitude on tourism development are the important indicators of tourism impacts,in this research we use them to measure the spatial differentiation of tourism impact in Sanhe Town.At first,Sanhe Town is divided into three different districts according to its spatial structure and tourism development conditions,which are core district,transitional district and periphery district.We distribute the questionnaire about residents’perception and attitude in the three districts,and take them as basic data for analyzing the spatial differentiation of tourism impact.Findings from this study indicate the existence of spatial differentiation of tourism impact.The spatial differentiation of tourism impact in ancient town manifests its own unique rules.Either the benefit or the cost of tourism development distributes unevenly in the region.The residents in the core area of tourism development obviously have the more intensive perception on tourism impact,which shows its status as key area of tourism development.It is proposed that the differentiation of residential areas resulted from tourism development be fundamental factor leading to spatial differentiation of tourism impact in ancient town.And the way of tourism impact,such as residents’participation degree in tourism development and the length of residence is also important factors contributing to the spatial differentiation of tourism impact in ancient town.The findings of this paper offers valuable reference to make a community-oriented and humanism strategy of sustainable tourism development for the region.
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