Table of Content

    20 September 2010, Volume 30 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Chinese Urbanization Speed Judging Based on Urbanization Quality
    WANG De-li, FANG Chuang-lin, YANG Qing-shan, LI Fei
    2010, 30 (5):  643-650.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.643
    Abstract ( )   PDF (948KB) ( )   Save
    After illuminating the connotation of urbanization quality, this paper constructed an index system comprised with 31 indicators, from three aspects including strength of urban infrastructure, coordination degree of urbanization and sustainable level of urbanization. On this basis, models of urbanization quality evaluation and coordination evaluation between urbanization "quality" and "quantity" were established. Using United Nations method, this paper amended the urbanization rate of China(excluding Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan) since the Reform and Opening Up, and then judged China's urbanization rate and moderation of inter-provincial urbanization speed of 2008 based on statistical data of 1978~2008 and latest statistics of each province in 2008. The results show that: ① Mass index of Chinese urbanization increased gradually from 1978 to 2008, and the coordination between urbanization speed and quality was getting better. But the speed of urbanization was slightly lagging behind. ② In 2008,China's inter-provincial urbanization indices were significant different,turning lower from the eastern, central to western. Urbanization in China can be divided into five types: serious quality lag- type, quality lag- type,coordination- type,speed lag-type,and serious speed lag-type. ③ Population can't reflect the real level of urbanization quality. And corresponding relationship between city scale and quality of urbanization didn't exist, which means it's not correct that larger city was better in quality. ④ Balance of Chinese urbanization quality in each aspect was obviously insufficient. Urban foundation strength was the main driving force of improving urban quality currently. Assuredly, there were still many insufficiencies in those areas where provided with high quality of urbanization development or better coordination between speed and quality.
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    CO2 Emission Reduction Cost by Wind Power in China and Its Temporal and Spatial Differentiation
    LI Hong-qiang, WANG Li-mao
    2010, 30 (5):  651-659.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.651
    Abstract ( )   PDF (490KB) ( )   Save
    Taking wind power integration as mainstream development style, China has played an important role in substituting fossil energy, reducing CO2 emission and promoting regional economy through rapid wind resource exploration and utilization in recent years. Aiming at having a better understanding of wind power status in energy system, classifying future direction of wind power and establishing countermeasures against climate change, it is crucial to calculate the cost of CO2 emission reduction by wind power and study its temporal and spatial differentiation in China. First, this paper presented the calculation method of wind power price and then established the calculation model of CO2 emission reduction cost by wind power. Second, the CO2 emission reduction costs in different wind resource grading areas, different provinces were measured by conducting the above model and using preliminary collected and analyzed technical and economic data of wind power project. Third, CO2 emission reduction costs in 2008~2050 were also studied by forecasting wind power installation capacity and initial investment, which were predicted by using learning curve model. The result showed that the costs of CO2 emission reduction by wind power in extremely abundant region, abundant region, relatively abundant region, general region and deficient region equaled to 120 Yuan/t, 182 Yuan/t, 243 Yuan/t, 367 Yuan/t and 737 Yuan/t, respectively. The costs varied drastically in different provinces. The highest cost is 783 Yuan/t, while the lowest is 39 Yuan/t. Since coastal provinces have richer wind resources and lower costs, the spatial distribution of CO2 emission reduction costs does not fit wind resource very well. The cost will gradually decreased during 2008~2050 and China’s wind power will be attractive against conventional thermal power in 2020 according to our prediction.
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    Methods of Dividing the Boundary of Urban Agglomerations ——Chang-zhu-tan Urban Agglomeration as A Case
    CHEN Qun-yuan, SONG Yu-xiang
    2010, 30 (5):  660-666.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.660
    Abstract ( )   PDF (693KB) ( )   Save
    Dividing the boundary of urban agglomerations is not only a theory problem, but also a practice problem in the course of planning and construction of urban agglomerations. In this paper, firstly, the improved gravity model by combining the method of main composition analysis and the comprehensive strength of cities is used to primarily divide the boundary of Chang-zhu-tan urban agglomeration. The end and the limitations of using gravity model to divide the boundary of urban agglomerations are analyzed and discussed, too. some errors between the theory end and the real status are easily caused because of the limitations of gravity model itself, for example, the location of gravity breaking point is easily disturbed by the city administrative area shapes, etc. So, some else methods must be used to rectify the boundary of Chang-zhu-tan urban agglomerations. Taken into account production elements flow are the most base feature of urban agglomerations system, the analyses of production elements flow between the different cities are used as the method to further divide the boundary of Chang-zhu-tan urban agglomeration, including the information flows and the passengers flows about the different cities in Hunan Province are fully analyzed. Finally, the current boundary of Chang-zhu-tan urban agglomeration is divided by synthesizing the two methods, and the neighborhood feature of urban agglomerations and the acting force of governments to urban agglomerations also are thought over to predict the future boundary of Chang-zhu-tan urban agglomeration.
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    Comparison between China's and USA's Spatial Structure of Crude Oil Importing Trade Based on Complex Network Theory
    WANG Zhao-jun, CHENG Shu-jia, YU Guo-zheng
    2010, 30 (5):  667-672.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.667
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    With the yearly increase of crude oil import of China, the safety issues of import have become more prominent. The strategy of diversification of import channels has been considered the primary solution to overcoming safety issues. However, the adoption of diversification strategy premises a thorough analysis and understanding of the importing strategy of other countries in advance. This paper employed the complex network method and evaluated the degree, weight, and entropy of China versus United States in the network of crude oil import and revealed the evolving mechanism of the degree, weight, and standard entropy. Analysis of a regional comparison was also carried out to highlight the difference of crude oil sources between China and United States. Conclusions were drawn as follows. First,identical cognition causes consistent policy making. Diversifying strategy has been a common option to both China and United States. Since 1993, the patterns of crude oil import of both China and United States have demonstrated similar tendency of change in the quantity of trade partners. Second,since 1993, China and United States have been quite distinct in the weighted pattern of trading business. The weight of crude oil import network of United States is generally stable, while that of China presents a trend of rapid growth. In the mean time, the weight of United States is remarkably more than that of China. Furthermore, in the aspect of sub-region's weight, the crude oil import of United States is more dependent on relatively safer countries in North America, e.g. Canada and Mexico, rather than unrest Middle East.Third,The weighted entropy of the crude oil import network of United States experienced a transition from large to small, while China generally maintained a larger value. Comparison of these two entropy parameters from China and United States indicates that the level of maintaining orderliness in the crude oil import network is much higher in United States than that in China. In addition it reminds that diversification does not necessarily mean homogenization. The distribution of a country's trading partnership depends on its individual and specific trading environment, which is virtually the essential to carry out the strategy of diversification.
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    Typical Colony Route of Urban Traffic Based on Spatial Analysis —The Case of Hangzhou City
    DONG Hong-zhao, ZHOU Min, CHEN Ning, GUO Ming-fei
    2010, 30 (5):  673-678.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.673
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    It is significant for the urban traffic administration to obtain the dynamic travel regularity of colony vehicles with the same or similar route. Unfortunately, there is no such an efficient method yet. To solve the issue,considering the traffic route linked by nodes including tiny traffic zones and traffic intersections, the typical colony route theory based on Spatial Analysis is proposed to describe the travel regularity of colony vehicles. Furthermore an algorithm to acquire the typical colony route is researched based on dynamic Origin-Destination (OD) analysis. Firstly, by means of the statistic of spatial traffic flow parameters collected by GPS or shooting-identifying device deployed at the road intersections, the hot traffic spots can be hunted. Accordingly, the candidate routes can be traced by calculating the occupancy proportion of the routes concerning these hot traffic spots. Secondly, resorting to fuzzy clustering of traffic intersections during the analyzing course of the similar candidate routes, the tiny zone nodes and the colony-route set can be obtained. At last, the typical colony route containing traffic intersections and tiny traffic zones can be generated by sorting the colony-route set. Finally, based on the proposed typical colony route theory coupled with the algorithms, the software is developed to hunt for typical colony route automatically. Take the experimental traffic grid in Hangzhou City as an example, two typical colony routes is successfully acquired. According to the result of manual static OD investigating and manual statistical surveying, both typical colony routes are in accordance with the real travel regularity. Comparing with the previous manual methods, the proposed solution does not only demonstrate better performance in efficiency but also be able to reflect the dynamic route regularity of vehicle colony travel just in good time at urban district. The research could facilitate the urban traffic administration to adopt proper countermeasure to eliminate traffic jam and traffic trip pressure. Referring to the dynamic travel regularity of colony vehicles, the urban traffic administration could publish the traffic navigation message concerning the whole typical colony route at the route’s key intersection, and improve the deployment of the bus station or the route plan of urban public bus.
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    Spatial Dependence,Heterogeneity and Economic Convergence of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region
    DONG Guan-peng, GUO Teng-yun, MA Jing
    2010, 30 (5):  679-685.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.679
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    The aim of this paper is to illustrate that spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity do matter in the estimation of the β-convergence process on a sample of 140 county-level regions of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region(BTHMR) over the 2001-2007 period. As of the problem of spatial autocorrelation, spatial econometric tools such as spatial error model and spatial lag model were used. Concerning spatial heterogeneity, two methods are adopted, one of which is the spatial error spatial regimes model was estimated, the other is the GWR (geographically weighted regression) model estimated with Bayesian methods due to spatial heteroskedasticity and spatial outliers. Two spatial regimes, interpreted as spatial convergence clubs or core-periphery spatial pattern, are defined using Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. Based on these techniques, several conclusions are draw as follows:① The estimation of Getis-Ord statistics shows that there has evolved a distinct core-periphery spatial structure. The core areas include Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan mainly, while the periphery areas include mainly Zhangjiakou and Baoding, which are surrounding Beijing and Tianjin. ② The estimation of appropriate spatial regimes spatial error model shows that indeed the convergence process is different across the two regimes. As a matter of fact, there is no such a convergence process for the periphery regions, which surround Beijing and Tianjin; however, the core regions have a statistically significant β-convergence, and the speed of convergence associated with this estimation is 5.3% (the half-life is 13.2 years), far above 2% usually found in the convergence literature. The reason is that the spatial spillover effect among core areas is very large, and they are more similar in economic structure and have more proficient labors, better industrial infrastructure, making them easier to absorb the knowledge and technology spillovers.③ There also exists spatial structure instability inside the two spatial regimes on the β coefficient indicated by the GWR models estimated by Bayesian methods. Specifically, some of the core areas such as most counties of Beijing do not show β-convergence due to the special political status of Beijing, while most counties of Zhangjiakou have a statistical significant β-convergence. On one hand, the findings of the spatial regimes spatial error model are not contradictory with the results of the GWR model. The GWR model is designed to investigate the absolute spatial heterogeneity while the spatial regimes spatial error model is designed to explore the relative spatial heterogeneity which is on the assumption that areas in the same spatial regime are homogenous. On the other hand, the results of the GWR model is almost the same as the findings of the spatial regimes spatial error model indicating the findings from the spatial regimes spatial error model are robust. ④ With the appropriate spatial regimes spatial error model, this paper simulates the spatial spillover effect in BTHMR through random positive shocks to Tangshan in the core area and Quyang county of Baoding in the periphery area. The results show that there is a clear spatial pattern of the magnitude of spatial spillover effect which conforms to the law of geographical attenuation.
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    Modified Energy Ecological Footprint Method and Its Application to Analysis and Evaluation of Regional Energy Utilization Benefit
    FANG Kai, Dong De-ming, SHEN Wan-bin
    2010, 30 (5):  686-692.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.686
    Abstract ( )   PDF (415KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis and summary of traditional energy ecological footprint (EEF) method and its research progress home and abroad, a modified EEF method is proposed by combining EEF with the change of biological productive lands from a standpoint of system theory and material flow analysis, and hereby an assessment framework of energy utilization benefit (EUB) is constructed. Taking Jilin Province as an example, this paper analyzes and evaluates the EEF and EUB respectively. The results show that from 1999 to 2008, EEF per capita has increased from 0.249 hm2 to 0.524 hm2, being a significant correlation with GDP per capita in average annual growth rate (R2=0.7574, p<0.05). Among the components of EEF, the percentage of coal footprint has increased from 68.40% to 74.99%, while the percentages of footprints of oil, electricity and natural gas all decreases at different degree. Meanwhile, the intensity of EEF has decreased from 0.387?10-4 hm2/yuan to 0.221?10-4 hm2/yuan, the elastic coefficient of EEF which has increased from 0.059 to 0.558 shows an periodic fluctuation basically, and the pressure of EEF has increased from 0.348 to 0.759. It is indicated that with the improvement of energy utilization benefit in Jilin in the past 10 years, the pressure of eco-environment has been getting increasingly bigger. However, in the following several years, it is likely that the growth rate of EEF will gradually reach a low and even falling standard, and the energy utilization benefit will largely promote in a relatively long period.
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    Changes of Residents' Perceptions towards the Guangzhou Asian Games —From Pre-event Perspective
    LUO Qiu-ju
    2010, 30 (5):  693-701.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.693
    Abstract ( )   PDF (432KB) ( )   Save
    Current researches have studied the influence of an event from a "reactive" perspective after the occurrence of an event. This research shifts the focus to the planning and management phases of large-scale events from a "proactive" perspective and studies how residents, important stakeholders of large-scale events, change their perceptions. The researcher conducted this study over one year before the Guangzhou Asian Games, investigated residents' perceptions successively separated by five and a half month and studied the changes of residents' perceptions towards large-scale sports events. Main conclusions are as follows: ①As the time draws nearer, residents pay more attention to the large-scale event, realize their role of host, and their sense of existing increases; ②As the time draws nearer, residents' perceptions towards the large-scale event turn from tangible effect to intangible effect; ③As the time draws nearer, residents' perceptions towards social cost of the large-scale event becomes stronger, but their perceptions towards economic cost and social benefits becomes weaker, meanwhile, their perceptions towards community benefits gradually grows stronger; ④As the time draws nearer, residents' attitudes towards the event are becoming more and more rational.
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    The Expansion of Urbanization Area in Yangtze River Delta
    WANG Lei, DUAN Xue-jun
    2010, 30 (5):  702-709.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.702
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    The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most developed areas in China. Since the Reform and Open up, this area has experienced dramatic changes in urbanization. In the process of urbanization and industrialization, a large number of agricultural land has transferred to built-up areas for industrial and urban development in Yangtze River Delta, especially in the outskirt of the large cities and the county-level cities which experienced rapid economic and population growth. The construction land was interpreted from the Landsat TM satellite images and acquired in 4 periods of 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2007, which was used as a major index to study the spatio-temporal characters of expansion on urbanization area. By the GIS and RS based study, it was found that the urban spatial sprawl agglomeration (Global Moran’s I) decreased at first from the year 1985 to 2000, then it began to rise. This fluctuation had a strong link to the political and economic development in Yangtze River Delta and China. After detecting the global sprawl agglomeration, many local "hot spots" of urban spatial sprawl were also found as the time went by. From the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, the main path of that "hot spots" transferred was studied and three models of urban area sprawl in the 16 cities of Yangtze River Delta are found. They are Shanghai model, which represents the multi-central urban area sprawl. Nanjing mode, which represents the strong single-core urban area sprawl, and Suzhou model, which represents the multi-core (in different scale) urban area sprawl. On the other hand, after statistics the density of construction land in every grid and their proportion changes along the urbanization gradient, the threshold was established to divide the core urban area, urban-rural fringe and rural area in Yangtze River Delta, computing the expansion strength of construction land in every gradient. With those methods, some phenomenon is also found that, before the year of 2000 agricultural land was increasingly turned into urban-rural fringe because of the land was not used sufficiently and little difference of expansion strength among construction land in the three areas. After 2000, the difference is significant, construction land sprawl more active as the urbanization gradient increased.
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    The Monopoly of Tourist Resource in the Name of the State: A Case Study in Conghua, Guangdong
    LI Peng, BAO Ji-gang
    2010, 30 (5):  710-716.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.710
    Abstract ( )   PDF (388KB) ( )   Save
    The study of tourist resources as public goods has been a topic that draws wide attention in Geography in western world. Along with the market reform over 30 years, the management of state-owned resources in China has manifested itself some unique characteristics. The reform of mineral resources management is reshaping the hot spring destinations in mainland China. In the last two decades, a number of studies have examined the ambiguous property rights of tourism resources. Few lights, however, are shed on the implication of resource reform upon hot spring destination in China. Taking Conghua hot spring resort as an example, this paper mainly targets on the analysis of geographical features as well as the underlying operating mechanism of state-owned resources. By adopting qualitative approach which includes field survey and semi-structured interviews, the main findings of the paper are as follows. First, it is found that the spread of hot spring tourist facilities is based on the over-use of the hot spring resource. Such abuse of hot spring resources has already resulted in geothermal resource shrinking. The low-efficient development of the hot spring resources in Conghua is due to the low price made by informal oligopoly and extra profit that can be gained from hot spring tourism. If the exploitation rights of hot spring resources were controlled by multiple semi-public enterprises, the local hot spring resources would become 'the Commons'. In pursuit of the maximization of personal benefit, the over-exploitation of state-owned resources is inevitable. Under such condition, the local government loses the control of the development of resources and has been put into the dilemma. On the one hand, it has been criticized by its upper supervision government. On the other, when local government endeavors to clarify the property rights and implement unified management, this innovation is constrained by the top-down administrative system.
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    Dynamic Variation for Regional Carrying Capacity in Tumen River Area
    LU Bi-shun, CHENG Huo-sheng, ZHU Wei-hong
    2010, 30 (5):  717-722.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.717
    Abstract ( )   PDF (302KB) ( )   Save
    Tumen River Area, an eastern triangle-border area of Jilin Province adjacent to Russia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is abundant in natural resources and has locational advantages in its development, where is an economically and politically sensitive area to China who hopes an peace development. As China's government has decided to develop this area as a part of strategic development for Northeast China, a sound and stable development would become especially important domestically. Based on the previous studies, this study focused on the issue of the sustainable development in this area, useing calculation method of regional carrying capacity and setting up an evaluation indicator system of regional capacity in this area. In terms of vertical and horizontal analysis according to statistical data from 2000 to 2008, a new predictive model has been set up for understanding the regional carrying capacity of this area, especially for the prediction of further dynamic variation of this area. The results showed that the regiona carryingl capacity of Tumen River Area in the period of 2000-2008 has not been overloaded, lower than the other areas of Jilin Province and the average of the whole country. Meanwhile, there are relatively large differences in regional carrying capacity within 8 cities and counties of this area, and it is predictable that the regional carrying capacity of this area would overload after 2020. This would be the important influencing factor for potential unsustainable development of this area.
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    Urban Expansion Simulation Using GIS Spatial Analysis and Cellular Automata —A Case Study in Daqing City
    GAO Yu-hong, ZHANG Li-juan, LI Wen-liang, LIU Dong, CHEN Hong
    2010, 30 (5):  723-727.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.723
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    Using the spatial model construction tool in ArcGIS, this paper developed an urban expansion simulation model based on logistic regression and cellular automata (CA). This model consists of four modules, including a suitability module, a neighborhood effect module, a constraint effect module, and a random effect module. This model was applied to Daqing City, Heilongjiang to simulate its urban growth. In particular, this model was developed based on the historical urban land use data, calibrated using the reference map of 2000, and applied to simulating the urban expansion of Daqing City in 2015 and 2020. Analysis of results suggests several conclusions. Firstly, the developed CA urban expansion model using the model builder of ArcGIS has a clear modeling structure. It is easy to implement and avoids the burden of further programming. Secondly, according to the specific characteristics of Daqing, this model successfully examined the impact of petroleum industry on urban development and the influence of population growth on random factors. Finally, modeling results indicate that Daqing City will continue to expand in 2015 and 2020, and the urban center will shift toward north, with an eastward trend.
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    Application of Model and Method in the Planning of Regional Major Functional Zones ——A Case Study of Beijing-Tianjin Region, China
    ZHANG Xiao-rui, ZONG Yue-guang
    2010, 30 (5):  728-734.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.728
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    According with the principles of regional major functional zoning proposed by national "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" and inspired by classical laws of mechanics,the paper constructs the planning model of regional major functional zones by combining the ecological threshold theory of strong sustainable development with the regional integrated ecological values. That is the "capacity - potential - pressure - resistance" model. Based on the planning model, the method of the regional spatial development forces suffered was put forward learned from the idea of cost-benefit analysis. By constructing an integrated planning index (IPI), it can solve the technical difficulty which is the threshold determined in development class and protection class in the current major functional zones planning. So, it will achieve a scientific plan of four major functional zones. Finally, the paper puts the model and method into the major functional zones planning in Beijing-Tianjin region. The results are consistent with the objective reality of Beijing-Tianjin region and the effect of application is satisfactory.
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    Character of Vegetation Cover Change in China’s Eastern Coastal Areas 1998-2008
    HOU Xi-yong, YING Lan-lan, GAO Meng, BI Xiao-li, LU Xiao, ZHU Ming-ming
    2010, 30 (5):  735-741.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.735
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    The character and trends of vegetation cover change in China’s eastern coastal areas during 1998-2008 has been studied based on the SPOT-VGT data and MVC method, Change Vector Analysis(CVA), linear regression, Hurst index and Spatial Analysis techniques. And the degradation map of vegetation cover has been mapped on the 1 km2 spatial scale. It showed that: (1) The vegetation cover greatly increased between 1998 and 2008, and prominently, before and after 2003, there were two different temporal stages. (2) The CVA for the 10-year scale showed that areas with mid-high to high degree of vegetation type change amounted to 26.23% of the whole study area, and areas with high degree mainly included the joint part of Shandong Province and Hebei Province, the northwestern part of Jiangsu Province, the Shanghai metropolitan area, the eastern coastal zone of Taiwan island, the mid-part of Hainan island and some parts of Guangdong Province and Guangxi Province. The comparison of CVA for the two 5-year periods showed that the density and extent of vegetation cover change between 1999 and 2003 was much acute than that between 2004 and 2008. (3) Although the improved area of vegetation cover was widely spread, there were areas where vegetation cover had degenerated markedly between 1998 and 2008, such as the three metropolitan areas and the mountainous areas in Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province. (4) There was evident self-similarity and long-range dependence of vegetation cover change, and the Hurst index of the whole study area amounted to 0.8437, which indicated that the increase of the vegetation cover would show distinct sustainability in the future. The Hurst index matrix calculated on the 1 km2 cell scale was high generally, and its spatial patterns were very complex. For example, the areas with low values of Hurst index include the northern part of Jiangsu Province, the mid-western part of Guangxi Province, the southern part of Hebei Province, the northeasterm part of Liaoning Province and the southwestern part of Shandong Province, which indicated that the change directions of vegetation cover would show anti-sustainability. (5) The degradation map of vegetation cover showed that 10.58% of the whole study area would be the key areas that vegetation cover will go on degenerating in the future.
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    Spatial Heterogeneity of Landscape ragmentation at multi-scales —A Case Study in Wujang River Basin, Guizhou Province, China
    GAO Jiang-bo, CAI Yun-long
    2010, 30 (5):  742-747.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.742
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    Effectively revealing landscape pattern and its spatial heterogeneity are basic for researches of landscape function and dynamic. Based on the land use classification data, this paper explored the spatial pattern, spatial heterogeneity and its scale-dependence for effective mesh size using ArcGIS 9.3, FRAGSTATS 3.3 and GS+7.0, with a case study of Wujiang River Basin in Guizhou Province, China. The results show that the relation between spatial heterogeneity of landscape fragmentation and extent exhibits significant power law with a characteristic scale of 4590 m. The regions with lower values of effective mesh size are the northeast mountain-hill area, the west of central hill-basin area and the north of west plateau-mountain area, which possess the similar characteristic of dissected topography; the regions with higher values of effective mesh size are the east of central hill-basin area and the north of west plateau-mountain area with comparatively subdued topography. The structural components such as topography and climate play the main role in the spatial heterogeneity; the data series is complex due to the influences of topography, climate, and human activities, and exhibits significant spatial auto-correlation with range of 33 km. The fractal dimensions are bigger, and the auto-correlation scales are smaller in the directions of northeast-southwest and east-west than the north-south and southeast-northwest directions. Isotropic heterogeneity and anisotropic heterogeneity are in accordance with the physical geographical characteristics. The results can provide a basis for biodiversity conservation, land use management and regional landscape planning and construction.
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    Application of Minimum-data Approach in Ecological Compensation—A Case of Huanghe River Water Supply Area of Gannan
    ZHAO Xue-yan, DONG Xia
    2010, 30 (5):  748-754.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.748
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    The Huanghe (Yellow) River Water Supply Area of Gannan lies in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, so it can be considered as the important part of the water tower of China and the protection of its water resources is crucial. The minimum-data approach, which integrates the spatial heterogeneity of the biophysical environment and the economic behavior of farmers, is a transparent and cost effective tool to quantify the effect of financial incentives in the conservation of water resource. Policy relevant information can be generated without the need to conduct expensive field survey and to set up more elaborate economics simulation models. The paper makes use of the precipitation storage model to simulate the additional water conservation from grazing to grazing prohibition, then applies the minimum-data approach to simulate the supply curve of the water conservation of the grassland ecosystem from the spatial distribution of opportunity cost per unit of water conservation. The results show that it is theoretically possible to increase water conservation quantity by implementing the ecological compensation in the Huanghe River Water Supply Area of Gannan, and the initial equilibrium supply of water before farmers are given payments is 5.954?107 m3. When the compensation standard of the Hezuo,Xiahe,Maqu, Luqu, Zhuni and Lintan respectively equal to 1024.3 yuan/ha, 999.79 yuan/ha, 861.74 yuan/ha, 1008.54 yuan/ha, 585.54 yuan/ha and 983.22 yuan/ha, all of the degradation grassland will be prohibited from grazing, the additional water conservation will equals to 2.253?109 m3 in the Huanghe River Water Supply Area of Gannan. That is to say,it would be technically and economically feasible to pay farmers to increase water conservation quality and secure the water tower of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This water supply curve can be used by policy decision makers to assess how much farmers are willing to supply at a given price per unit of water. Integrated with an assessment of how much water is expected, the efficient water and grassland protection policy can be implemented.
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    Fractal Features of Rivers in Eastern Coast of Laizhou Bay and Evolution of Regional Fluvial Landform
    SUN Zhu-you, DU Guo-yun, ZHU Da-kui, ZHANG Yong-zhan
    2010, 30 (5):  755-759.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.755
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    There are several small-scale rivers with typical fractal features in the eastern coast of Laizhou Bay. The fluvial landform character are deeply influenced by regional land-ocean interaction. Most previous researches on Laizhou Bay focused on the southern coast, mainly including landform descriptions, saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, sedimentary environment and dynamics and so on. There were few quantitative studies on fluvial landform of the eastern coast. Besides, the fractal features of large-scale rivers have been well-studied, but not the small-scale rivers. In this study, based on the contour data of the eastern coast of Laizhou Bay in 1969 (because there are few anthropic activities at that time), the fluvial landform features are quantitatively analyzed by applying fractal methods, including Overlay Method and Horton’s Law, and GIS technology to three typical small-scale rivers (the Huangshuihe River, the Wanghe River and the Jiehe River) in the region.On the basis of Overlay Method’s results and He’s standard of classification of fluvial landform, the fluvial landform in the eastern coast of Laizhou Bay is on the primary stage, not well-developed; and the river channel fractal dimension data of the Wanghe River is the largest, which demonstrates that its evolution is deeply influenced by historical migration of the river channel. According to Horton’s Law, the fractal dimension data show that the evolution of rivers in the eastern coast of Laizhou Bay are natural and normal, and are influenced by the intensity of tectonic movements and the number of fault zones in this region or adjacent area. The fractal dimension data of the Jiehe River is the smallest, because there are only a few fault zones in its drainage area and it is less influenced by the famous Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone. Compared with our field work, the fractal methods can better reveal the fluvial landform features of the eastern coast of Laizhou Bay, and both the fractal dimension data and regional Digital Elevation Model (DEM) information are in accordance with the actual fluvial landform features in the region. The fluvial landform features in the eastern coast of Laizhou Bay are related to sustained marine regression process since the Holocene high sea level and the lowering of erosion base level and response to the land-ocean interaction of coastal zone (LOICZ) in this region.The fractal methods are suitable to apply to small-scale rivers,and the final conclusion will be more accurate and comprehensive if more small-scale rivers in the coastal zone are studied.
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    Catastrophe Models of Cyanobacteria in Chaohu Lake
    FANG Feng-man, JIN Gao-jie, GAO Chao
    2010, 30 (5):  760-765.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.760
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    Taking Chaohu Lake as the study area, potassium permanganate index (CODMn), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP),Chlorophyll-a(Chla),pH data in the 12 monitoring points of the lake and the corresponding temperature,radiation, etc. (from 2000 to 2007) from China Meteorological Administration were collected. Through the mutation discrimination, TP was selected as state variables,CODMn and temperature, ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus(N/P) and pH, N/P and radiation were decided as control variable,then three water bloom catastrophe models were constructed by 12 lake monitoring points data. The obtained cross set equation is B=8P3+27Q2, which can be as criterion equation of water bloom outbreak. When valued in critical near zero or less than zero, then the water bloom would appear,aquatic ecosystems in the state of mutations, we should complete water bloom outbreaks of emergency response plan. Model testing and monitoring data consistency is good.
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    Nutrients Distribution Character and Their Influential Factors in Core Sediments from Wanghu Lake in Middle Reaches of Changjiang River
    SHI Xiao-li, QIN Bo-qiang
    2010, 30 (5):  766-771.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.766
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    Sediment cores were collected in November 2007 from Wanghu Lake, a river connecting lake before 1960s, in the middle reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. Dating sequence of the core was established based on radioisotopes 137Cs and 210Pb. The samples of the core sediments were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), heavy metal, grain-size and pollens. The results show that two stages were recognized according to vertical variation of TOC and TN concentrations. Before 1950, both TOC and TN concentrations were low and stable, reflecting that the TOC and TN of sediment were mainly from the natural of soil nutrient cycling in surrounding. After 1950, the concentrations of TOC and TN were increasing, the maximum appeared in the surface of sediment. The vertical changes of TP was different from TN and TOC, and it was more complex relatively. Before 1920, TP concentrations were low and sable, and in the period 1920-1950, TP concentrations were lower which were probably resulted from the decline of economy and population of the Yangxin County caused by war, Schistosomiasis and frequent floods. From 1950 to 1970, with the hydraulic engineering constructions, the development of industry and agriculture, the concentrations of TP in sediment were notable increased. Since Fuchi floodgate had been finished in 1967, the lake water exchange from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River was blocked, fine soil and particle phosphorus decreased into Wanghu Lake from Changjiang River, and the concentrations of TP in the sediment was declined. The results from Principal Component Analysis show that the concentrations of TOC and TN in sediment were mainly controlled by human activities and the changes of catchment land use, and climate had little impacted on them; the concentrations of TP were drove by two factors of human activities, erosion and transportation of runoff in catchment and the Changjiang River.
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    Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture Profile in Seasonal Frozen Soil Region in Different Stages
    WANG Zi-long, FU Qiang, JIANG Qiu-xiang, LI Tian-xiao, WANG Xiao-wei
    2010, 30 (5):  772-776.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.772
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    For solving the difficult problems of quantitative description on migration complexity and spatial inhomogeneity of seasonal frozen soil moisture during frozen-thaw process, soil moisture profile of different stages in seasonal frozen soil region was taken as the research object and geostatistics was performed to study its spatial variability. The results indicated that soil profile moisture of different stages had good spatial structure and strong spatial correlation. Seasonal frozen-thaw process weakened the spatial correlation of soil profile moisture and had intense spatial redistribution effects on it. The application of geostatistics can provide a new thought and method for the research on soil moisture migration mechanism during frozen-thaw process in seasonal frozen soil region.
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    Geochemical Records and Its Paleoearthquake Significance of Core Sediments in Dongzhai Bay, Hainan Island, China
    ZHANG Zhen-ke, MENG Hong-ming, XIE Li, WANG Xiu-ling, ZHANG Yun-feng, YU Ke-fu
    2010, 30 (5):  777-782.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.777
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    Extreme earthquake in coastal region strongly changed the coastal landform and sedimentary sequences. The serious earthquake in the year of 1605 occurred at Qiongshan in the region around Puqian Bay, north-eastern Hainan Island, which was the most extensive earthquake recoded in the historical documents in South China with the seismic intensity of M7.5. This historical earthquake resulted in the land subsidence and the formation of the Dongzhai Bay. According to the sedimentary characteristics of the YBL Core and the analysis results about the grain seize and elements, the geochemical records of the historical earthquake was presented in this paper. The comprehensive analysis indicated the 1.6-1.8 meters subsidence occurred at the inner part of the Dongzhai Bay. The YBL Core near to Yeboluo Island was drilled to the buried red soils, which is the terrestrial environment before the earthquake subsidence. Rapid changes of the geochemical elements occurred at 125 cm of YBL Core and which indicated the environment changed quickly from terrestrial to marine environment. Further detailed study is needed for the analysis about the chronology,
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    Spatial Patterns of Sediment Yield in Northeast China
    YAN Yun-xia, XU Jiong-xin, LIAO Jian-hua
    2010, 30 (5):  783-789.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.783
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    This paper examined the spatial variation of sediment yield in Northeast China, a large area with complex geology, climate, land use history, and extensive sediment monitoring. In order to develop regional sediment yield scale relations, and to then use them to interpolate the spatial pattern of sediment yield, the area was divided into ten sub-regions of first class and fifteen sub-areas of second class. And 200 stations were used to study the scale effects of sediment yield. Three regional trends were identified: (1) a decreasing trend, with sub-regions usually located on the upper reach of river basins, such as Nenjiang sub-region on the upper reach of the Songhuajiang River basin and Xiliaohe sub-region on the upper reach of the Liaohe River basin; (2) a flat trend, with sub-regions such as the Second Songhuajiang River basin and the lower reach of Songhuajiang river basin; (3) an increasing trend, with sub-regions usually locate on the lower reach of river basins, such as lower reach of the Liaohe River basin. Using these developed relations, areally-adjusted sediment yield maps were created over the entire Northeast China with universal Kriging interpolation.
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    Grain Size Composition of Typical Mega-dune in Badain Jaran Desert
    SHAO Tian-jie, ZHAO Jing-bo, LI En-ju, DONG Zhi-bao
    2010, 30 (5):  790-795.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.790
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    The paper selected the typical mega-dune (1605 m) in Badain Jaran Desert as the object of the study, and analyzed the sediment samples systematically. The results showed that the content of the fine sand was the highest, followed by the medium sand. The contents of the coarse sand, very fine sand and coarse silt were less, and the colloidal particle, clay and fine silt didn’t appear. The particle size of sediment on windward slope was smaller than that on leeward slope. The sand particle on windward slope was even-sized, well-separated. The sediment particle size became smaller, evener, better-separated, and the deviation and kurtosis more stable from the bottom to the top of the slope. The main function was erosion on bottom of windward slope, and the main function was accretion by wind action in middle and upper part and by gravity in bottom of leeward slope.
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    Comparison Characteristics and Inhomogeneity Adjustments of Mean, Maximum and Minimum Surface Air Temperature for Xiamen Meteorological Station
    LI Xiang-yu, HUANG Shao-peng, YE Hong, XIONG Yong-zhu, CHEN Feng, WANG Kai, PAN Ling-yang
    2010, 30 (5):  796-801.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.05.796
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    Xiamen Meteorological Station was relocated in 1981, which resulted in a remarkable shift in its long term mean, maximum, minimum surface air temperature (SAT) time series from 1954 to 2007. The stepwise multiple linear regression and difference method were employed to estimate the inhomogeneity of the SAT, and the annual and monthly mean, maximum, minimum SAT time series were adjusted by integrating the two methods. The annual mean, maximum, minimum SAT corrected values are 0.84℃, 0.72℃ and 0.65℃, respectively. The annual and seasonal trends of the unadjusted and adjusted time series were investigated detailedly by a comparative analysis. The results of adjusted SAT time series showed that the annual mean, maximum, minimum SAT increased rapidly at a rate of 0.25℃/10 yr, 0.33℃/10 yr and 0.18℃/10 yr, and had approximately risen by 1.4℃, 1.8℃ and 1.0℃over the 54 years period, respectively. The seasonal mean, maximum, minimum SAT also showed quite significant warming trends in spring, summer, autumn and winter, and the greatest trends of mean, maximum, minimum SAT occurred in winter. The annual and seasonal maximum temperature increased at a faster rate than the minimum temperature, which resulted in a strong increase in the long-term diurnal temperature range and its increasing rate was 0.15℃/10 yr.
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