Table of Content

    20 May 2012, Volume 32 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Characteristics and Spatial-temporal Differences of Urban Human Settlement Environment in China
    Xue-ming LI, Pei-yu JIN
    2012, 32 (5):  521-529.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.521
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    This article establishes an evaluation system of urban human settlement environment with four first-level indexes as standard, including socio-economic environment, living condition, infrastructure and public service environment, and natural ecological environment, and 28 second-level indexes. With the method of entropy, the urban human settlement environment quality of 286 cities at prefecture level and above in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 is analyzed. The results show the urban settlement environment quality of Chinese cities is gradually improving in recent 10 years. Between citie, score gap is gradually narrowing, and the city rank changes within a certain range basically, but in the most of cities, urban human settlement environment construction is at a low development level. The spatial difference of urban human settlement environment quality is significant, and the distribution of cities at all city levels in each region is unbalance. With the urban human settlement environment quality decreasing from the eastern coastal regions to central and western regions, and from the south to the north. It shows that the eastern region has the advantages both in the number of cities belonged to the first three levels and in the proportion in different regions. Cities with the level of three, four and five dominate the central region, and those with the level of five and six dominate the western region. The economy is not deciding factor, but is the main factor resluting in the differences of urban human settlement environment, and is the prerequisite of improving urban human settlement environment. Therefore, to promote the economic development and to improve the urban economic strength is still the main development direction for cities. The cities with higher urban human settlement environment quality are distributed in the form of agglomeration, which fits well the urbanization strategy in China. There is correlation between urbanization level and urban human settlement environment quality: the level of urbanization is higher, the urban human settlement environment quality is higher. There is no correlation between urban human settlement environment quality and city size, sometimes, the quality of many small cities is higher than that of big cities. This means that city development should be coordinated with local conditions, and the process should be human-oriented, serve for human production and life, and not pursue the external scale. The process of urbanization is unbalanced, and many aspects need to be improved. Cities with higher grades have not been developing comprehensively, and ecological environment, infrastructure, public service, urban and rural gap do not develop sufficiently. This means many aspects of the process have not got enough attention, needing the elimination of the short boards to achieve the comprehensive improvement of urban human settlement environment quality.

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    Spatial Analysis of Industry Clusters Based on Local Spatial Statistics:A Case Study of Beijing’s Manufacturing Industry Clusters
    Xiao-quan LIU, Tie-shan SUN, Guo-ping LI
    2012, 32 (5):  530-535.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.530
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    Incorporating local spatial autocorrelation analysis into the identification of regional industry clusters, this article presents a useful method for regional industry cluster analysis, which can clearly identify the spatial distribution patterns of regional industry clusters. We use the national benchmark industrial clusters as the template, and apply local spatial autocorrelation analysis based on the local Getis and Ord G statistic to analyze the spatial distributions of manufacturing clusters in Beijing. Our data are drawn from the Beijing Economic Census and the National Economic Census in 2008. We find out that the manufacturing clusters of Beijing are mainly located in the suburban areas, and new investment and development areas are the main locations attracting the manufacturing industries to concentrate and form industry clusters. Through analyzing the spatial patterns of Beijing’s manufacturing clusters, we find out that 1) historical path-dependency, natural resources conditions, transportation accessibility, regional policies and so on are the factors driving the formation of manufacturing clusters in Beijing’s suburbs; 2) manufacturing clusters related with industrial linkages are often located near to each other; 3) manufacturing clusters are scattered throughout the suburbs in Beijing, and different clusters have various location patterns; and 4) the functional divisions of industry sectors within the cluster over space are not distinct, and many clusters are duplicated in industry components at different locations, which leads to the overlap of functional divisions of areas. Therefore we suggest to further improve the agglomeration of manufacturing clusters in Beijing, to clearly indentify the regional functions and to guide manufacturing clusters through proper regional policies, so as to enhance the regional divisions and specializations of manufacturing clusters based on the regional functions and specialty.

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    Measuring Method of Urban Hinterland Based on Spatial Linkage:A Case of Jiangsu Province
    Ye-xi ZHONG, Yu-qi LU
    2012, 32 (5):  536-543.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.536
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    With the development of computer technology and geographic information system (GIS), three significant transformation appears in measuring method of urban hinterland. Firstly, the method develops from the qualitative to the quantitative. Secondly, GIS is increasingly integrated with traditional methods. Thirdly, time-distance gradually replaces physical distance, while they have the commom thinking to classify the cities by their qualities. The urban hinterlands can be deviede to different categories, which is called "top-down" method in this article. Since the method focuses on the quality without considering distance as a factor, the results are not good enough in the area where the internal differentiation is significant. Therefore, the method named "bottom-up" is put forward here. And selecting Jiangsu Province as a case, the cities in it are divided to different levels and their hinterlands are measured in the years of 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008 based on the 1:250 000 basic geographic data, the transportation network data and the statistic data of counties (cities). The division process involves: to obtain the scales of 65 cities by factor analysis, to get the time-distance between cities by the accessibility analysis, and to determine the levels of the urban and their hinterlands after merging them by grade through maximum spatial linkage. The result shows that: it is more accurate to use accessibility capacity than using the straight-line distance, since not only the comprehensive strength but also the location are taken into consideration in the former; the dividing result may fully reflect the regional balance since fully considering the relationship of subordination among those cities. On one hand, "bottom-up "method could reflect the regional balance well while "top-down" method would neglect it instead; on another hand, "bottom-up" method could not ensure central cities with high comprehensively capable are all divided as high level ones in the case that those central cities are of about the same strength and being close while "top-down" method can make it. But as a completely different method from traditional ones, "bottom-up" method reflects a new study thinking which deserves researchers to make theoretical and empirical exploration further.

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    Quantitative Analysis of the Urban Expansion Models in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Metroplan Areas
    Yong-nian ZENG, Li-li HE, Wen-ping JIN, Kong-jiang WU, Yan-yan XU, Fei-fei YU
    2012, 32 (5):  544-549.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.544
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    The urban expansion pattern is important to understand the urbanization processes. It is important to reveal and study quantitativly on urban spatial expansion models for understanding the regional urbanization process and the urban spatial planning. In this article, the changes of urban landscape from 1993 to 2006 in the core area of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas are quantified using landscape expasion index (LEI). The results indicate: 1) the proportions of urban expansion area in outlying model is 22.38%, 30.26%, 13.74%, 18.68% respectively, those of in edge-expansion model are 60.60%, 52.42%, 66.83%, 63.69% and in infilling model are 17.02%, 17.32%, 19.43%, 17.63% respectively from 1993 to 2006. This shows that after a messy dispersed primary development phase, urban development is more compact and reasonable layout. 2) the urban expasion appears mainly edge-expansion model from 1993 to 2006 in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas. However, there are different unban expansion models in four different periods: ① the urban expasion appears edge-expansion and outlying model from 1993 to 1996, which indcates that urbanization is in the early stage of rapid urbanization; ② the urban expasion appears mainly outlying model from 1996 to 1998, which indcates that urban development is messy and dispersion; ③ the urban expasion appears mainly edge-expansion model from 1998 to 2001. This period is the proliferation phase in the rapid development of urbanization; ④ the urban expasion appears edge-expansion and infilling model from 2001 to 2006. This period is the polymeric phase in rapid urbanization. 3) The MEI and AWMEI of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas show an ascendant trend, which rises to 34.72 and 30.59 respectively. This means that urban landscape expansion tends to be more compac. 4) The urbanization level of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas was 49.69% in 2006. The annual growth rate is 2.57%. A rapid development of urbanization leads to land used for construction increasing and the investment of urban construction expanding ceaselessly. Rapid development of urbanization is an important reason for urban landscape expansion. Another important reason is industrialization development,especially a quick development when Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metroplan areas go into “Two Type” society. The proportion of secondary industry is 47%, which is 3.5% higher than the provincial average.

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    Simulation of Economic Distribution Evolution and Its Driving Forces in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region
    Teng-yun GUO, Guan-peng DONG
    2012, 32 (5):  550-556.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.550
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    The evolution of economic growth in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region (short for BTHMR) are simulated using Kernel density estimation based on the data of the population, capital investment, and GDP of 140 county-level sub-regions of BTHMR in 1995-2007. And further its driving forces are simulated using spatial lag models based on the variables, such as capital deepening, technological efficiency and technological progress, which derived from the DEA and Malmquist index models, in different periods. Several conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) The shape of economic spatial distribution have changed significantly, from two peaks in 1995 to one peak in 2001, then, two peaks again, with a bigger and bigger gap between poor sub-region groups and rich ones, which indicates that the BTHMR had undergone a change from convergence to club convergence. 2) Capital deepening, technological efficiency, technological progress and spatial dependence play important roles in the economic growth of BTHMR. 3) Capital deepening and technological efficiency have statistically significant impacts on the economic spatial distribution evolution while the spatial dependence and technological progress have not although they both were important driving forces in economic growth. The distribution change of capital deepening and the increasing importance of technological efficiency have contributed to the economic distribution evolution rather than the increasing importance of capital deepening and the distribution change of technological efficiency. The results indicate that the distribution effects of capital deepening and coefficient effects of technological efficiency had become the channel, through which capital deepening and technological efficiency changed the economic distribution evolution.

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    Evaluation in Coordinative Development Among Energy and Economy of Jiangsu Province
    Yuan ZHAO, Lu SHEN
    2012, 32 (5):  557-561.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.557
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    Demand for energy is growing with each passing day by the rapid development of economy in Jiangsu Province. Energy shortage is one of the restricting factors on the further development of economy. Meanwhile, environment pressure with energy consumption is increasing day by day. So, how to realize the coordinative development among energy and economy has been an important problem which should be solved as soon as possible. Based on the energy and economy data from 1995 to 2009, this article is to set up the development evaluation index system and the energy-economy coordinative degree model, which aims to analyze the coordinative development level quantitatively among energy and economy. The results show that the coordinative development level among energy and economy has experienced the following changes: 1) from 1995 to 1997, the coordinative degree presented slow rising trend as a result of the low development level both in energy and economy; 2) the development speed of economy was faster than that of energy, which caused the coordinative degree declining briefly in 1998; 3) the development level from 1999 to 2004 improved at the same speed. Due to most high-energy-consumption enterprises being closed successively and new technology and new equipments being adopted, energy utilization efficiency increased greatly which presented short "harmonious" state between energy and economy; and 4) the coordinative degree was declining slightly for the excessive consumption of energy resources in 2005. The government intensified efforts to transform the mode of economic development and to adjust the industrial structure. In this case, the coordinative degree rised again from 2006 to 2009, which meant the optimization period had been coming. However, problems such as energy consumption per unit of GDP being on the high side still exist. The contradiction between energy and economy is still outstanding. During the period of the 12th Five-Year Plan, Jiangsu will keep the coordinative development level in primary state and achieve the sustainable development among energy and economy by adjusting industrial structure, optimizing energy structure, improving energy utilization efficiency and strengthening national energy saving consciousness further. At the same time, Jiangsu will put solving the environmental problem on the more prominent place. By the joint efforts, Jiangsu will become an economy-healthy, resources-saving, and environment-friendly society.

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    Browsers’ Perceived Attitude, Evaluation and the Impact on Network Deduction in Mega Event: A Case Study of 2010 Shanghai Network World Expo
    Chao-hui WANG, Lin LU, Qiao-yun XIA, Ling-yu LIU
    2012, 32 (5):  562-569.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.562
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    The study on mega-event and its impact are the focuses of geography of tourism and tourism science while the study on consumer behavior is the important aspect of behavioral geography. As a new deduction form, Shanghai Network World Expo offers a new research object and field for the academic study on mega-event impact. Based on the SPSS18. 0 and AMOS17.0, the article makes an analysis on browsers’ survey data in 2010 Shanghai Network World Expo and constructs the measurement model of mega-event network tourists’ perceived attitude. The SEM is constructed to explore the relationship between network browsers’ perceived attitude and evaluate the impact on their behaviors. The result shows that: 1) The utilitarian and hedonic dimensions are the two measurement dimensions to construct the network tourists’ perceived attitude. 2) In general, network tourists’ consuming perceived attitude is strong, with the ten measurement indicators reaching the satisfying level; network tourists’ perception of utilitarian dimension is stronger than that of hedonic dimension; the perceived attitude of the female is higher than that of male in both dimensions; the perception of utilitarian dimension of the unmarried group is higher than that of married group; tourists who have visited the expo have much higher perception of utilitarian dimension than those who have not yet. 3) The perceived evaluation is the intermediate variable between the network tourists’ perceived attitude and their behaviors. The network tourists’ perceived attitude indirectly influences the tourists’ network behaviors and behavioral intentions to the Expo through their perceived evaluation. 4) The hedonic dimension in the network tourists’ consuming perception attitude has a direct and significant impact on their behaviors and intentions to the Expo while the impact of utilitarian dimension is not obvious. The study greatly expands the research filed and empirical applications in tourists’ consumption behavior theory and method, and will have a certain theoretical and practical significance for the sustainable development and marketing of international mega-event tourism in China.

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    Tourism Spatial Structure Evolution of Metropolitan Area: A Case Study of Changjiang River Delta Metropolitan Area
    Fu-biao ZHU, Lin LU, Ran YU, Jie BAO
    2012, 32 (5):  570-576.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.570
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    It is significant to optimize spatial structure and promote tourism destination building of metropolitan tourism by studying tourism spatial structure evolution of metropolitan area, which have an important meaning in playing the function and spatial effects of metropolis tourism. The article, based on the data of tourist number and tourism revenue, using Herfindal index and model of regression analysis of rank-size, studys the evolution of tourism spatial structure evolution of Changjiang River delta metropolitan area. The result demonstrates that the q value of Changjiang River delta metropolitan area decreases from 1999 to 2008. The q value of inbound tourism decreases from 1.861 to 1.438 in 1999-2008. The q value of domestic tourism decreases from 1.155 to 0.779, smaller than 1 after 2003. Also its Herfindal index value of inbound tourism decreases from 0.371 to 0.237 and domestic tourism decreases from 0.219 to 0.105. Only the value of domestic tourism Herfindal index in 2000 is greater than year of 1999. It shows that the density of tourist number and tourism income of domestic tourism is smaller than inbound tourism. So the relative disparity of tourism development among cities is shrinking and tourism development tends to equilibrium in Changjiang River delta metropolitan area. In fact, the tourism development is multi-centered, networked, integrated and balanced, and tends to high-level equalization in the Changjiang River delta metropolitan area. Then we discuss its evolution mechanism of tourism spatial structure using the theory of tourism space interaction. It considers that the evolution of tourism spatial structure of metropolitan area may experience such processes as low-level equalization, concentration, diffusion and high-level equalization from the earlier to late period. In this periods, the tourism space interaction play an important role, and the accessibility, complementary and alternative provide necessary conditions for the tourism space interaction among cities of metropolitan area. As main forms of the tourism space interaction, the accumulation and diffusion of tourism finance, technology, personnel, information and experience and other factors promote the evolution tourism spatial structure of metropolitan area from low-level equalization to the high-level equalization. Finally, this article explores the mechanism of tourism spatial structure evolution of metropolitan area from the view of the expansion of tourism enterprises and spatial behavior of tourists which play an important role in evolution of tourism spatial structure of metropolitan area wholly.

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    Industry Conversion Simulation Analysis of Resources-exhausted Mining City Based on The System Dynamics: Taking Liaoyuan City of Jilin Province as Example
    Wan-he LU, Ji-sheng LIU, Wei NA
    2012, 32 (5):  577-583.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.577
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    With the gradual depletion of mineral resources, the economy of resources-exhausted mining city is facing many difficulties, and industrial transformation has been imminent. The industrial transformation of Liaoyuan City has achieved remarkable progress, known as the “Liaoyuan sample”. This article establishes the SD model of economic system of Liaoyuan City through analyzing the system structure of the in-depth analysis based on the system dynamics method, and the CD production function is embedded into the model. We conductes the model based on the data of Liaoyuan from 2005 to 2010, a plurality of simulation curves of economic system of Liaoyuan City in 2005-2030 are derived, and the results show that: coal industry production value of Liaoyuan City is reduced to 0 because coal resource would completely dry up in 2027, which however exerts limited perturbation over the economy. Many economic indicators are showing rapid upward trend, including GDP, the output value of the second industry, the output value of the third industry, the output value of continuous industry, the output value of other’s industry. Further, other’s indexes such as the per capita GDP will also show an increasing tendency, the economy of Liaoyuan will present an overall prosperity.

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    The Spatial Analysis of Cultural Characteristics Between Taiwan and Fujian of China During Paleolithic and Neolithic Epoches Based on the Genes Atlas
    Bin WANG, Sha LIU
    2012, 32 (5):  584-590.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.584
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    The settlement is an important indicator to distinguish the identity of regional cultural landscape. There are wide range of similarities on physical geography between Taiwan and Fujian provinces, such as landform, climate, vegetation, etc. In addition, the Chinese government strengthened the rule of Taiwan areas gradually since the Song Dynasty. At the same time, the Chinese from the Guangdong and Fujian provinces began settling in Taiwan since the 7th century, and they started to develop rapidly in Taiwan on a larger scale, so there are also wide consistencies in land uses, economic activities, culture, etc. between Taiwan and Fujian provinces. Finally, the cultural region between Taiwan and Fujian was formed. However, the cultural characteristics of the ancient cultural sites in Taiwan and Fujian provinces show the differences from the rest of other regions in China because of the most ancient settlements and impacts of the regional environment among Taiwan and Fujian provinces. This article analyzes the characteristics of spatial distribution and cultural and historical origins of ancient sites among Taiwan and Fujian provinces based on the cultural gene by GIS. The results suggest that the ancient cultural sites between Taiwan and Fujian provinces owned the inherited characteristics in the production time and the same ways in spatial diffusion, migration and choice of living space. To be specific, the ancient cultural sites between Taiwan and Fujian provinces were mainly located in hills, along the river terraces or near the coast. What′s more, they both changed from point to line and to surface in the end, from the view of the patterns of diffusion and migration. So it is not difficult to find that there were also wide range of similarities and commonalities in tools, technologies to make tools and in crop types they planted, through drawing gene atlas and comparing by cultural characteristics of those ancient cultural sites between Taiwan and Fujian provinces. Finally, it is also clear that there is the same cultural basis of ancient cultural sites between Taiwan and Fujian provinces.

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    Empirical Analysis on the Relationship Among Industrialization, Urbanization and Agricultural Modernization in Jilin Province
    Hui-ming JIANG, Zhen-hua WANG
    2012, 32 (5):  591-595.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.591
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    Industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization have the inner logical relationship and influence each other. The orchestrating of industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization is not only the regional coordination of urban and rural areas, but also the industrial coordination of agriculture and industry. This article sets up the index system to evaluate the industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization in Jilin Province. Based on the time series data of Jilin Province in 1991-2009, the factor analysis method is empoyed to calculate the evaluation indexes. The result shows that the three lines of evaluation indexes interlace with each other but the trends are nearly the same, and especially the unceasing progress trends of industrialization and urbanization are obvious. From the point of view of contrast, the phenomenon of asynchrony is obvious. This article further makes the multivariate cointegration test for the evaluation indexes. The results examine that the industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization do not start synchronously, and industrialization could promote urbanization and agricultural modernization with one year lagged. It means that the industrialization could pull the urbanization and agricultural modernization in the short term. In another word, it is necessary to get the steady promotion of industrialization in the long term, and only the continuous improvement can provide an uninterrupted power to pull the urbanization and agricultural modernization. The improvement of agricultural modernization could also pull the urbanization, but the influence would be revealed three years later, which means that the agricultural modernization could pull the urbanization in the long term and it is different to the cycle of action of industrialization to urbanization. This article gives the explanation that the promotion of industrialization level could drive the development of industrial zone immediately and then cause the gathering of human capital, capital and material resources, and promote the level of urbanization. The promotion of agricultural modernization level could drive the transfer of surplus labor, and gradually expand the demand scale of agricultural production materials, promot the level of urbanization in the long term. Finally, this article puts forward the development thought of orchestrating of industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization in Jilin Province. We should use the agricultural paradigm to improve the level of industrialization, use the integration industrial paradigm to improve the level of agricultural modernization, and use the paradigm of agglomeration and integration between industry and agriculture to improve the level of urbanization.

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    Millennium-scale Climate Variations from the Record of Grain-size and CaCO3 During the Pleniglacial in the Salawusu River Valley, China
    Feng-nian WANG, Bao-sheng LI, Jiang-long WANG, Dong-feng NIU, Zhi-wen LI, Yue-jun SI, Shu-huan DU
    2012, 32 (5):  596-602.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.596
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    The MGS2 segment of the Milangguowan stratigraphical section in the Salawusu River Valley, southeast of China’s Mu Us Desert, records 5.5 sedimentary cycles consisting of dune sands alternating with fluvial or lacustrine facieses. Based on the grain-size and CaCO3 analysis, it was found that Mz and σ appear peaks and valleys in different sedimentary facieses. CaCO3 contents range from 0 to 2.94% (average 0.39%) in the dune sands, 0.14% to 2.68% (average 1.43%) in the fluvial facieses and 0.39% to 15.57% (average 8.82%) in the lacustrine, and appear 5.5 grain-size and CaCO3 cycles similar to the sedimentary facieses changes. And the CaCO3 contents have a significant correlation with Mz. The result show that the dune sands accumulate and CaCO3 moved greatly during the periods with a strong cold-dry winter monsoon. Whereas, the fluvial or lacustrine facieses developed, silt and clay increased and CaCO3 gathered largely when the warm-humid summer monsoon strengthened. The observed climate fluctuations on millennium-scale during the Pleniglacial to the alternations attributed the strength of the East Asian winter and summer monsoons.

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    Soil Organic Carbon Changing With Altitudes on the Ili Mountainous Region
    Hui-lan SUN, Wei-hong LI, Yu-hui YANG, Yu-hai YANG
    2012, 32 (5):  603-608.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.603
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    Based on data from field investigations and laboratory analysis in 2008 and 2009, soil organic carbon distribution and its influencing factors were studied, taking the northern slope of Wusun Mountain and the southern slope of Keguqin Mountain on the Ili mountainous region, Xinjiang as the study area. The results showed that: 1) Soil organic carbon content in 0-50cm soil layer of alpine meadow and meadow steppe was higher and that was lower in desert steppe. Soil organic carbon content decreased with the increasing of soil depth, both changing range and rate of soil organic carbon content was constant in 0-10cm and 10-20cm soil layer of the Ili mountainous region, however the soil organic carbon content was showed decreasing trend with high changing range in alpine meadow which is on over 2700m above the sea level, and that was slower in Temperate meadow steppe. The desert steppe had the slowest changing range. The difference in decreasing range of soil organic carbon has proved that its vertical distribution pattern was also different; 2) the soil carbon/nitrogen ratio of southern and northern slope of Ili mountainous region was between7-15 and the soil had higher humification degree and nitrogen mineralization potential. Soil carbon/nitrogen ratio in most sites in different elevation decreased with the increasing of soil depth, and the southern slope of Ili mountainous region had the higher soil carbon/nitrogen decreasing ratio than that of the northern slope; 3) soil organic carbon had a positive significant correlation with soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus and soil moisture (P<0.01), and had a negative significant correlation with pH value, especially in 20-50cm soil layer. The distribution of vegetation types and human activities significantly affected the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon. Although the intensively grazing of alpine meadow had caused serious lost of soil organic carbon in this area, but due to the rich organic carbon content in 0-10cm soil layer, its vertical distribution pattern was still obvious. Therefore, the protection of the surface soil layer would play a significant role in maintaining the stability of soil carbon sink in this area.

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    Changes of Runoff and Sediment Discharge into Dongting Lake from the Four Rivers in Hunan Province
    Hong-yan QIN, Yong-hong XIE, Dong-sheng ZOU
    2012, 32 (5):  609-615.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.609
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    On the basis of hydrological data from 1951 to 2009 of four representative gauging stations (Xiangtan, Taojiang, Taoyuan, Shimen), the changes of runoff and sediment discharge into Dongting Lake from the Four Rivers (Xiang River, Zi River, Yuan River and Li River) in Hunan Province were investigated using Mann-Kendall trend test, moving average value and double mass analysis. The results showed that annual runoff was highest in Xiang River (657×108m3), intermediate in Yuan River (640×108m3) and Zi River (229×108m3), and lowest in Li River (147×108m3). However, the changes of annual runoff of the Four Rivers were insignificant (P > 0.05), with several up-down processes. Annual sediment discharge was highest in Yuan River (1 051×104t), intermediate in Xiang River (959×104t) and Li River (382×104t), and lowest in Zi River (199×104 t).The annual sediment discharge from the Four Rivers showed a significantly decreasing trend generally (P < 0.001). Changes of annual runoff and annual sediment discharge were consistent in Xiang River before 1980s, in Zi River after 1960s, in Yuan River before 1980s and in Li River before 1990s. Moreover, the time of abrupt change in annual sediment discharge was different among the Four Rivers, with Xiang River in 1996, Zi River in 1973-1974, Yuan River in 1997-1998 and Li River in 1998, and the time of abrupt beyond 95% confidence interval was 1999, 1963, 1988, 2001 in Xiang River, Zi River, Yuan River and Li River, respectively. Double mass analysis between annual runoff and annual sediment discharge showed that Xiang River had one turning point in 1991, Zi River three points in 1961, 1981 and 1997, Yuan River two points in 1979 and 1997, Li River one point in 1996. Turning points of annual sediment discharge in Four Rivers were closely related to the construction of large-scale reservoirs. The reduction of annual runoff, increase of vegetation cover and construction of medium- and large-scale reservoirs were the main reasons accounting for the great reduction of annual sediment discharges of Four Rivers after 2001.

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    Geochemical Characteristics and Its Paleoenvironment of Wetland Sediment in Caotanhu Wetland, Shihezi City in Xinjiang Province of China
    Yun ZHANG, Zhen-jing YANG, Zhao-chen KONG, Shun YAN
    2012, 32 (5):  616-620.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.616
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    Soil organic matter, total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) are the important indexes to research the change of dry-moist palaeoclimate change and analyze the reason of the wetland degeneration. The Caotanhu wetland in Shihezi, which is located at the transitional zone between the middle section of Tianshan Mountains and the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang, is selected as the research area. Using the chemical analysis methods, the high resolution record of soil organic matter, TOC and TN data since 4 000 a B.P. was obtained. Combined with pollen data, the information of paleoclimate change was extracted. The results revealed during 500-1080 a B.P. and 2190-3800 a B.P., soil organic matter and TN were at their higher values, suggesting that the climate became humid and the wetland developed with abundant freshwater aquatic plants, which contributed to the peat accumulation. But during 1080-2190 a B.P., the lowest values of soil organic matter and TN indicated that a dry climatic condition was not favorable for the accumulation of peat. Once the wetland has been converted into farmland, the great loss in soil organic matter and TN happened, which indicates that human reclamation is one of reasons of the degradation of wetlands.

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    Net Primary Productivity of Grassland Resources Monitoring Based on Remote Sensing Data in Qinghai Province
    Ya-xing WEI, Li-wen WANG, Ying-chun SHI, Lu-zi LI
    2012, 32 (5):  621-627.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.621
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    With research on grassland light use efficiency and environment impacting factors in special regions, the NPP model of grassland based on light use efficiency is built in the paper. The spatio-temporal variations of FPAR(Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation), light use efficiency and NPP for grassland in 2006 in Qinghai Province are simulated and analyzed. The result shows that the mean value of grassland NPP in 2006 in Qinghai Province is 173.28 g/(m2·a). The area with higher grassland NPP values appear in the south-east, the south and areas around the Qinghai Lake of Qinghai Province. NPP for various grassland types is different. The mean NPP in the unit area of dense grassland is 193.82 g/(m2·a),in the middle density grassland is 157.14 g/(m2·a)and in sparse grassland is 121.08 g/(m2·a).

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    The Trend and the Principal Influence Factors of Evapotranspiration in Hutuo River Basin During Last 50 Years
    Rui-gang ZHANG, Xing-guo MO, Zhong-hui LIN
    2012, 32 (5):  628-634.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.628
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    It is important for both understanding the hydrological rules and managing the water resources to estimate the evapotranspiration accurately in a basin as well as master the trends of both itself and the principal influence factors. This paper calculated the annual evapotranspiration in the upstream mountain areas of Hutuo River Basin in North China during 1958-2007 by Fu Baopu formula, and analyzed the trend, the abruption and the principal influence factors of the evapotranspiration. The result shows that the Fu Baopu formula can estimate the evapotranspiration satisfactorily. In the past 50 years, the evapotranspiration in Hutuo River basin had a decreasing trend (α=0.05). Precipitation influenced the evapotranspiration strongly, while the potential evapotranspiration has little effect on it. In some of the researched area, relatively humidity also had significant influence (α=0.05). The averaged trends of the studied factors are: annual potential evapotranspiration, annual-averaged daily wind speed, hours of sunshine, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure decreased significantly, annual precipitation decreased non-significantly, annual-averaged daily maximal, mean, minimal temperature increased significantly (α=0.05). The factors and the difference between their multi-year averaged values before and after significant abruptions are: annual potential evapotranspiration decreased 70.30mm. Daily wind speed and hours of sunshine decreased 0.53 m/s and 0.52 h/d, respectively. Daily maximal, mean, minimal temperature increased 1.09、0.95、1.14℃, respectively. Evapotranspiration and precipitation had no abruptions. The sub-basin averaged geological locations, elevations, land cover, and NDVI do not influence the evapotranspiration significantly within the whole basin.

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    The Impacts of Climate and Landuse Changes on The Runoff Effects:Case in The Upper Reaches of The Yihe River, The Yiluo River Basin
    Guo-fu LIANG, Sheng-yan DING
    2012, 32 (5):  635-640.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.635
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    This paper investigated the climate and landuse changes in the upper reaches of the Yihe River since the 1980s. Based on the field investigation, remote sensing and GIS technology, the distributed hydrological model, SWAT (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model, was constructed for the studied basin. The results showed that: in the study area, woodland was the dominant landuse type. In 1987-2008, the area of woodland, pond and construction land increased, while the area of the grassland, river and unused land decreased. The area of arable land increased at first, then reduced. Since the 1980s, landuse changes led to the annual average runoff decreased at different stages. From the 1980s to the 1990s, climate changes caused the annual average runoff to decrease, while increase after 2000. All these had a close relation with the annual average precipitation, which was low in the 1990s and increased after 2000.

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    Chemistry and Environmental Significance of Snow in Snow Pit of Glacier No.72, Mt.Tumur, Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia
    Xiao-yu ZHANG, Zhong-qin LI, Fei-teng WANG, Sheng-jie WANG
    2012, 32 (5):  641-648.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2012.05.641
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    Snow chemistry and their environmental significance were studied by sampling a snow pit on July 2008 on Glacier No.72 in the Mt.Tumur region. Calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium (Mg2+) are the dominant cations. The concentration order of the cations is: Ca2+>Mg2+>Na+>K+>NH4+. Ca2+ and Mg2+ reflected the long-distance natural land sources transmission. The concentration and seasonal distribution of Mg2+、Ca2+ and K+ in snow pit of the Glacier No.72 are affected by the input of dust aerosols from Sary Ishikortau desert, Muyunkum desert and Taklimakan desert. The ratio of C(Cl-)/C(Na+) is 1.02 and the non-marine source percent of Na+ is nearly 50%, it means half of the Cl- and Na+ are from sea salts. NO3- on Glacier No.72 was characterised by significant high concentration when compared with the mean value of glaciers in Tianshan region. Most air masses backward trajectories ending in December 2007 and February 2008 have passed the Taklimakan desert, while some even traveled across the industrial zone of the former Soviet Union, indicating that dust from the vast arid regions of central Asia is the dominant source for NO3- in Glacier No.72, while anthropogenic emissions are also an important source of NO3- from surrounding cities.

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