Table of Content

    20 November 2015, Volume 35 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    The Spatial Pattern and Driving Force of Innovation of Industrial Cluster and County Urbanization Coupled Coordination in Zhejiang Province
    Wei-xiang XU, Cheng-jun LIU
    2015, 35 (11):  1347-1356.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1347
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    By using the coupled coordination model, geographically weighted regression model and trend analysis method, the article measured the coupling coordination degree between innovation of industrial cluster and the county urbanization, analyzed its characteristics in space and driving force. The conclusions are arrived as follows: in 2006-2012, the innovation of industrial cluster, county urbanization, coupling and coordination all rose with a certain degree, meanwhile, the whole coordination degree presented a spatial trend about "northeast high, southwest low"; the coordination degree took on the trend of spatial agglomeration continuously, and then the strength of the agglomeration changed with the inverted "V" type, which formed a significant hot spots focusing on the region of Hangzhou Bay, and the other significant cold spot was the southwest of Zhejiang Province; there were obvious regional differences in the driving force for the coordinated development of innovation of industrial cluster and county urbanization in different area, and its strength of driving force was decreasing according to the base of economic, opening to the outside world, power of market, informatization, behavior of government and industrialization.

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    The Impact of Place on the Monopoly profit of a Geographical Indication Product : A Case of Dongting Biluochun Tea in Suzhou
    Shang-yi ZHOU, Jing ZHANG
    2015, 35 (11):  1357-1363.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1357
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    Place is one of the core concepts of geography. A place is a unique geographical unit created by humans on the earth’s surface. Based on the theory of place, we carry out the interviews survey in the original production area of Dongting Biluochun Tea which is located in Dongshan Town and Jinting Town (formerly Xishan Town), Wuzhong District, Suzhou. We analyze the role of place in the production and sale of Dongting Biluochun Tea. Using theories of differential rent and monopoly market, this article explains how this place obtained differential rent and monopoly profits by being the site an important historical event. The conclusions are the following. First, a historical event happened in a specific place which cannot be moved to other place. This site became a factor that results in a differential rent. The legend of Biluochun Tea is considered equal to the investment by people of the land itself, which associates the local Biluochun Tea with culture quality which other Biluochun Tea does not have. The culture quality attracts some consumers and then forms the market demand which results in higher prices. Second, it is difficult to identify the specific features of a geographical indication product using a physical or chemical test, a feature which is associated with a specific historical event. The local tea producers are unable to obtain monopoly profits and thus it is difficult to execute a policy to protecting specific geographically indigenous products. Many tea makers and sellers in the past came to Dongshan and Xishan to sell fake Dongting Biluochun Tea for profit. To understand this practice, this study provides some assumptions or conditions. First, when calculating the differential rent, we make two assumptions: 1) there are no regional differences in the labor force and 2) the purchasing price of tea-leaves is equal to cost of planting the original tea. These two assumptions could affect the accuracy of the estimation of differential rent in this study. Second, when analyzing the structure of the monopoly profits, we assume that Dongshan Town and Jinting Town can be seen as a tea production group. However, there are so many producers and sellers in the production and sales market. Because of the many producers or sellers, it is obvious that competition exists in the market. The result is that the Dongting Biluochun Tea's market price is formed based on a “price game” between the many merchants, not determined by the rules in the monopoly market where the monopoly enterprise controls the output and sets the price. If the underlying assumptions or conditions described above change, the results of any analysis would likely be discounted. Further analysis needs to be done and any new conditions that might develop. Finally, based on the analysis above, our study provides two specific suggestions to local government shopping to successfully market Dongting Biluochun Tea: 1) to strengthen the brand value of Dongting Biluochun Tea and 2) to protect geographically indigenous products through specific laws and regulations.

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    Decoding Homes: Application of Space Syntax to Content and Methods of Home Space
    Wei TAO, Chuan-biao DING
    2015, 35 (11):  1364-1371.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1364
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    Home is a special point to view the social phenomenon, and home space is a micro scale to show man-land relationship by geographer. As the spatial system, which connects the housing architecture and the dwelling subjects, the difference of internal structure and organization display the different logic of cultures and societies.Architecture is a physical carrier of reflecting and inheriting culture, which contains rich meanings of culture, customs and rules.Through the study of living space form, we can peep the social change from microperspective. Space syntax theory, which is a quantitative means to analysis the urban morphology, can combine the quantitative and qualitative methods to research the spatial formation of home and its social cultural logic. In English literature, the concerned researches of home with the space syntax is increasingly mature, however, few researches in China adopt this research approach. This article firstly discusses the basic process and approach of the space syntax on home based on the space syntax international conference articles and published articles of journal of space syntax. Secondly, bases on the review of the concerned articles to summary in three subways-gene of home, home genre、 the "constant" and "conversion" of home、the duality of the home, to discover the difference and similarity of space in space syntax and traditional geography .We can get the following conclusions. The space syntax is not equal to the definition of space in human geography. Geography emphasizes the spatial distribution in the general case, and space syntax emphasizes the space ontology, those two definition is different and interacted. The configuration relationship exists between the different national cultures and lifestyles and their own home spaces, based on configuration, the home space constructs specific behaviors, communication interface, communication opportunities, so as to adapt to the needs of different social culture and behavior model. The configuration of home space under the same culture contains the obvious generational features. In the process of globalization and modernization, the home space maintains a constant with the traditions, a transformation to show innovation. The spatial boundary of internal and outside holy and civic, owner and visitor, female and male are constructed by the configuration of home.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution and Regional Connection of Online Consumption: A Case Study on Jingdong Mall
    Guang-liang XI, Feng ZHEN, Min ZHANG, Gang YIN, Jin-liang JIANG
    2015, 35 (11):  1372-1380.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1372
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    With the development of Internet and information technologies, the e-commerce economics has raised sharply in China, which drives online consumption increasing rapidly. Online consumption gradually becomes the new growth force of regional economics. Regarding the backgrounds supporting the economic and social development are not same in different regions, so the developments of online consumption are different with different regions. The online shopping consumer of Jingdong mall is taken as example in this article, to research its tempo-spatial evolution tendency and regional connection of online consumption, so as to provide some theoretical and practical evidences for the distribution of online shopping enterprises. The indices of the total number of online consumer, the number of online consumer per 10 000 people, coefficient of variation and the Theil coefficient are adopted to analyze the evolution tendency of online consumption in different regions. With the data of online consumer, we tried to explain the spatial and temporal distribution of online consumption as well as the evolutional regulation. The results show that the increasing of online consumption can be divided into two different stages: the online consumption increased slowly in the first stage (from 2003 to 2007), but the spatial differences of online consumption between different provinces increased in this stage. In the second stage (from 2007 to 2011) the online consumption grew rapidly, but the spatial differences began to decrease. The analysis with the “three belts” revealed that the growth of online consumption in Eastern China was faster than that in Central and Western China. The results of the model of regional connection intensity indicated that the intensities of spatial connection of online consumption in Western and Central China are obviously weaken than that in Eastern China, but the network of regional connection became balance from imbalance. More attention should be paid on the online consumption and regional connection in Western China. Several indices, such as economic development, residential income, the level of urbanization, social consumption, the level of informatization as well as the operation and logistics distribution of e-commerce enterprise, are adopted to analyze the influencing mechanisms of online consumption. Residential income is the leading factor which decides the online consumption difference between different regions. With the continual development of online consumption, the level of informatization becomes the key factor which influences the regional online consumption. Meanwhile, the distribution of self-built logistics system determinates the network structure of online consumption connection between regions. The research on the overall development evolution tendency and regional connection of online consumption can help to understand the relationship between the online consumption and the physical consumption in different regions, which could provide certain guide for the local development of online retailer enterprise and social consumption development.

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    Spatio-temporal Changes of Population Distribution at Sub-district Level in Jiangsu Province
    Bing-qing CHE, Fang-dao QIU
    2015, 35 (11):  1381-1387.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1381
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    Since the reform and opening up, the large-scale migration in China has caused dramatic changes in population distribution, which has become a hot research field of human geography. Spatial pattern of population distribution has a typical character of scale dependency. Fine-scale estimation of the population distribution has been a huge challenge in the field of population geography. In China, sub-district is the finest administrative unit in official population census data. Thus, population density data at township level can be used to describe and characterize the population spatial pattern and changes elaborately, and support the optimized layout plan of Chinese population and government policy decision making. Sub-district boundaries across 13 cities in Jiangsu Province had been collected in this study. The national population census data were spatially joined to the boundary layer for population density calculation. Based on the fifth and sixth population censuses, using exploratory spatial data analysis, interpolation methods and semivariogram, the space differentiation and temporal variation of population density of all sub-districts in Jiangsu Province in 2000-2010 are explored, and further, the evolutionary mechanism of it is discussed. The results are reported as follows. In spatial distribution, the population density of Jiangsu Province was characterized by concave shaped structure, urban-rural dual structure, and core-periphery structure. Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou metropolitan area had the most widely dense population, and Nanjing City circle had the highest population density. In the evolution, the space differentiation of population density was becoming ever more obvious. Population density in the south of Jiangsu was generally increasing, but most towns’ population density was declining in the northern area. The variation of population density was presented spatial inequality. In evolutionary mechanism, spatial continuity and self-organization of population density have been intensified, and the spatial form of population density changed from decentralization in the initial stage to centralization. Additionally, the structural difference resulted from spatial association has become more and more obvious. The changes of population distribution were influenced mainly by policy and economic factors. First, regional strategies played a guiding role in the population distribution changes. Secondly, economic development reshaped the population distribution, and the population density had a significant positive correlation with economic density. Thirdly, location difference was the determinant. At last but not the least, physical geography difference had also affected the layout in a certain extent. This study expanded the research scale and dimension of the research in population geography research in China. The resulted population density dataset in 2000 and 2010 is expected to enrich the baseline data resources for population geography development in China.

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    Effective Measure and Influence Factors Analysis in the Urban Economy Transition of 15 Deputy Provincial Cities of China
    Ze-yu WANG, Zhen ZHANG, Zeng-lin HAN, Cai-zhi SUN
    2015, 35 (11):  1388-1396.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1388
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    At present, the world is progressing toward the economic recovery of the international financial crisis, which is also a major adjustment period in the international industrial division pattern, as well as the focus of the world economy and the contrast of economic power. The overall economic growth of advanced economies remains relatively weak. At the same time, with the rapid development of the economy and urbanization process of China since the implementation of the Reform and Opening-up, the high resource environment load, along with contradictions among urban, resources, environment and economic development, has forced us to deepen economic reform and transformation. It is of great significance for the urban economic transformation process to promote regional economic growth, as well as the quality and efficiency of the economic development. This article, based on the connotation of urban economic transformation, takes the 15 deputy provincial cities of China as the research object, builds an index system which includes four dimensions, and undertakes research on the effects of urban economic transformation in China from 2000 to 2012 by means of the fuzzy matter element model based on comprehensive weight and the European approach degree comprehensive evaluation method. Then the article analyzes the temporal and spatial differences based on the results, by using the kernel density estimation model, thereby revealing the inner change rules, and determining the following conclusions: 1) The low-value areas’ development speed accelerates, while the high-value areas show a slow trend from 2000 to 2012 in the economic transformation of China. However, the overall pattern presents a good transition state, and the regional gap is narrowing. In 2005, especially after the 2008 financial crisis, the effects of urban economic transformation have been abating. 2) At the dimension level, urban economic development maintains a steady improvement, but the spatial pattern does not change significantly. At the same time, the expansion of economic scale, optimization of economic structure and degree of economic development show positive trends in the space, and the effects of transformation are obvious. In addition, the economic benefits of improving degree in the space shows a reverse rotary trend, which indicates that the implementation of the government policies in the process of transition exhibit a time-delay effect, and the transformation also produces a crowding-out effect of the society employment, which has a significant impact on the social investment and consumption, as well as the income of the residents. 3) The spatio-temporal evolution of urban economic transformation is the result of a large amount of factors. The historical basic factors lay the foundation for urban economic transformation, and the enhance power factors inject vitality into the urban economic transformation, while the interaction between the two factors jointly determines the current status of the economic transformation. The future of the urban economic transformation factors will be composed of the development ability in the region and the administrative factor. At the macro level, the administrative leading factor has a guiding effect on the economy; while at the micro level, urban development ability plays a core role, and the strategic positioning and improvement of the system and mechanism are important factors also affecting the urban economic transformation.

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    The Transportation Industry Response Mechanism Driven by the Tourism in Zhangjiajie
    Zhao-feng WANG, Yao LUO
    2015, 35 (11):  1397-1403.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1397
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    Based on pressure-state-response (PSR) analysis theory framework, the article establishes a concept model to analyze mechanism of transportation response in tourism development. In it, firstly the conception of “the coefficient of tourism traffic intensity of the response” was brought in, secondly the Zhangjiajie transportation response model driven by tourism was set up, and finally the path was put forward that the regional tourism development puts a certain pressure on the development of transportation, and the transportation construction must respond to tourism development by increasing investment mechanism and cater to tourism development. Thus, tourism and transportation form a coordinated development of the relationship. Using the relevant regional statistical data from 1998 to 2011, we analyze the regional tourism traffic intensity of response through the model and response measure. The study finds that the coefficient of this regional tourism traffic response, on the whole, shows a rising trend from 1998 to 2011, which means that the coupling degree of tourism system and transportation system in this area shows an increasing trend, and the impact of tourism development on traffic construction investment are enhancing through the establishment of mechanism analysis model. This article further explores the influence of regional tourism traffic intensity of response mechanism, and the result is that this upward trend is influenced by four main factors including the regional economic development level, traffic construction foundation, the spatial structure of tourism resource development, and tourism industry status. Given that, the four ones, which work together, generate the response mechanism for the development of tourism.

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    Residents’ Environmental Identity and Support for Tourism Development of Peripheral Areas:A Case Study of Lugu Lake Scenic Spot
    Xing-fu LU, Lin LU
    2015, 35 (11):  1404-1411.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1404
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    Peripheral areas are far away from the centre of population and economy, and at a disadvantage in the development of many fields. Many of these areas are characterized by lower agricultural income, less population, shortage of local investment and so on. Because of the fragile ecological environment and economic environment, later tourism developments and also easily affected by various factors from modernization, these areas have attracted domestic and foreign tourism researchers’ much attention in resent years. The article assumes that environmental identity significantly correlates to residents’ identity of tourism development in these areas, and it will influence attitudes to tourism impacts and residents’ support. This is of great importance to fragile environment in peripheral areas, and then it would facilitate the residents’ support for tourism to be a strong development momentum the tourism sustainable development. The study takes Lugu Lake as a typical case of tourism destination of peripheral areas. The methods of closed questionnaire and structured interview are adopted to collect information of residents’ environmental identity, attitudes of tourism impact and support. Subjects were those administrative villages or natural villages around the lake with developed tourism. Multistage sampling is adopted to select households and then respondents. Semantic differential scale consisted of seven bipolar statements were used to measure environmental recognition, responses range from 1 to 5. 1 represents agreement with one bipolar statement and 5 reflected agreement with the other extreme. And attitudes to tourism impacts and support were measured by 22 items asking residents their level of attitudes and support with specific forms of tourism development on a 1-5 Likert scaling where 1 represented ‘strongly disagree’ and 5 represented ‘strongly agree’. To detect scale dimensionality, an exploratory factor analysis with principal component method was conducted for each construct. And then stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to test the proposed model and hypothesized relationships. Results indicate that there is a direct negative relationship between environmental identity and residents’ attitudes towards the positive impacts of tourism, and a positive relationship between residents’ attitudes to the positive impacts of tourism and residents’ support for tourism, and a directly negative relationship between environmental identity and residents’ support for tourism. The main reason lies in the high environmental identity and residents’ stronger attitudes to the positive impacts of tourism. Findings confirm that residents’ environmental identity of these areas is relatively high, and residents remain relatively cautious on the development of tourism. The residents’ support for tourism also depends on the attitude of residents towards positive impact on tourism, instead of negative attitude. Residents’ attention on the positive impact of tourism on culture is slightly larger than the economic impact of tourism. Therefore, the tourism development of peripheral areas should avoid some issues such as environmental damage and excessive commercialization in the tourism development process of the central areas, and take environmental protection, shared interests, and overall planning as principles to achieve sustainable development of tourism.

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    Economic Differences in the Demonstration Area of the Southern Anhui International Cultural Tourism
    Wen-hai HU, Hai-feng CHENG, Fei-fei YU
    2015, 35 (11):  1412-1418.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1412
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    It is of great significance to accelerate the development of the Demonstration Area of the Southern Anhui International Cultural Tourism under the circumstance of rapid tourism economy development in China today. It can help promote the regional coordinated development, accelerate the transformation of economic mode, carry forward the fine traditional Chinese culture, and advance the construction of a better Anhui Province. By using such methods as Range, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation, the Gini Coefficient, the Herfindahl Coefficient and the Primacy Index, with the domestic tourism revenue, international tourism receipts and total tourism revenue of each city in the Demonstration Area in 2000-2013 as the research object, the article aims at revealing spatial and temporal characteristics of regional differences of tourism economy in the demonstration area so as to provide the basis for its coordinated and sustainable development. The results are as follows. First, the scale of tourism development in the area is unbalanced, with absolute differences among regional cities being big and their relative differences being reduced. Second, disparities of domestic tourism revenue among regional cities are less than those of the international tourism income. Third, the Gini Coefficient of domestic tourism revenue and total tourism income in 2000-2013 in the demonstration area is in a relatively reasonable range, ranging from 0.30 to 0.41, while the Gini coefficient of international tourism receipts changes from 0.50 to 0.67, showing that the gap is big, or even very huge. Finally, as for domestic tourism revenue and total tourism income, the urban primacy index in the first two cities varies from 1.2 to 2.2, with the top first city having more stable scale advantages than the second one. When it comes to international tourism receipts, the primacy index has been about 1.5 in the recent years and been between 3.0 and 9.5 in the other years, showing that the first city forms an absolute overwhelming size advantage over the second one. By analyzing the causes of economic differences of tourism in International Tourism and Culture Demonstration Zone in the Southern Anhui Province, it shows that economic scales of regional tourism bears a close relationship with endowments of tourism resources, tourism infrastructure, geographic traffic conditions, support of government policies and local economic growth.

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    Environmental Effect of Tourism Waste in Ancient Town: Case Study of Zhouzhuang, Jinxi, Qiandeng
    Hong ZHANG, Guo-lin HOU, Zhen-fang HUANG, Ye-lin FANG, Wei TU
    2015, 35 (11):  1419-1428.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1419
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    According to different life cycle stages of the three ancient towns (Zhouzhuang, Jinxi, Qiandeng), the article selects five variable indicators (waste water, excrement, solid waste, SO2 and NOx) and per capita income of monthly time series data from 2009 to 2013, uses Eviews 6.0 measurement software, and tests the environmental Kuznets curve fitting of tourism waste. The results are shown as follows. 1) There are differences between tourism waste emissions and per capita income in ancient town of different life cycle stages. The "U" curve relationship, "U" curve relationship and monotonically linear relationship existed between waste water, excrement and solid waste emissions and per capita income in the relatively mature stage of Zhouzhuang. The inflection point of "U" curve of waste water emissions is 28 197.63 t, the inflection point of "U" curve of excrement emissions is 10.82 t, and per capita income Ln(R) increased by 1%, solid waste emissions Ln(L) would increase by 0.051% of Zhouzhuang; Corresponding indicators showed the "inverted U" curve relationship, "N" type curve relationship and "N" type curve relationship in the stable development stage of Jinxi. The inflection point of "inverted U" curve of waste water emissions is 13 741.46 t, the two inflection points of "N" type curve of excrement emissions were 5.80 t and 5.54 t, the two inflection points of "N" type curve of solid waste emissions were 125.90 t and 124.81 t of Jinxi; Corresponding indicators showed the monotonically linear relationship, "inverted U" curve relationship and linear rise in the rapid development stage of Qiandeng. Per capita income Ln(R) increased by 1%, waste water emissions Ln(Ws) would increase by 0.124%, the inflection point of "inverted U" curve of excrement emissions is 12.15 t, per capita income Ln(R) increased by 1%, solid waste emissions Ln(L) would increase by 0.017% of Qiandeng; The environmental impact is small of waste gas in three ancient town. 2) One-way Granger causality relationship existed between tourism economic development and environmental quality change in the ancient towns with different life cycle stages. Per capita income was respectively the Granger cause of waste water, excrement and solid waste emissions, but waste water, excrement and solid waste emissions were not the Granger cause of per capita income in the three ancient towns. 3) The environmental impact of tourism waste are different in ancient town of different life cycle stages. Water environment index COD and NH3-N showed a trend of decline, there was no significant difference between the interannual of TP in Zhouzhuang. There were no significant differences between the interannual of COD and NH3-N in Jinxi. COD decreased significantly since 2009, NH3-N showed a trend of increase, TP showed a trend of decline in Qiandeng. 4) Strengthening tourism waste management is the key factor to realize sustainable development of ancient town tourism.

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    Research on the Spatial Structure and Spatial Development Patterns of Urban Tourism Economic Connections of Heilongjiang Province-Focus on the Perspective of Social Network
    Hong-yan YU, Qiu-yu LI, Lin MEI, Ji-sheng LIU
    2015, 35 (11):  1429-1436.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1429
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    Based on the gravity model, using social network theory and methods, with ucinet6.0 software architecture spatial structure model and tourism economic connections evaluation, this article analyzes the tourism economic connection degree of 12 prefecture-level cities in Heilongjiang Province, discusses the features of spatial structure through centrality of node, structural holes, network density, centralization, core-periphery model, and the role of division, eventually builds a the hierarchical structure and spatial development patterns of the tourism destination. The results showed that: 1) tourism economic connection network of cities in Heilongjiang is intensive in southwest and southeast while sparse in north and northeast in 2007-2012. Network density, degree centrality and close to the center turn to grow, but the level of structural holes and betweeness centrality of major cities fell, and more nodes occupied more structural holes in the network. Cyberspace structure turns gradually from a loose state to close one, and from unbalanced development to balanced one. 2) Cyberspace includes an obvious structural core area and an edge area, which is subdivided into 4 groups to clarify the role of urban node status and property. 3) Tourism in cities of Heilongjiang can be divided into four levels: the core tourist destination, major tourist destination, general tourist destination and periphery tourist destination, showing the spatial structure of the network with a development model of "a core, two wings, three axes and three circles".

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    Review on Editing and Publishing Research of Geography Journals in China
    Xin ZHAO
    2015, 35 (11):  1437-1443.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1437
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    Based on the literature of editing and publishing research of geography journals, this article firstly presents the characteristics of China’s journal development, including development of geography journal groups, core journals and English journals, as well as comparisons of geography journals at home and abroad. Then we make a statistical analysis of the papers published in major geography journals, papers related to human geography, and papers cited in core journals. Finally, we summarize what the Chinese geography editors have done in some aspects such as journal and geographical development, manuscript topic and idea creation, editing quality enhancement, plagiarism and duplication prevention, and computer and network application to editing and publishing. Some conclusions can be drawn in this study: Chinese geographers, especially editors, have done much research on the development and comparison of geography journals of China and other countries. In recent years, the number of papers focusing on the development of geography journals has been increasing. The geography journal editors not only are engaged in word editing, but also record the achievements obtained in Chinese geographical research. Meanwhile, they have been tracking the international trend of disciplinary development. Hence, in the past decades, the Chinese geography editors have made their due contributions to improving academic quality, leading the disciplinary orientation, promoting academic exchange, and perfecting the evaluation system of science periodicals.

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    Reach on Chinese Central City Impervious Surface Area Growth Pattern in Recent 20 Years: Take Nanchang as a Case
    Zhi LI, ZONG-qiang WEI, Ya-jing LIU, Zhao CHEN
    2015, 35 (11):  1444-1451.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1444
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    Impervious surface Area (ISA) is an artificial surface as the specific components, mainly by the hard road, parking lot, a square and a roof and other buildings composition in the city. Because isolation of surface water infiltration into the soil, impervious surface can cut the urban surface and subsurface hydrological connection. It is regarded as important elements on process of urban hydrological cycle, thermal cycling, local climate and biodiversity changes, has become an important indicator of urbanization healthy and quality of the city growth. So it increasingly becomes a hot research issues in geography, ecology, urban planning, environmental science and remote sensing information in recent years in China. But the long-term monitoring and longitudinal comparison of impervious surface is a challenging work. Based on the exited correlation between typical samples’ impervious rate, an innovation research method that we called it Reference model of Typical Samples (RTM) was constructed and used to do comparison of impervious surface in historical yearin this article. Besides, the paper examines the impervious surface area growth pattern in recent 20 years in Nanchang main urban areawas applying of Constraint Linear Spectral Unmixing Method(CLSUM). This study shows that the overall development shows the impervious surface area percentage (ISP) increases obviously in Nanchang main urban area in recent 20 years with the percentage of annual increase on 0.09% and the area of annual increase on 32 hatches. The growth pattern shows “decentralized-concentration-diffusion” expanding mode in study area, with the transition of impervious surface high-growth area from urban centers to urban fringe district. The preexisting dominant “road extending” developing mode is gradually transformed into “Satellite filling” mode and “Sporadic enclave” mode, with its contribution of ISP from 23% in 1995 to 11% in 2014 and at the same time Satellite &Sporadic enclavemode contribution to study area ISP from 63% to 71%. From the macro view, the impervious surface pattern evolution was affected by the development of social economy and the spreading of convenient engineering technology and materials. On the micro level, this kind of surface changing is also impacted by land policy, urban planning and the investment of urban construction, et al. The present study found that the excessive growth of impervious surface can be effectively reduced by: 1) Rationally planning city expansion; 2) Paying more attention to the excessive growth of construction land in suburban areas; 3) Promoting the use of green permeable building materials; 4) Developing the new construction technology used for improving permeability. The before-and-after comparison of the impervious surface pattern can be unified into a bench mark by joint applying of RTM and CLSUM, with elimination of certain errors. So the reference model of typical samples lays an analyzing foundation for the long-term monitoring and comparing of urban impervious surface changing.

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    Spatial and Temporal Differentiation of Ecological Vulnerability Under the Frequency of Natural Hazard Based on SRP Model: A Case Study in Chaoyang County
    Yong-hua LI, Qiang FAN, Xue WANG, Jian-chao XI, Shi-yang WANG, Jun YANG
    2015, 35 (11):  1452-1459.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1452
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    Based on the characteristics of ecological environment in Chaoyang county of Liaoning Province, this essay studies the ecological vulnerability within Chaoyang county in 2003, 2006 , 2009 and 2012 by utilizing SRP (Sensitivity-Recovery-Pressure) model with meteorological data such as rainfall, RS data and soil data, DEM(Digital Elevation model) data and so on to determine ecological pressure factor including the pressure of Population activity and economic activity, ecological sensitivity factor including the earth surface factor, meteorological factor and soil factor, ecological stability factor including landscape structure, ecological function and ecological energy , based on GIS. The results are as follows: 1) The ecological vulnerability in Chaoyang county is in decline in 2003, 2006 and 2009, and reverses in 2012. Among these four years, the area where the ecology is lightly vulnerable in 2006 and 2009 is decreasing by 15.99% and 10.86% respectively, compared with that in 2003 and 2006, while the area where the ecology is lightly, moderately, heavily and extremely vulnerable in 2006 and 2009 is on the increase at various paces, compared with that in 2003 and 2006 respectively; 2) In all of these four years the area where the ecology is seriously vulnerable is mainly located in such region where the industry is developed and highly populated, and where the elevation is quite high; 3) Victory village is the most vulnerable region in ecology, where the extremely(14.15%), heavily(10.26%) and moderately(8.84%) vulnerable areas are located most, while Qidaoling village is the less vulnerable region, with 6.42% is slightly vulnerable.

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    Applicability of Different Probability Distributions to Estimated Extreme Rainfall
    Yu-hu ZHANG, Chen-xi WANG, Kai-li LIU, Qiu-hua CHEN
    2015, 35 (11):  1460-1467.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1460
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    Heavy precipitation is a crucial nature factor of flood. The return period of the extreme value of precipitation depth is the most significant reference of the design standard of flood prevention facilities in an urban or a basin. In this article, the series of annual, summer and winter maxima of precipitation depths for 1-day, 2-day and 3-day durations measured at ten selected stations in China are analyzed, using five commonly used hydrological statistical distribution functions. The distribution functions applicable for these stations were measured using the Kolmogorov Smirnov (K-S) and the Anderson Darling (A-D) tests. The results show that: 1) The summer maxima series shows higher standard deviation and larger differences between distributions than other maxima series and the annual maxima occur mostly in summer; 2) The Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, the lognormal (LN) distribution and the Pearson III distribution perform were better in the imitative effect test of goodness of fit, and the degree of curve difference is smaller; 3) Differences between estimates of rainfall with return periods were shorter than 25 years are smaller; 4) Estimates of precipitation can change significantly depending on the probability distribution being used, particularly for the summer series; 5) Suitability curves present seasonal difference. By statistical analysis of precipitation maxima, the precipitation is concentrated in summer; due to the disperse and skewness of precipitation series, and the appropriate distribution functions are quite different in different season periods; 6) In some extreme rainfall sequences, two curves of linear fitting are almost the same. Even if the return period extending to 100 years, the difference quantity of two curves is only a few millimeters. In this situation, the results of small probability rainfall events are more reliable; 7) There are differences among 1-day, 2-day and 3-day durations of precipitation depths, the probability distribution of 1-day maximum precipitation fits better. When carrying out statistical analysis of hydro-meteorological extremes, various probability distribution function and test methods should be taken for calculating, to reduce the uncertainty of single calculation. In this study, experimental analysis of 10 sites demonstrated that the Pearson III is not suitable for all sites. It is suggested here that the estimation of extreme precipitation should take into consideration the range of extreme values estimated by the best-fit distributions identified by more than one test as an approach to assess uncertainties related to extreme rainfall analysis.

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    The Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Climate Change in North-South Transect of Northeast Asia
    Xin-liang XU, Mei-yan ZHAO, Luo LIU, Teng-jiao GUO
    2015, 35 (11):  1468-1474.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1468
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    Northeast Asia is an area with relatively concentrated resources, complex ecological environment pattern, diverse climate condition, significant relationship between people and land resources. The climate change in North Asia not only directly affects the local ecosystem succession, resource exploitation and economic development, but also plays an extremely important role on global climate change and the ecological balance. In this research, we choose the North-south transect of Northeast Asia as the study area,and make systematic analysis of the spatio-temporal characteristics of climate changeduring the past 30 years by means of statistical analysis, linear trend analysis and accumulative anomaly curve method and used the temperature and precipitation daily observation data of NCDC meteorological stations. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) North-south gradient zonal differentiation of temperature and precipitation issignificant inthe North-south transect of Northeast Asia. From north to south, the temperature and precipitation gradually increased. 2) During 1980-2010, the periodic changes of temperature and precipitation are very obvious. Temperature overallentered the warm phase after 1996, and precipitation showed reduction in south and increase in north in the spatial differentiation pattern. 3) The temperature changes mainly showed warming trend. The significant warming zones with annual increase rate of more than 0.05℃/a, occurred in the following areas: the northwest and south of the subarctic coniferous forest zone, temperate desert zone, central area of temperate steppe zone, and west area of the temperate mixed forest zone. 4) The spatial differences of precipitation changes are significant. The areas with the annual precipitation reduction rate of more than 5 mm/a are in the following areas: temperate steppe zone, temperate desert zone and the southwest region of temperate mixed forest zone. And the area with the annual precipitation increase rate of more than 5 mm/a are in the following area: western area of arctic tundra zone, northwestern and southern area of subarctic coniferous forest zone and southeastern regions of temperate mixed forest zone. The analysis of spatial and temporal characteristics of climate changesin North-South Transect of Northeast Asianot only provides a scientific basis for the future climate change studies of the whole Northeast Asia, but also has important significance to guide the human society and economic activity to adapt to the impact of climate change.

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    The Magnetic Characteristics Comparison of Sedimentary Red Clay and Laterite Weathering Crust in Subtropical China
    Li-hui YANG, Wei YE, Xiang-min ZHENG, Li-min ZHOU, You SU
    2015, 35 (11):  1475-1481.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1475
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    Kind of red, loose or semi-cemented sediment was widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of China, called Quaternary Red Clay (QRC). The causes and definitions of QRC were argued intensely. Depends on matrix, the QRC can be broadly divided into two types, Sedimentary Red Clay (SRC) and Laterite Weathering Crust (LWC). The SRC, development on all kinds of Quaternary sediments, always got similar profile configuration. The layer of SRC profile, from top to bottom, was Homogeneous Red Clay (HRC) or Yellow-Brown Earth (YBE), Vermicular Red Clay (VRC) and weathered gravel or bedrock; LWC was a kind of residual soil, formed by different types of bedrock weathering and widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Representative LWC profile was generally contained weathered red soil, semi-weathered layer and bedrock. In this article, magnetic characteristics of basalt and granite weathering crust in Xinchang, Zhejiang Province, Quaternary SRC in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province were analyzed. The main characteristics of LWC are that, magnetic characteristics distinction of two kinds of weathering crust in the same climate zone was relatively large and the magnetic characteristics were determined by the matrix; Magnetisability of basalt weathering crust increased after a small decrease with the increasing weathering intensity; Magnetisability of granite weathering crust increased with increasing weathering intensity. Intense weathering made mineral particles tapering and antiferromagnetic minerals reduce in these two kinds of weathering crust. The main characteristics of sedimentary red clay were that, magnetisability of HRC was greater than VRC at least one order of magnitude. The content of antiferromagnetic mineral in VRC was much greater than the HRC. The content of Pseudo-Single Domain and Multidomain grain in VRC was much greater than the HRC. The magnetic characteristics change rule in SRC did not meet with the weathering rule prove that maybe HRC and VRC got different provenance in Quaternary sedimentary red clay profile.

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    The Applicability of LS Factor Value from Different Algorithms in Wohushan Reservior Basin
    Gang HU, Hui SONG, Xing-jun SHI, Xu-liang ZHANG, Hai-yan FANG
    2015, 35 (11):  1482-1488.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1482
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    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) model and its principal derivative and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model have been widely used in the past decades. However, the use of USLE and RUSLE has been limited by the inability to generate reliable estimates of the LS factor. Several different LS factor algorithms from the previous studies were briefly summarized in this article and their applicability was evaluated in Wohushan reservoir basin. According to the Agriculture Handbook No. 703 and 537 of US Agriculture Department, the LS-values in McCool's table are the same as the LS algorithms in USLE/RUSLE. Although there is some regional heterogeneity in the specific regional applications for LS calculations, the difference is very limited within a certain slope length and slope gradient. Based on these reasons, the LS-values from McCools are primarily preferred as the reference value. There are four basic LS algorithms which were Remortal, Moore, Desmet and B?hner used to be compared with reference value. In addition, two revised algorithms, i.e. the improved iterative Remortal algorithm and complex algorithm, were presented. The slope-length exponent (m) in the former algorithm was revised from low rill/interrill ratio class to moderate class. The complex algorithm was composed of L-factor and S-factor from different research, of which the latter was from the above mentioned improved algorithm of Remortel and S-factor was made up of S algorithm from McCool and that of Liu BY. In this article, the LS values of the six above algorithms were compared with that of McCools by RMSE (the Root Mean Square Error), the correlation coefficient and the slope of the regression equation. The results indicated that, other than the improved algorithm of Remortel and the complex algorithm, the LS-value obtained by different algorithms are all less than that of reference value. It is also found that the optimal algorithm in the study area is the improved iterative algorithm of Remortel, followed by both the AML program of LS factor from RUSLE Version 4 of Remortel and the complex algorithm. The B?hner’s algorithm could also be used in this area. However, the algorithms from Moore and Desmet were recommended not to use in the study area because of their relatively higher RMSEs and relatively poor correlation coefficients.

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    Characteristics of Color in Chaona Section and Its Paleoclimatic Significance During the Last Glacial-interglacial Cycle
    Qian-suo WANG, You-gui SONG, Ji-jun LI, Zhi-jun ZHAO, Pei RONG
    2015, 35 (11):  1489-1494.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2015.011.1489
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    The loess-paleosol sequences on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) record the evolution of East Asian Monsoon. Soil color, a sensitive proxy of paleoclimate, has long been used for soil identification and qualitative determination of soil characteristics. Meanwhile it is also used as an indicator of field soil physics, chemical and biological properties as well as of occurrence of soil process. Here we focus on the characteristics and significance of soil color of Chaona loess-paleosol Sequence in CLP since the last Interglacial period. The study area is located near the town of Chaona (35°7′N,107°12′E) in the central CLP. The loess deposit of sequence is 175 m thick and contains 33 paleosol units. The paleosol within the loess is brownish or reddish with substantial clay skins developed and carbnate nodules are scattered commonly below the soils. Our attention has been given to studies of the last glacial-interglacial cycle and the overlying Holocene paleosol (S0). The last glacial loess (L1) consists of two primary loess units (L1LL1 and L1LL2), separated by a weak soil complex (L1SS). And the last interglacial paleosol (S1) can be further divided into three subunits, including two moderate developed paleosol complexes (S1SS1 and S1SS2) and a loess horizon (S1LL). We compared chromatic indexes with magnetic susceptibility. The results indicated that lightness L* can be good correlation with the ratio of Hm and Gt that reflects the precipitation. Lightness L* has a positive correlation with the ratio of Hm and Gt in since the last glacial period, but there is obvious negative correlation between lightness L* and the ratio of Hm and Gt during the last interglacial period. Meanwhile we find that a positive correlation exists between a* and the ratio of Hm and Gt in the section, which reflects hydrothermal conditions in the soil development period. The value of b* primarily influenced by the content of Gt can be used together with χlf in order to reproduce the development degree of the soil. In contrast to magnetic susceptibility, chroma indexes from S1 paleosol are characterized by high-frequency and high-amplitude variations, which also documents the weak loess-paleosol sequences during the last interglacial period (S1). Furthermore, a* and b* are the major factors that influences L* value significantly. Therefore, Chroma index, a proxy that documents the sensitive and great evidence of climate variations, can be used to develop the complementary study with magnetic susceptibility, which can reconstruct the process of paleoclimate reasonably and reliably.

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