Table of Content

    12 February 2018, Volume 38 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Redevelopment of Residential Land and the Densification of Inner City Admist Transition: Revisiting the Case of Jinhua Neighbourhood in Guangzhou
    Youliang Guo, Xun Li
    2018, 38 (2):  161-167.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.001
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    This article studies the effects of residents' demands and municipal government's value preference in policy-making on the space of inner city in urban regeneration. Through the case study of Jinhua Neighbourhood redevelopment project in Guangzhou, this study analyses the process of redevelopment plan adjustment and the resultant spatial characteristics under the dominance of municipal government, and attributes the high redevelopment FAR to local residents' demands for livelihoods and municipal government's people-oriented redevelopment arrangements. Specifically, based on the redevelopment framework of quasi-market financing and welfare-oriented housing demolition and resettlement, requirements being made on developers by the municipal government regarding the provision of public service facilities as well as the offering of interim houses and subsidies and on-site resettlement to relocated residents have in turn forced the municipal government to increasingly raise the redevelopment FAR to keep the redevelopment economics in equilibrium. In the aspects of buildings and populations, the Jinhua Neighbourhood redevelopment represents a densification of space, namely, an urban social spatial phenomenon about infilling on-site resettlement buildings with financing buildings, and infilling on-site resettlement populations with house buyers, which indicates that the Jinhua Neighbourhood redevelopment is by no means a process of gentrification featured by the local indigenous people being edged out of their community by the middle-class group. In the end, this article puts forward some suggestions on current urban policy of Guangzhou.

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    Spatial Characteristics and Econometric Test of Industrial Agglomeration and Pollutant Emissions in China
    Zhiqiang Hu, Jianming Miao, Changhong Miao
    2018, 38 (2):  168-176.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.002
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    Since the reform and opening, industrialization has promoted the rapid growth of China’s economy. However, the industrial pollution made by industrial development has caused a great pressure on the environment and a series of environmental problems. The relationship between industrial scale and industrial pollutant emissions will be different due to the difference of regional development stage, industrial structure, technological level and pollution control. The total amount of industrial pollutant emissions in China is very different, and there exists an obvious mismatch between industrial pollutant emissions and industrial agglomeration level. This research focuses on the following questions: What is the spatial distribution of industrial agglomeration and industrial pollutant emissionsin China? What is their spatial correlation? By using the methods of gravity analysis of geographic concentration, spatial correlation, econometric model, and the data of 285 cities in China from 2003 to 2013, this article studied the spatial distribution characteristics and spatial correlation of industrial agglomeration and emissions of industrial wastewater and industrial SO2, and examined the role of industrial agglomeration level on industrial pollutant emissions. The main conclusions are as following: 1) The gravity center of industrial agglomeration and pollutant emissions is different in distribution, trajectory, distance and speed. The gravity center of industrial agglomeration level first shifted north and then southward. The gravity center of industrial waste water is moving southward. The industrial SO2 pollution shows the “S” movement trajectory. The gravity center of industrial agglomeration level moves longer and faster. 2) The industrial concentration level in the eastern region is higher than that in the middle and western region, and the intensity of industrial pollutant emissions is more prominent in the western and middle region. 3) There is a negative correlation between industrial agglomeration level and industrial pollutant emission intensity, there exists three types of spatial match between the level of industrial pollutant emission intensity and industrial agglomeration, which are high-low, low-high and low-low. 4) Industrial agglomeration is beneficial to reduce industrial pollutant emissions in the whole country and different regions. Industrial agglomeration has a greater effect on industrial pollutant emission reduction in the western and middle than in the east region. 5) To control industrial pollutant emission, China should continue to promote the industrial agglomeration and take different measures according to local conditions. In eastern China, efforts should be made to the control of the scale of industrial agglomeration, the optimizing of the industrial structure and the using of the positive externalities. The middle and western regions should further increase the concentration of industry, and promote the effect on emission reduction of technological spillover and technological advancements.

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    Estimates of Marine Industry Impact on Provincial Economic Growth and Its Identification of Differentiation Dynamics in 2006-2015
    Renfeng Ma, Bo Hou, Wenzhong Zhang, Haihong Yuan, Simin Dou
    2018, 38 (2):  177-185.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.003
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    By analyzing the economic impact of marine industry on coastal provinces, the arcitle examines the spatial correlation of per capita GDP, establishes a spatial econometric model, and then analyzes the spatial and temporal differentiation of the marine industry and the causes of the regional economic growth (2006-2015). Choosing the coastal provinces (cities) as the research unit. This study found that: 1) Comprehensive portrayal of the contribution rate of the marine economy to the provincial economy and the static and dynamic measurement results of marine economy promoting regional economic growth. We found that the marine economy in coastal provinces (cities) has a significant impact on provincial economic growth, and the degree of promotion is different. In addition, the contribution rate of marine economy to provincial economy in Tianjin, Shanghai, Fujian, Shandong, Guangdong and Hainan is higher than the national average rate. Further, the differences in the influence degree of the marine industry on the regional economy shows that the absolute difference between the provinces is expanding and the relative difference is shrinking, and there is significant spatial correlation. 2) The related factors of the Marine economy may give rise to the difference of provincial economic growth, we have found that the second marine industry, marine import and export trade volume both play a positive role in promoting regional economy. While the first and tertiary industries of marine economy have a hindrance to the differences in provincial economic growth. And the secondary industry of marine economy has obvious positive spillover effect on the surrounding areas, while the estimated parameters of the employment situation, the fiscal revenue and the education basic situation in the coastal areas are not significant in the spatial measurement model. 3) The results of the four spatial econometric models show that most of the explanatory variables pass the significance testing and they are in line with the actual situation. Durbin space error model estimation results overall is superior to the other models, the error of spatial Durbin model identify the Marine economy factors influencing the regional economic growth differences includes not only the neighboring regions of the economy themselves, but also the surrounding provinces of the relevant explanatory variables. Basing on the analysis of the economic growth difference and the contribution rate of the marine economy in the coastal provinces, the article draws the focus of narrowing the development gap of marine industry in the coastal provinces and cities to promote the coordinated development of China's coastal zone. That is, to cultivate the marine economic potential of provincial economic growth. Related findings are helpful for understanding the balanced development and making scientific decision-making of Marine economy in coastal cities and provinces in China.

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    Spatial-temporal Evolution of China’s Provincial Consumption and Its Influencing Factors
    Shuaibin Liu, Zaijun Li, Nianxing Zhou, Shan Yang
    2018, 38 (2):  186-194.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.004
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    Consumption is an important part of market economy. It is not only an important driving force for economic growth, but also can reflect the rationality of activities of economic production distribution and contribute to evaluating the effect of policy of regional balance development. With China's foreign trade faces increasing challenge, domestic demand has become an important driving force for economic growth. This paper analyzes the evolution of consumption level space at the provincial scale from 1978 to 2015 in China by using empirical orthogonal model (EOF). In order to effectively diagnose the impact degree of influencing factors on regional consumption level under the condition of spatial heterogeneity, this article also constructs the panel quantile regression model to explain the difference of provincial consumption level. The results showed that: 1) Consumption level space presents significantly clustered trend in east-west and south-north, especially in east-west. However, this phenomenon is not permanent; it will vary or be conversed with time. During this process, the policy of consumption and regional development play an important role. Since the reform and opening up in 1978, the policy that government encouraging eastern coastal areas in China take the lead in development, make the pattern of China’s consumption level changed around 1994. After world financial crisis in 2008, the government’s policy of expanding domestic demand has promoted the further differentiation of the consumption level pattern. 2) The result of panel quintile regression reveals the complexity mechanisms of consumption, not only the effects of different influencing factors are different, but also the effect of same influencing factor is different in different regions and period. The effects of influencing factor are different in different regions of consumption level and different period. The developments of second and third industries are the main influencing factors of regional consumption level, especially for the low consumption areas after 1994. The effect of traffic convenience on consumption is improving. The total volume of import and export has significantly positive effect on consumption in two periods, its effect is better in high level of consumption in recently. Although the ratio of employees to total population has only significantly positive effect on the high level of consumption, the influence degree is improving. Urbanization has significantly positive effect on consumption, but the trend of influence degree vary as “U” type with the level of regional consumption levels. 3) For the high level of consumption area, the measures should be aimed to improve the quality of industrial development, the quality of employment and international circulation of commodities. For low level of consumption area, the measures should be aimed to expand the industrial scale, transportation network, employment scale. At last, governments should strength integration of urban and rural, release the consumption potential of rural migrants, especially for the middle level consumption areas.

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    Evolution and Driving Force Detection of Urban Human Settlement Environment at Urban Agglomeration in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River
    Qingqing Yang, Jia Chen, Bohua Li, Yuanyuan Zhu
    2018, 38 (2):  195-205.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.005
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    This article follows the main line of "setting up evaluation framework→describing the evolution process→detection of core dynamics→analytical driving mechanism". In the view of the core areas about urban human settlement, such as ecological, residential, public services, leisure, this article has made a systematic study on the evolution of urban human settlements at the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, such as the spatial and temporal evolution process, the key factors and the driving mechanism, by using the methods about AHP, comprehensive fuzzy evaluation, Pearson correlation analysis. Research shows that: 1) urban human settlement comprehensive quality pattern shows a process that the quality of the northwest area has been relatively reduced and the quality of the southeast region has been gradually improved. High quality of urban human settlement gradually are concentrated in the Poyang Lake urban circle and the areas along the Beijing-Guangzhou line. 2) The pattern of ecological environment quality gradually is divided by Xiangyang-Ji’an line, and the quality of the eastern side of the dividing line is significantly better than that of the west side. The spatial and temporal patterns of living and public service environment are similar, and the leisure environment is opposite to that of the two. The main feature is residential quality and public service quality of the cities along the Beijing-Guangzhou railway line is always better than that of along the Zhejiang-Jiangxi railway line in Jiangxi, but the quality of leisure environment gradually has been inferior to the cities along the Zhejiang-Jiangxi in Jiangxi. 3) The evolution of urban human settlement is the result of multiple factors, and the object, degree and direction of each driving force are different. Among them, economic development, government investment is the dominant power of the urban human settlement evolution, the social group's revenue and expenditure is the key motive force, and the land supply and construction investment are the subordination driving forces of the present stage. In addition, the scale of the city promotes the evolution of the urban human settlement through the agglomeration and the catalysis.

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    The Coupling and Coordinating Analysis Between Aiding Tibet and Economic Development in Tibet Autonomous Region
    Chunshan Zhou, Bo Yu, Chenyi Shi, Yuqu Wang
    2018, 38 (2):  206-213.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.006
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    Aiding Tibet has a strong relationship with the economic development in Tibet Autonomous Region, so it is both theoretically and practically necessary to study the coupling and coordinating process over time and space between them when it comes to the relationship between policy and local development and the implementation and perfection of aiding Tibet work. This paper takes 74 counties (cities, districts) of Tibet Autonomous Region as investigated subjects. With the support of gray correlation analysis method, this paper analyzes the correlation and interaction between aiding Tibet and Tibetan economic development during 2000-2014 by establishing an index system for aiding Tibet in terms of five aspects, including fiscal transfer payment, infrastructure, public facilities, favor of loan, construction and installation investment along with Tibetan economic development in terms of four aspects, including economic strength, economic vitality, economic structure and rural economy. Based on the gray correlation analysis, the paper further explores the relationship between aiding Tibet and economic development by establishing the coupling degree model and coordinating index model, focusing on the coupling and coordination process and trends as well as the spatial distribution of coupling index and coordinating index. The results show that: 1) there is strong positive correlation between aiding Tibet and economic development with the correlation degree averaging from 0.687 to 0.750. The impact of financial transfer payment on the economic development is particularly significant, following by the impact of favor of loan, public facilities and infrastructure. Meanwhile, aiding Tibet has more obvious effects on economic strength and rural economy. 2) Since the 21th century, the coordinating index between aiding Tibet and economic development has been showing a rising trend, indicating the gradually coordinating trend with each other. 3) In 2014, the coupling degree of every county (city, district) is above the medium level but the coordinating index is below the medium level. Specifically, higher altitude area and border area have higher coupling degree but lower coordinating index. There exist obvious spatial differences in coupling and coordination indexes inside the Brahmaputra River and its four branches area, with higher coordinating indexes generally tending to the political and economic centers. Based on the coupling degree and coordinating index, the paper also divides Tibet Autonomous Region into four regions: better coordinating region, primary coordinating region, barely coordinating region and little coordinating region. Almost 68.919% of the counties (cities, districts) distribute in the barely coordinating region and only Chengguan district in Lhasa is the better coordinating area. Finally, some suggestion is proposed on aiding Tibet.

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    Coupling Coordination and Spatio-temporal Differentiation of Scientific and Technological Innovation and Sustainable Development in China
    Chuansong Zhao, Jianlan Ren, Yanbin Chen, Kai Liu
    2018, 38 (2):  214-222.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.007
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    'There would be no sustainable development without science', which has been proposed by UNESCO at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The relationship between scientific and technological innovation and sustainable development has become an important part of sustainable development theory. Both of them have natural interaction and mutual relations, restricting and promoting each other. Sustainable development goals can be achieved through scientific and technological innovations, and scientific and technological innovations maintain positive interaction with society for recognition and support by the concept of sustainable development. Based on Chinese relevant data about scientific and technological innovation and sustainable development from 1995 to 2014, this paper analyzes the interaction mechanism of scientific and technological innovation and sustainable development. Using entropy method, coupling coordination degree model and exploratory data analysis method, this paper analyzes the coupling degree and spatio-temporal differentiation of scientific and technological innovation and sustainable development, and comes to the following conclusion. At first, scientific and technological innovation and sustainable development shows a positive correlation and a high consistency in both sectional evolution and overall development, and the coupling coordination degree tends to rise to a stage of highly coupling and coordinating steadily. Secondly, the coupling degree of scientific and technological innovation and sustainable development shows a weak positive correlation in space, the degree of spatial agglomeration is not significant, and the spatial clustering distribution has not enhanced with time. Finally, from the perspective of spatial and temporal evolution, the local spatial autocorrelation regularity is obvious. The regional scale of HH gradually spreads, and mainly concentrates in the eastern coastal areas; LH area, which concentrates in the central and western regions, is the most extensive, and shows the situation from the scattered to the contiguous; LL regional range changes significantly with the overall shrinking trend, and the spatial distribution transits from midwest to northwest region; HL area is relatively less stable, and the scope tends to focus on the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Although the different agglomeration areas show expansion and contraction in the evolution of time and space, the general spatial pattern is high in east and low in west, and the gap between east and west is gradually narrowing. Accordingly, HH area should continue to maintain good momentum of development, and play a leading role in technology diffusion and radiation. Meanwhile, LL area should be further developed due to the policy support of the country to increase R&D investment and to focus on the introduction of technology digestion and absorption, and this area should learn advanced experience actively and dock industry shift from eastern coastal areas. With scientific and technological innovation, this area will change the development way to achieve the corner overtaking. HL and LH areas should strengthen cross-regional cooperation and enhance hard and soft power to promote coordinated development of scientific and technological innovation and sustainable development.

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    The Spatial Difference of the Intensity of Information and Capital Flow in Chinese Provincial Region: A Case Study of Mobile Phone Transactions in Jingdong Mall in 2015
    Biao Jin, Liling Yan, Jinming Sha, Zhiqiang Yao
    2018, 38 (2):  223-232.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.008
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    227 562 transaction records about mobile phones in 2015 has been fetched from Jingdong Mall website by using the web crawler in this article. Then, these records were used together with some relevant data in the China Statistical Yearbook 2015, while ArcGIS software was used to reflect some relevant information in the geographical space. Then the following content are analyzed: 1) The possible factors which may have an impact on the intensity of information flow and capital flow (for the convenience of description, the follow-up referred to as the “Two Flows”) and the space likage degree were analyzed by using SPSS and other tools; 2) The spatial difference of the “Two Flows” was studied, while the Gini coefficient was introduced to evaluate its spatial concentration; 3) The province groups have been divided according to the seven logistics centers of Jingdong Mall and their business coverage, and then the network space differences between each province/city group was analyzed; 4) The Theil index was introduced to analyze the internal differences of each province/city group. The results show that: 1) The intensity of the “Two Flows” could be affected by some factors such as the level of information infrastructure, economic development and residents’ consumption; 2) There is obvious spatial differences in the intensity of the “Two Flows”, however, from a national point of view, it has a high degree of spatial concentration, where the core active area are mainly concentrated in Guangdong, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Zhejiang and other provinces; 3) There is also a time difference in the intensity of the “Two Flows”, appearing as that the intensity in the second half of the year is much stronger than that in the first half; 4) The capital flow in the network space appears obvious stratification phenomenon and assumes the “pyramid” shape distribution: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Shandong, Sichuan, Jiangsu, Hebei, Zhejiang, Hubei, Hunan, Chongqing, Henan, Anhui, Shaanxi and other provinces are in the middle or upper layer of the “pyramid”, while western provinces and some central provinces are at the bottom; 5) From the top of the “pyramid” to the bottom, their members’ contribution to the whole capital flow reduce gradually. 6) Taken the seven province groups as a whole, there is difference in the degree of spatial linkage: the members of those groups where Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong Province included are more closely related to each other than others; 7) Thinking each province group singly, the development level of its members is unbalanced, appearing that the central provinces have the greatest contribution to the “Two Flows”; 8) The geographical distance has been replaced by the level of information infrastructure and economic development, and is no longer the main factor that affects the intensity of the “Two Flows”. In view of above analysis, this article thinks the “area responsible scheme” should be adopt to strengthen communication between the relevant provinces who are at different layers in the “pyramid”, and enhance the promotion and draw function of those provinces who at a higher layer to the lowers, thereby reducing the space differences of “Two Flows” between different provinces in intensity.

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    Spillovers Effect of the High-Speed Railway on Counties’Economic Growth:Taking Fujian Province as An Example
    Xinguang L, Anmin Huang
    2018, 38 (2):  233-241.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.009
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    Based on theoretical and empirical perspectives, this article demonstrates the impact of high-speed rail construction on the economy growth spillovers of Fujian County. At first, it theoretically proves that high-speed rail construction will bring the direct and indirect effects of economic growth. Then, we collect 2001-2014 microscopic panel data of 58 county-level cities in Fujian Province. Firstly, using two mechanisms of spatial panel Durbin Model, taking into account two kinds of spatial weights matrix, the space adjacent weight matrix and area reaching time -distance weight matrix, to test the high-speed railway spillover effect on regional economic growth. It shows that: First, the economic growth of Fujian County has significant positive spatial correlation between 2001 and 2014. The economic growth of a county is not spatially random distributed. There is significant spatial dependence and the combined effect of Fujian County economy. That is to say, economic growth of one area will generate positive spillover effects on that of adjacent area. Economic growth spillovers which result from shorten time accessibility between different cities because of high-speed rail than that of spatial correlation results from simple adjacent areas. Second, compared with the results of the traditional panel model, the direct impact of the high-speed rail on the regional economic growth is also very significant before and after the opening of the high-speed rail, which is resulted from the significant change in the contribution of labor and capital to economic growth. That is to say, the output elasticity of labor has become smaller, the output elasticity of capital becomes larger. It indicates that the opening of high-speed rail brings convenience to flow of the labor and the capital, and contribution of capital on economic growth will be more and more important. Third, the output elasticity of capital and labor is positive, and the former is smaller than the latter. It means that economic growth in Fujian is mainly driven by labor-based, and contribution of the capital is not yet fully realized. Forth, the spillover effect of the economic growth spillover effect based on the accessibility distance is larger than that under the simple spatial adjacency weight. Regional economic growth spillover effects are significant different before and after opening of high-speed rail, and the spillover effect after the opening of high-speed rail is smaller than that of before. This is conducive to balance the regional economic development. Finally, the article summarizes the relevant conclusions and inspiration, and puts forward policy recommendations.

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    Characteristics and the Contribution Rate of Its Economy and Employment of Yunnan’s Exports to ASEAN
    Zhipeng Tang, Jialing Zou, Wei Sun
    2018, 38 (2):  242-248.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.010
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    Yunnan Province is located in the frontier of Southwest China, which borders on Vietnam, Myanmar and Laos. Since the agreement of Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Co-operation Between the People’s Republic of China and the Association of South East Asian Nations, the trade relationship between Yunnan Province and the ASEAN plays an important role in the development of Yunnan Province. With “the Belt and Road” moves on, the trade relationship between Yunnan Province and the ASEAN would further intimate, while its export characteristics have also undergone tremendous changes. By using data from Customs and statistical yearbook, and with the help of related trade index and input-output method, this article analyzes export characteristics between Yunnan Province and the ASEAN. The result shows: the trade dependence between Yunnan and the ASEAN has been significantly enhanced, while Yunnan’s export trade to countries of the ASEAN is geographically unbalanced. Yunnan's export trade to the ASEAN has upgraded, from minerals-, chemical products-oriented to agricultural products-, electronic manufacturing products-oriented. As Yunnan Province’s export to ASEAN, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery products had the strongest economic and employment effects, it can be argued that Yunnan’s export products upgrading can alleviate the employment problem, while promoting industrial transformation to technology-intensive industries. Under the research result, we take some advises that: firstly, ASEAN countries has a high economy growth rate, and Yunnan Province should be closer to ASEAN in the trade, especially to Vietnam etc.; Secondly, Yunnan Province should continue to promote the upgrading of export products for ASEAN steadily, especially for light industrial products to ensure the economic growth and employment growth incurred by the export; Thirdly, Yunnan Province should take “the Belt and Road” opportunities to increase its trade with ASEAN fully, and help to develop its economy. However, “the Burmese conflict” and other incidents would hinder the trade between Yunan and ASEAN, and China should offer some help for solving regional conflicts, which would help to build stronger trade relationship between Yunnan and ASEAN.

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    The Location of Chinese Yacht Clubs
    Yunhao Yao, Weixin Luan
    2018, 38 (2):  249-257.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.011
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    As a result of economic development, yachting is gradually known and accepted by ordinary people in China. Through analyzing related data of Chinese yacht clubs, the article reveals the macro and micro location characteristics of these clubs, and explains the location factors system. The result shows that: 1) Yacht clubs mainly concentrated in 3 major coastal economic zones, including the Yangtze River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the Pearl River Delta, particularly in coastal cities of Guangdong, Hainan, Shandong, Shanghai and Zhejiang provinces. 2) Downtown and suburban areas accommodate a large number of yacht clubs. Pure and tourism yacht clubs are domain, while real estate yacht clubs rank behind. Yacht clubs with berth or not on the location have a high coincidence. 3) The location factors of yacht clubs include natural and geographical environment, regional economic development, tourism development, yacht manufacturing enterprises, yacht industry policy and regional marine culture, etc. Besides, regional ultra high net wealth population would be beneficial to developing yacht clubs. 4) Different regions differ greatly of Chinese yacht clubs, and the development of yacht economics needs to adapt to the regional ecological environment and socio-economic conditions. The yacht economy of the Yangtze River Delta started earlier, which can make full use of its urban agglomeration economy, the advantages of wealthy people to create international yacht tourist destinations. The coastal regions of the Bohai Sea, like Qingdao, Dalian, Tianjin and other cities could rely on their geographical and yacht manufacturing advantages, further to improving industry characteristics, breaking the system constraints, playing the leading role of yacht tourism in northern coastal areas. Yacht clubs of the Pearl River Delta are leading the country in making innovations in systems and mechanisms, which can utilize its suitable marine climate conditions and abundant tourism resources to develop the coastal tourism resort and pull the yacht economy growth. In the future, we can study on the internal dynamic mechanism of location selection of yacht clubs, yacht industry and its agglomeration effects, consumer psychology and behavior features of participating in the activities of the yacht club, etc., so as to enrich the tourism geography theories, promote healthy development of the emerging yacht economy in China.

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    Hypothesis Testing and Interpretation on Regional Economic Growth Club Convergence
    Weili Zhang
    2018, 38 (2):  258-263.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.012
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    Since the reform and open trade policy was enacted in 1978, China’s economy has achieved sustained and rapid growth for more than 30 years, becoming the world’s second largest economy. But in recent years, China’s economic growth continued to decline from 14.2% in 2007 fell to 6.9% in 2015. Nowadays, China’s economy has entered a “new normal” period. Economic growth in developed regions is slowing down and some underdeveloped regions’ economic growth has been accelerating. There are indications that China seems to be ushering in the golden age of developing regions catching up to developed areas. Shall the developing regions overtake the developed regions? And how shall the developing regions catch up with the developed areas? Furthermore, which areas will become the dominant forces of China’s economic growth in the future? These are the real problems that need to be solved at present. And these issues are precisely classified in the main areas of club convergence research. In the real world, the phenomenon of coexistence of poor and affluent regions is very common. As a result, it has triggered to a prominent theme of club convergence in the existing literature. The related research can be more accurate when observing the spatial pattern of regional economic growth and analyzing the impact factors of different types of regional economic growth. This will undoubtedly provide important theoretical enlightenment and decision-making reference value for the promotion of the whole of economic growth. However, the current research on convergence club is still in the stage of testing whether there is the phenomenon of the club convergence, and the empirical research work is limited. This article reviews the existing literature from the aspects of testing the club convergence hypothesis, explaining the formation of convergence clubs, and relevant research about China. Then this article puts forwards some expanding directions as follows: 1) The research on the development of club convergence requires the combination of time dimension and space dimension, which can be extended to time and space coupling club convergence. 2) The study of club convergence needs to integrate into the heterogeneity of technology. 3) The test of the club convergence hypothesis needs to combine regional grouping and convergence test to improve the robustness of results. 4) The research on the formation mechanism of club convergence needs to consider the interaction of factors. 5) It is necessary to analyze the evolution mechanism of club convergence. 6) It is important to study club convergence among prefectures and counties in China.

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    Progress of Tourism Area Life Cycle Theory
    Hongling Qi, Jisheng Liu, Lin Mei
    2018, 38 (2):  264-271.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.013
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    Tourism area life cycle (TALC) is the theory to describe tourism destination evolution path, which is the most important part of tourism theory system and the most primary tool in regional tourism sustainable development planning. To further develop our existing knowledge on tourism areas evolution, some divergence and confusion on the TALC theory and its basis need to be clarified. Reviewing the domestic and international main literatures, the controversy and achievement about the basic theory are summarized elaborately. First, according to the study of the origination and development of the TALC theory of Butler and the analyzing the key concept, the article concludes that the TALC theory emphasizes the evolution of tourism region system rather than tourism product, though the theory can also be an appropriate tool for analyzing the development of tourism product. Summarizing the discussion about stages division in TALC theory, researching advantages and disadvantages of different way of stages demarcation and considering the practical value of the TALC theory, the article suggests that the evolution path of tourism region should be divided to eight stages. Which are exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation, reorientation, decline or rejuvenation, and exit stage. Beside the classical six stages in Butler TALC theory, the reorientation stage and exit stage are absolutely necessary in guiding the development of tourism area. Management decision and new investment will determine the tourism area’s evolutionary routine in reorientation stage, if the reorientation effort comes to nothing, the tourism system continues to decline, then the tourism area is doomed to enter exit stage, which means industry transformation. Experience tells us that the industry transformation is very hard for developed tourism area, very few companies want to set new branches in the decline tourism area for lacking of human resource, while a large number of people cannot find a new job after unemployed in tourism industry, there is a great possibility of big recession of whole region in exit stage. Therefore, the eight-stage TALC theory will be a more powerful tool for region development management and planning. Second, summarizing the two hot issues about TALC from 1980 to 2016, the majority literatures focus on the different characters of stages which based on specific area development data, another is the mechanism of the tourism area's evolution and four kinds of influence factors, which are macro-environment, demand, competitors and tourism area’s conditional combination. Which offers a more powerful thrust to regional tourism development planning. At last, proposing the future research prospects on TALC theory in new environment. More studies will focus on the development quality of the human-earth system in different stages instead of the shape of evolution routine of tourism area, reveal the mechanism of tourism industry decline and alternative counterplan of industry transformation in different stages, and rethink about the tourism industrial status in region economic system.

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    Rising Air Temperature and Its Asymmetry Under Different Vegetation Regions in China
    Hui Zhang, Yinghua Jin, Xiangjin Shen, Guangdi Li, Daowei Zhou
    2018, 38 (2):  272-283.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.014
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    The long-term trends of annual mean temperature (Tmean), mean maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) were analyzed across 453 weather stations from 1962-2011 across 8 vegetation regions according to China vegetation regionalization. During the past 50 years, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increased significantly in all vegetation regions. In addition, the slope of temperature increase of Tmin was greater than that of Tmax. There was significant difference in slopes between Tmax and Tmin for all vegetation regions except for cold temperate forest, subtropical and tropical forests, showing asymmetric warming in temperature over time, i.e. the difference between Tmax and Tmin was gradually reduced. Over the recent 30 years, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increased significantly for all vegetation regions except for Tmax in temperate forest and Tmin in temperate cold forest. The rate of temperature increase gradually increased for Tmax, but decreased for Tmin over the recent 30 years. The rate of temperature increase of Tmax tended to be slower than that of Tmin on alpine steppe, cold temperate forest and subtropical forest regions, but faster on the rest of vegetation regions. However, no significant difference was detected for the rate of temperature increase between Tmax and Tmin in any other vegetation regions. The temperature in growing season and non-growing season varied greatly and had different effects on Tmean during the past 50 years and recent 30 years. The changes of temperature in growing season and non-growing season were depended on changes of Tmax and Tmin. For growing season, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increase significantly during the last 50 years for all vegetation regions except for warm forest region. In addition, the slope of temperature increase for Tmin was greater than that of Tmax, showing asymmetric warming with reduced difference between Tmax and Tmin. There was significant difference in rate of temperature increase between Tmax and Tmin on temperate forest, temperate steppe, temperate desert and warm forest regions, but no difference on alpine steppe, cold forest, subtropical and tropical forest regions. Over the recent 30 years, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin in growing season increased significantly for all vegetation regions. In general, the rate temperature increase accelerated for Tmax but reduced for Tmin. For non-growing season, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increase greatly during the last 50 years for all vegetation regions, showing an asymmetric warming in temperature with reduced difference between Tmax and Tmin. There was significant difference in slope of temperature increase between Tmax and Tmin for most of vegetation regions except for cold temperate forest, subtropical and tropical forest regions. However, there were not significant differences in the rates of temperature increases for Tmean, Tmax and Tmin on some regions, such as cold temperate forest, temperate forest and temperate steppe region, in non-growing season during over the recent 30 years. For the rest of vegetation regions, Tmean, Tmax and Tmin increased significantly at a faster rate for Tmax and a slower rate for Tmin.

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    Change of Growing Season Length and Its Effects on Gross Primary Productivity in Northeast China
    Miaomiao Wang, Lei Zhou, Shaoqiang Wang, Xiaoqin Wang
    2018, 38 (2):  284-292.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.015284-292王苗苗s/img_1.jpg1961.01.0
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    The globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature show a warming of 0.85℃ over the period 1880 to 2012. This phenomenon is mainly due to the burning of oil, gas, coal and wood for energy since the industrial age. Climate change has already affected the carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems. An obviously observable effect of such ongoing changes is the timing of phenology events, such as bud-burst, flowering, leaf unfolding, and leaf coloration. Phenology studies based on ground and remote sensing observation indicate that the length of vegetation growing season has significantly increased over the past decades, principally through an earlier beginning and a later termination. So it is necessary to study the effects of changes in growing season length on gross primary productivity (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystem under the global warming in the middle and high latitude. Northeast China is located at middle latitudes in the northern Hemisphere and is an area that exhibits prominent climate changes. Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is an ecological process based model, which originally stemmed from the FOREST Bio-Geochemical Cycles (FOREST-BGC) model. This model includes photosynthesis, energy balance, hydrological, and soil biogeochemical modules. Stratifying canopies into sunlit and shaded leaves, it incorporates a new temporal and spatial scaling scheme into Farquhar’s instantaneous leaf biochemical model to calculate daily carbon ?xation. In this article, firstly, we run BEPS model, combined with meteorological data (including maximum and minimum air temperatures, precipitation, relative humidity and solar radiation), remote sensing data and soil data to simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of GPP in Northeast China during 2001-2010. Then, we analyzed the change of growing season length and its effect on GPP in Northeast China from 2001 to 2010. The results show that: There are no significant trends in the start, end and length of growing season in 2001-2010 (R2≤0.22,P≥0.17) in Northeast China. The length of growing season is more affected by the start of growing season, and the start of growing season have a significant correlation with spring temperature (R2=0.74,P=0.001), so we can conclude that the length of growing season is mainly affected by spring temperature. The terrestrial ecosystem’s annual mean GPP is about 1 057.8±44.6 TgC in Northeast China. There is about 1 032.2±45.8 TgC GPP in growing season, accounting for 97.5% in total. It means that Northeast China’s GPP is mainly sequestered in growing season. The interannual variation of GPP is not significantly affected by the change of growing season length, it is mainly regulated by precipitation in Northeast China. And the response of the main vegetation type to phenology is consistent with that of the whole Northeast China. However, there are also some uncertainties in GPP simulation and in growing season length definition, so we should take more models to simulate GPP and use more methods to define the length of growing season in the future research.

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    High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Multiple Segmentation Correlograms Model
    Peigang Xu, Haiqing Zhang, Chao Wang, Gang Qi, Jie Li, Jingyang Wu
    2018, 38 (2):  293-299.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.016
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    High resolution remote sensing images are increasingly applied in land use classification problems. However, it is a difficult task to recognize the semantic category for the complex background and multiple land-cover classes. The bag-of-visual-words model has been successful in scene classification, but ignores pixel homogeneity in land use remote sensing images. In this article, we present a multiple segmentation-based correlation feature to jointly integrate appearance, spatial correlation, and pixel homogeneity. We use a dense feature representation to detect spurious features resulting from clutter, which has been demonstrated that dense features work better for scene classification. These dense features are Scale-Invariant Feature Transform descriptors using a dense regular grid instead of interest points to extract features. The visual vocabulary is formed by K-means clustering of a random subset of patches from the training set. A multiple segmentation-based correlogram, which is a matrix express spatial co-occurrences of features, encoding both the local and global shape of visual words and robust with respect to basic geometric transformations and occlusions, were extracted. The corresponding correlogram elements for each pair of visual word labels in training images are collected and clustered using K-means. The set of cluster centers are multiple segmentation-based correlatons, which are a set of representative multiple segmentation-based correlogram elements. Therefore, multiple segmentation-based correlatons compress the co-occurrences information contained in a multiple segmentation-based correlogram without loss of discrimination accuracy. Finally, the concatenated histograms of images, which describe the underlying spatial correlation of visual words considering pixel homogeneity in the image region, are used as input feature vectors for the SVM classifier. The effectiveness of the multiple segmentation-based correlaton models was tested on a ground truth image dataset of 21 land use classes manually extracted from high-resolution remote-sensing images. The experimental results demonstrate that our improved correlaton model can promote classification and outperforms existing methods for the jointly integration of appearance, spatial correlation, and pixel homogeneity information.

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    The Magnetic Susceptibility, Rb/Sr Ratio of Red Earth Profile in Hengyang Basin and Its Significance of Palaeoclimate
    Pingsheng Xiong, Peilin Liu, Peng Wang
    2018, 38 (2):  300-306.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.017
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    Based on the analysis of elements, magnetic susceptibility and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating of samples from Gaoxing red clay profile in Hengyang City. The result indicates that: the Rb/Sr ratios and chemical weathering parameters values of Gaoxing profile showed a significant positive correlation, and the magnetic susceptibility ratios and chemical weathering parameters values showed a good positive correlation.The results revealed that Rb/Sr ratios and magnetic susceptibility values would be alternative index in red clay sedimentary environmental. recording the climate change in Hengyang Basin since the Pleistocene epoch. The paleoclimatic changes of Hengyang City can be divided into three periods: during 2.23-1.323 Ma B.P., the Rb/Sr value and magnetic susceptibility value were in relatively higher value area,the climate features were mainly warm and wet; during 1.323-0.763 Ma B. P. the Rb/Sr value, CIA value and magnetic susceptibility value reached the highest value area in profile ,the climate was the hottest and wettest phase in this region; 0.763 Ma B.P. later, the Rb/Sr value, magnetic susceptibility value and CIA value showed the lowest value in profile, illustrating that the chemical weathering is relatively weaker with mainly warm and dry climate environment. The change tendency of Rb/Sr ratios curve and magnetic susceptibility values curve in Gaoxing profile,which firstly increases fluctuantly and then decreases rapidly from the bottom to the top, generally suggesting that Hengyang Basin has witnessed climate change, from warm-wet to warm-dry since the early Pleistocene.

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    Geochemical Characteristics of Red Weathering Crust from Shicao Profile in Southern Liaoning Province and the Response of Paleoclimate Evolution
    Donglan Wei, Junjie Shen, Yonghua Li
    2018, 38 (2):  307-313.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.018
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    Based on analyzed the major elements contents and other geochemical parameters of the red weathering crust from the Shicao profile in the southern of Liaoning Province, the geochemical characteristics of the weathering process and paleoclimate evolution were discussed. The results showed that the major elements are mainly composed of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3. Compared to the bedrock, Ca has been leached out strongly, while other major elements relatively enriched in the red weathering crust of Shicao profile. In general, the intensity of chemical weathering in Shicao profile was lower than the red weathering crust from the southern China, which indicated a moderate chemical weathering intensity under warm and moist climate conditions. There are four stages of weathering process in the Shicao profile that can be assigned as intensely weathering, weakening weathering, intensifying weathering, and relatively weaker weathering. Since the chemical weathering intensity of the red crust is sensitive to climate change, the geochemical parameters can be used to reconstruct the paleoclimate environment. The paleoclimate of the southern of Liaoning Province, which in the weathering period of the Shicao profile, has undergone four stages. That is hot and humid, warm and wet, return warming, relatively warm and wet.

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    Comparison Analysis of Rapid Assessment Methodology of Mortality due to Earthquake Disaster
    Xi Wang, Hongjian Zhou, Chi Zhang
    2018, 38 (2):  314-320.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.02.019
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    China is one of the countries with high frequency of seismic activity in the world, located in the earthquake prone zone. In 1978-2009, about 80 percent of mortality of natural disaster was caused by seismic activities. "Mortality" is the focus of the work of disaster information statistics, emergency relief and risk assessment. On the basis of collecting and analyzing the domestic and international evaluation model of the death toll of earthquake disaster, 10 models are selected to validate their applicability by the typical earthquake disaster cases in China since 2000. The results showed that: 1) For the seismic with magnitude of below Ms 5.7 (inclusive), the evaluation results of the 10 models are basically in a reasonable range and the range of results could support the emergency decision of earthquake disaster relief (EDR); for Ms 5.7-6.6 (inclusive) seismic activities, the results from 10 kinds of assessment methods showed varying degrees of error and the level of most results could support the emergency decision of EDR; for seismic with Ms 6.6 and above, the evaluation by structural vulnerability model can get relatively ideal results in a certain extent based on the specific scope of application. 2) Most models in this article basically belong to the "deterministic formula methodology", including: the relationship between casualties and building damage ratio, and intensity, population density, and the destruction of housing area. The limitations of certain areas or cases will inevitably lead to the large differences between evaluation results and the actual results.The main reasons of large differences include:the number of mortality often was caused by the earthquake disaster chain, not a single shake. The special housing structure and living habits in some areas also lead to great differences between the actual death population and the evaluation results. 3) Three aspects were proposed to improve the earthquake mortality rapid assessment, including the establishment of dynamic assessment method of seismic, and seismic-geologic disaster death method, the establishment of earthquake disaster death population rapid assessment software system. It can be used for reference of the improvement and development of the rapid assessment model of earthquake disaster.

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