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Table of Content

    10 January 2020, Volume 40 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Nature and Basic Issues of Geography
    Song Changqing, Zhang Guoyou, Cheng Changxiu, Chen Fahu
    2020, 40 (1):  6-11.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.002
    Abstract ( 417 )   HTML ( 54 )   PDF (494KB) ( 411 )   Save

    A discipline has typically the following four key features, namely independent research objects, independent research questions, unique characteristics, and unique social services. This paper first discusses the nature of Geography from three aspects, to reveal the characteristics of modern Geography. First, the research object of Geography is changing from simple to complex evolution. In performing geographic research, we should well recognize the complexity of geographic systems. Second, the framework of geographic research questions is structured by the fusion among geographic features, space, and time. This paper explains the essential distinction between different geographic research questions, which promotes the development of the methods and technologies for answering these questions. Third, the philosophy of combining reductionism and holism is growing continuously. A new pattern of research has been formed based on new disciplines and technologies, which is the parallel development of the research on geographic features and that on systems. This paper then identifies the essential characteristics of geographic research, summarizes the key research questions in Geography, and discusses the multiple effects of driving mechanisms on the laws of Geography. An understanding of the fundamental characteristics and the modern value of Geography illustrated in this paper will be contribute to the societal development of Geography.

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    The Key Technologies of Integrated Urban Transport-land Use Model: Theory Base and Development Trends
    Zhao Pengjun, Wan Jie
    2020, 40 (1):  12-21.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.003
    Abstract ( 208 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF (698KB) ( 153 )   Save

    Urban transport is a complex system phenomenon of ‘society-technology-nature’. The coordinated development between urban transport and land use subsystem is the basis of reducing transport problems, one of the core theoretical problems of urban geography, and one of the key contents of urban and regional planning. Simulation and prediction of the interaction between urban transport and land use is a key point in scientific regulation of their relationship. However, there is a lack of discussions on key technologies of the integrated model of urban transport and land use. According to the microscopic location choice based on the theory of land rent and the macroscopic dynamic interaction theory of land use and transport system, the development process of the integrated models of urban transport and land use and the classification characteristics are reviewed. The tradeoff between travel cost and location decision is the basic micro mechanism for the formation of travel demand and its spatial distribution (origin and destination). Land use and traffic flow are the aggregate manifestation of individual micro location choice and travel behavior of enterprises and residents. There is a dynamic interaction process between land use and transport system. Land use affects travel demand and its layout, and then affects traffic flow. Transport facilities and traffic flow affect the accessibility and congestion of the region, thus affecting location choice and urban land use. The advantages and disadvantages of spatial interaction and gravity model, spatial economics model, stochastic utility and discrete selection model and behavior based micro model are systematically analyzed. The analysis shows that the research of the integrated model with reasonable theoretical basis, scientific data processing, high model accuracy and certain applicability of policy evaluation still has a large development space. In recent years, the research of western scholars on the integrated model tends to be micro, integrated and simplified. In western countries, integrated models of urban transport and land use are often developed for urban reality analysis and policy evaluation, while domestic researches mainly focus on the interaction and coordination analysis between transport system and land use. The development of domestic integration model is relatively lagging behind, which requires the further breakthrough of model theory and comprehensive empirical development. Especially in the context of new data, new transport technology and territorial space planning system, the integrated model of urban transport and land use will change from ‘spatial’ model to ‘time-space’ model, from ‘macroscopic’ aggregate model to ‘microscopic’ behavior model, from ‘transport-land use’ model to ‘integrated system’ model, from “sample data” model to ‘big data’ model, from the application of ‘transport planning’ to the application of ‘territorial space planning’. In order to promote the research and development of the integrated model in China, this paper analyzes the general structure, principle types, current problems and challenges of the integrated model of urban transport and land use. It has certain theoretical significance and practical value for quantitatively exploring the interaction between urban transport and land use and developing the integrated model of urban transport and land use in China.

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    Investigation and Assessment of Waterfront Resources in the Yangtze River Economic Zone
    Duan Xuejun, Wang Xiaolong, Zou Hui, Liang Shuangbo, Chen Weixiao
    2020, 40 (1):  22-31.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.004
    Abstract ( 236 )   HTML ( 18 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 108 )   Save

    Based on the technology and method of the remote sensing survey, field sampling, evaluation and classification of the waterfront resources, the investigation and analysis of the natural basis and using status of the waterfront in the Yangtze River Economic Zone are carried out. The resources conditions, ecological sensitivities, using status as well as their ecological environment impact are revealed, the zoning scheme and use policy for the management on the waterfront resources in the Yangtze River Economic Zone are put forward, which is a scientific approach to the management on the waterfront resources in the Yangtze River Economic Zone. Firstly, the waterfront resources utilization should be strictly managed by the different control measures according to the classification: prohibiting utilization areas, optimizing utilization areas, restricting utilization areas; secondly, the illegal occupation that do not meet the development policy and the requirements for the environmental safety should be cleaned up to promote the eco-environmental quality; Thirdly, the ecological restoration in the areas of the waterfront in which the industry has been cleared out, or in the heavily polluted areas should be carried out according to the natural attributes and the ecological function of the waterfront in the Yangtze River Economic Zone. Fourthly, management organization and mechanism with multi-sector coordination and effective regulations in the utilization of the waterfront should be established to ensure the safety of flood control and water supply, support the social and economic development and form the green, efficiency and intensive utilization pattern of the Yangtze River Economic Zone.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution on Connection Strength of Global City Network Based on Passenger Flight Data from 2014 to 2018
    Li Enkang, Lu Yuqi, Yang Xing, Chen Yu
    2020, 40 (1):  32-39.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.005
    Abstract ( 214 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF (6570KB) ( 176 )   Save

    This article analyses the spatio-temporal evolution of connection strength on global city network by using Gephi, which is based on passenger flights data from April 2014 to August 2018. Although Gephi can be used to analyze many topological properties of city network, we mainly used Average Weighted Degree and Betweenness Centrality to depict the basic characteristics of global city network, which reflected the connection strength and spatial differences of network. In order to reinterpret the breakthrough of connection strength to spatial distance constraint on global city network, we propose a model of connection strength-space distance based on concept of definite integral. The study mainly draws the following conclusions: 1) The connection strength of global city network becomes stronger in general from 2014 to 2018 and its backbone is formed by three big urban agglomerations, including West Europe megaregion, North America megaregion and East Asia megaregion. New York and other important nodes play a key role in building a global city network and form a self-centered network framework, bearing the flow of elements of global economic development. The variation coefficient obtained from the Betweenness Centrality of each city reflects that the polarization of the global city network is slightly reduced, but the ‘pyramid’ hierarchical structure does not change fundamentally. In addition, the Average Weighted Degree first increases and then decreases, which indicates that the global city connection strength has been improved and the complexity of the global city network in the evolution process. 2) The fitting curve obtained by the connection strength-space distance model basically conforms to the distance attenuation law, and the distance range of the peak indicates that the global city network has the highest connection strength in the short and medium range. Furthermore, the peak value first rises and then falls, which also proves the complexity and periodical characteristics of the change of global city network on connection strength. The breakthrough value of distance (BVD), obtained by the connection strength-space distance model, reaches a peak in 2016 and then falls with fluctuation, which reflects the complexity and volatility of global city network in its evolution and reconstruction process. On the one hand, this article makes a detailed investigation of the global city network from a spatio-temporal perspective, and on the other hand, it makes a quantitative analysis of the distance decay law.

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    Identity, Characteristics and Mechanism of Migrants in Large Chinese Cities of Transitional China
    Li Zhigang, Liang Qi, Lin Sainan
    2020, 40 (1):  40-49.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.006
    Abstract ( 196 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (493KB) ( 259 )   Save

    In the context of citizenization, the research of migrant identity is of great significance to promote social integration and people-oriented urbanization. The existing studies have paid little attention to the dual identification mode of migrants, that is, identification with the city is not necessarily separated from the identification with their hometown. This study, drawing data from the Survey of Social Integration and Mental Health of Migrants in 2014, analyses migrants’ identification patterns, characteristic and influence factors based on the migrants’ identification of hometown and city. Firstly, the results show that migrants have four identification patterns including integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization, and in general migrants have low identification with the city. Secondly, migrants’ identity is significantly affected by the factors related to the city where they live and their hometown, such as urban housing, neighborhood type, urban discrimination experience, adaptation to urban life, nostalgia emotions and hometown lands. Thirdly, our study identified that a developmental path for different identification patterns, which is from separation to integration and then to assimilation, but some migrants’ identity also would change from separation to marginalization if without policy intervention. Last but not the least, assimilated migrants are healthier and happier than the other types. According to above findings, we suggest that policy makers should consider both city and hometown factors to promote social integration for migrants, and try the best to achieve assimilation in terms of migrants’ identification with the city.

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    Spatial-temporal Evolution of Rural Population Outflow and Its Mechanism in China
    Guo Yuanzhi, Zhou Yang, Liu Yansui
    2020, 40 (1):  50-59.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.007
    Abstract ( 262 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF (1354KB) ( 218 )   Save

    Human is the key to social and economic development, and plays a decisive role in rural evolution. However, influenced by urban-rural dual structure, there are large population outflow in rural China, which makes the strategy of rural revitalization lack of human capital support. Therefore, to scientifically promote the implementation of rural revitalization in the new era, it is necessary to study the rural population outflow. Using datasets of 2000 and 2010 population census of the People's Republic of China by county, this research analyzed the evolution and spatial pattern of rural population outflow in China. Then it explored the mechanism of regional differentiation of outflow rate of rural population (ORRP), which was reflected by the ratio of rural hukou-registered population and rural residential population. Results showed that the development of rural population in China from 1978 to present could be divided into three stages i.e., slow development stage (1978-1995), massive outflow stage (1995-2014) and citizenship of agricultural transfer population (since 2014). From 2000 to 2010, ORRP at county level in China generally showed an upward trend, the centralization of rural hukou-registered and residential population declined obviously. From the perspective of spatial pattern, they all showed significant spatial clustering and positive spatial correlation. In 2000, there were 76.06% counties with ORRP ranging from 100% to 150%, and only 14.01% of the counties' ORRP were less than 100%, which were mainly located in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Xinjiang and the border areas of northeast China. By 2010, the proportion of counties with ORRP less than 100% fell to 5.20%, concentrating in Xinjiang, and there were also a few counties in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Northeast China. Based on pre-selected influencing factors, estimated results of spatial error model (SEM) indicated that elevation, per capita GDP, urban-rural income ratio, proportion of primary industry, urbanization rate, road density, educational attainment and per capita investment in fixed assets were positively correlated with ORRP at county level, while per capita farmland, per capita net income of rural households and ratio of rural employees showed a negative correlation.

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    Relationship Between Built Environment and Urban Vitality in Shanghai Downtown Area Based on Big Data
    Ta Na, Zeng Yutian, Zhu Qiuyu, Wu Jiayu
    2020, 40 (1):  60-68.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.008
    Abstract ( 241 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (4698KB) ( 284 )   Save

    Research on urban vitality has drawn more attention from different disciplines and perspectives such as urban geography, urban planning and urban government. Urban vitality is not only an important symbol of urban sustainable development, but also an important factor for cities to retain high-skilled talents, which could improve the competitiveness of the city. Studying urban vitality is conducive for us to re-understanding the city in a new perspective and improving urban human-oriented planning and management for the government, especially for some megacities and international cities which contain a large population. Urban vitality, consisting of economic vitality, social vitality and cultural vitality, reflects the level of urban development capacity and quality of life, which is also closely related to the citizens. In order to discover the urban vitality in Shanghai, this paper uses multi-source data, including dianping’s data which counts the number of businesses in the studying area to reflect the economic vitality, urban taxi arrival data in one week to reflect the social vitality and cultural facilities data in the studying area to reflect cultural vitality, to measure urban vitality from two scale: both block and sub-district level. Based on this comprehensive measurement, this article intends to analyze the spatial outcome characteristics of urban vitality in different blocks and sub-districts. This article also establishes a regression models for analyzing the impact mechanism of urban built environment which consists of multiple elements on urban vitality. It is found that the urban vitality of Shanghai is higher in the central area, decreasing from the central area to the surrounding area in the city. In the meanwhile, the value of urban vitality in Puxi area is higher than Pudong area, which means the daily activities and communication in Puxi area are more dynamic than these in Pudong area. Apart from differences between Puxi and Pudong areas, there are also distinctions regarding to the factors of built environments effecting the urban vitality between block level and street level. On the block level, it is found that the built environments effect significantly to different types of urban vitality and the comprehensive vitality. What’s more, for each vitality, the effect shows in different ways. Specifically, the increase of population density will influence the urban vitality by firstly in an active way then in a passive one. Especially for social and cultural vitality, the high density of population is not beneficial. For the facilities, increase of POI density and road network density presenting completeness and POI mixing degree presenting the variety of land use will promote all kinds of the vitality and comprehensive vitality. In the respect of the design, the increase of average building layers and building density will reduce the social vitality and cultural vitality, but will enhance the economic vitality and comprehensive vitality of the block at the same time. And in terms of the access to public transportation, the distance to the nearest bus station will increase the economic vitality of the block. According to the discoveries about the spatial pattern and the effecting factors of urban vitality, this article proves improving the built environment is meaningful to the development of urban.

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    The Influence of Public Spaces on Neighborhood Social Interaction in Transitional Urban Beijing: Comparing Local Residents and Migrants
    Liu Zhilin, Wang Xiaomeng, Ma Jing
    2020, 40 (1):  69-78.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.009
    Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (661KB) ( 44 )   Save

    In the context of large-scale urban transformation, Chinese cities have faced great challenges of declining neighborly social interaction, social trust, and neighborhood social cohesion, due to the dismantling of the danwei system, residential suburbanization, and housing marketization. A large volume of literature has investigated the patterns and determinant of neighborhood social interaction and social cohesion, including comparing different experiences between local and migrant residents in Chinese cities. Urban geographers have mainly focused on the effects of neighborhood types, individual socio-demographic characteristics, neighborly social interaction in the context of urban spatial restructuring and housing marketization. Instead, planning scholars and practitioners have advocated the positive contributions of neighborhood-scale public spaces and facilities to promoting neighborhood social cohesion, although empirical studies along this line of inquiry have yielded only mixed findings. This research uses a large-scale questionnaire survey conducted in 36 neighborhoods in Beijing, China, to investigate whether proximity to public spaces and facilities promotes neighborly interaction, and whether such effects may differ between local residents and migrants. We utilize geo-coded POI dataset to capture proximity to 5 different types of neighborhood-scale public spaces and facilities, including sidewalks, parks, transit stations, commercial facilities, schools. Descriptive statistics reveal that the frequency of interaction with neighbors is higher among local residents than migrants, though both groups limit their neighborly interactions to superficial forms. We further adopt structural equation models to account for residential sorting, and find that: 1) quasi-public spaces (e.g. shops, transit stations) are more effective in promoting neighborly interaction, while most typical public spaces have no significant effect (e.g. sidewalks, parks); 2) contrary to the conventional wisdom, a higher density of sidewalks in a neighborhood has a negative influence on neighborly social interaction; 3) compared with local residents, migrants’ neighborly interaction is less subject to the influence of neighborhood built environment but more subject to the effects of individual socio-demographic characteristics. This research contributes to the ongoing debate of the role of public spaces in promoting neighborly interaction in the international literature with empirical evidence from the transitional urban context of China. It also broadens the scope of knowledge on the determinants of neighborhood social cohesion in Chinese cities with an emphasis on the role of neighborhood-scale built environment such as public spaces and facilities. Our findings offer policy implications for the planning practice for inclusive cities. We argue that simply building public open spaces may not be sufficient for promoting neighborly social interaction. Instead, planning physical spaces need to be combined with social programs aimed at bringing people into the spaces in order to enable meaningful encounters within the public spaces and thereby enhancing social cohesion.

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    High-speed Rail Network Spatial Structure and Organization Model in China
    Zhong Yexi, Guo Weidong
    2020, 40 (1):  79-88.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.010
    Abstract ( 236 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (2601KB) ( 127 )   Save

    High-speed rail is an important part of modern transport infrastructure. It has an important impact on the flow of production factors, the expansion of urban space, and the reconstruction of regional spatial structure. Based on the O-D data of high-speed rail network in 2018, the social network analysis is used to discuss the structural characteristics of high-speed rail network and other organizational modes from HSR network and urban nodes. The results show that: 1) China's high-speed rail network has experienced four stages of germination, start-up, tortuous development and prosperity. China's high-speed rail network is relatively loose overall, the northeast region has the highest network density and western network density is sparse. High-speed rail links between the western region and the northeastern region are sparse. The intermediary role of the central and eastern regions in the overall network is obvious; 2) The “corridor effect” of the important high-speed rail channel is remarkable. The area along the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and the Beijing-Guangzhou high-speed railway has become hot spot with high central value region. On the whole, it has a “triangular flag” composed of Beijing-Guangzhou, Beijing-Shanghai and Shanghai-Kunming high-speed railways. Spatial pattern and the trend of decreasing toward the cities on both sides. The centrality of the intermediary shows that the random distribution of the central hub city can better play a cohesive role; 3) The first-level high-speed rail network shows the high-speed rail corridors closely related to Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity, Beijing-Tianjin Intercity and Wuhan-Guangzhou High-speed Railway. The second-level network basically reveals the road network planning of China's high-speed railways and the provincial cities in the high-speed rail network as a prominent intermediary role; The third level identifies the trend of the high-speed rail network from four horizontal and vertical expand to eight horizontal and eight vertical. The fourth level of China's high-speed rail network shows overall spatial network details; 4) The territorial organization models of high-speed railway network is characterized by point-axis beading mode, dual-core grouping mode and polar core model, the perfection of the high-speed railway networkhas transformed the organizational model from a single core to a network.

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    Quality of Residential Environment of Affordable Housing Estates in Guangzhou and Its Institutional Explanations
    Wei Zongcai, Zhen Feng, Qin Xiao
    2020, 40 (1):  89-96.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.011
    Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3104KB) ( 59 )   Save

    To counter the serious housing unaffordability problem generated by housing marketization reforms, the central government of China has promulgated a policy of constructing large-scale affordable housing estates (AHEs) across the country. Nevertheless, the quality of residential environment of these housing estates is yet to be explored. Enhancement in the quality of residential environment of AHEs should be on the basis of an extensive grasp of institutional factors. The survey of AHEs indicates that the unfavorable physical environment of AHEs, generally due to their spatially and socially isolated locations, cannot satisfy the real needs of low-income households. This study found that in spite of the homogeneous socio-economic attributes of residents, the quality characteristics of AHEs between different periods were heterogeneous. Thus, this study enriches the researches in the quality of residential environment of low-income housing estates. This study also investigated the connection between quality of residential environment and institutional factors in the context of a transitional institutional environment. In brief, an institutional interpretation on the generation of similarities and differences in the livability patterns of AHEs between different periods in transitional China shows that the capricious institutional environment has brought about a unique urban landscape. This study argued that the built environments of AHEs were unfavorable. Similarly, residents' perceptions of quality of residential environment were unfavorable as well. Significant differences occurred in the provision of some categories of public facilities outside AHEs constructed in two different stages. The newly-built AHEs were more spatially disadvantaged, due to more unfavorable locations and fewer suitable job opportunities than the early ones. Furthermore, residents' subjective perceptions of quality of residential environment were similarly unfavorable between the AHEs of the two stages. It was found that the spatially and socially isolated locations cannot satisfy the real needs of low-income families. Moreover, some institutional factors, including the bureaucratic administrative system, inefficient negotiations among government departments, and government's pursuit of short-term economic benefits, have considerably affected the quality of residential environment of AHEs. Under the circumstance of a bureaucrat-led administrative system, the local governments pay more attention to undertaking political directives from the upper-level governments, which has facilitated the provision of affordable housing as opposed to matching the real needs of low-income residents. The low efficiency of building housing-related facilities, which was brought by significant departmental benefits, has hampered improvements to the quality of residential environment of AHEs.

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    Modelling Urban Housing Development and A Beijing Case Study
    Niu Fangqu, Wang Fang
    2020, 40 (1):  97-102.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.012
    Abstract ( 122 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (863KB) ( 74 )   Save

    Land use development and transportation development are important drivers of urban space policy. Land use development and management usually manifest as control over real estate development. The real estate provides a basic place for urban economic and social activities, and the scale of floorspace is an important indicator affecting urban economic activities. For this reason, floorspace development (real estate development) is arguably the most important indicator to measure the spatial distribution of activities. This study develops a four-step Floorspace Development Model (FDM) to forecast the housing floorspace distribution. Firstly, it estimates the total housing floorspace developed in a period by assuming that developers would maximize their profits under no constraints from the government. Secondly, the model estimates the constrained total housing floorspace development based on government permits. Thirdly, the model allocates the total floorspace in proportion among zones based on the profitability of alternative locations and the permits of each zone. Finally, it determines the total building size of each zone. A case study of Beijing is given subsequently. It shows that given the continuation of the past policies into the future, more and more housing floorspace would happen outside the urban area, especially between the 5th and 6th ring roads, while the degree of development in the central urban area is weak. The FDM model is able to forecast the developers’ decisions based on market rules and government policies including that where a certain type of floorspace is developed and how much is permissible. The research integrates policy restrictions with market laws, realizes simulation prediction of building development, provides scenario testing tools for related policies, and provides methodological references for urban spatial simulation analysis.

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    The Spatial-temporal Evolution and Driving Factors of Floating Population's Rent Income Ratio in Prefectural City of China
    Li Zaijun, Yin Shanggang, Zhang Xiaoqi, Qin Xingfang
    2020, 40 (1):  103-111.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.013
    Abstract ( 162 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (2331KB) ( 95 )   Save

    Floating population is the core subject and main contributor to China's urbanization process. However, due to poor employment stability and low income, floating population rely mainly on renting houses and becomes the main force of rental demand, which brings opportunities and challenges for Chinese real estate market. While the rent-to-income ratio is an important indicator describing the relationship between residential rent and income, and is also an important indicator reflecting the ability of residents to pay for rent and the operational status of the regional residential leasing market. In this context, this paper analyzes the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and driving forces of the rent-to-income ratio of different occupational migrants in China's prefecture-level cities from 2012 to 2016. The results show: 1) The rent-to-income ratio of floating population shows obvious spatial differentiation pattern of ‘high east and low west, south high and low north’. The four occupational types of high and higher rent-to-income ratio of floating population are concentrated in the developed coastal areas and the capital cities of the central and western regions. 2) The rent-to-income ratio of four occupational types’ floating population has gradually formed a pyramid structure, and the inter-regional difference of the rent-to-income ratio of each occupational type has tended to narrow, but the rent-to-income ratio of commercial personnel, professional technicians, civil servants, production, transportation, construction personnel and service personnel has increased in a hierarchical manner. 3) The rent-to-income ratio the floating population has evolved toward the level of rationalization. However, the rent-to-income ratio of different types varies from one occupation to another. In all occupational types, the rent-to-income ratio in the eastern developed cities tends to shift downwards and change smoothly. The central region exhibits a mosaic pattern of downward transfer type, stationary type, and upward transfer type. The western region is dominated by the stationary type, and supplemented by the upward transfer type. 4) Economic factors, demographic factors, social factors and expectational factors exert an decreasing impact on the rent-to-income ratio of floating populations, while consumption levels, tenant households, real estate investment density, population attractiveness and income levels are the main influencing factors of the income rent ratio. However, the explanatory power of each influencing factor on the rent-to-income ratio decreases with the increase of occupational income level.

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    Return Migration and Rural Revitalization in Central China:A Case of Maozui, Hubei Province
    Liu Da, Lin Sainan, Li Zhigang, Liu Lingbo
    2020, 40 (1):  112-118.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.014
    Abstract ( 209 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (486KB) ( 117 )   Save

    Urban to rural return migration is a new phenomenon which provides a new perspective to understand the transformation of rural-urban relations in China. In the last decades, the substantial increasing number of urban to rural return migrants has attracted wide concerns among policymakers, society and academia. However, little attention has been given to understand the process of return migration and their influences on local developments, especially from the perspective of origin place. Hanzhengjie, located in the central city of Wuhan, was a famous street with a long history of business and trading. After the Reform Era began in the late 1970s, it attracted a great deal of clothing industry workers and entrepreneurs from Maozui. Since 2011, with the government’s efforts to redevelop Hanzhengjie from ‘low-end’ to ‘high-end’, many small factories have been forced to move out. Maozui, a small town of Xiantao City, Hubei Province, seized the opportunity to receive the industry relocated from Hanzhengjie to achieve its local development. Followed by industrial relocation, many migrants returned to Maozui. In this context, based on a series of fieldwork conducted in Maozui and Hanzhengjie during 2018 and 2019, this article examines the different return process of rural labor force and capitals, and interrogates the important roles of return migration and returning entrepreneurial activities in relation to rural revitalization. The findings include: 1) The return migration is marked by a process of the ‘localization’ of rural labor force and capital. The return of labor force is motivated by multiple factors such as family reunion, local opportunities and both living environment. ‘Localized’ labor force becomes the main driving force of return capital. 2) The return skilled migrants and entrepreneurs who keep moving back and forth between city and rural areas aim to capture the new market opportunities. They act as a ‘bridge’ to transfer knowledge, capital and culture from urban to rural areas. 3) Most of the returnees work in industries related to their previous employment and prefer to buy commodity housing in the central town instead of their original village. It promotes the transformation of rural economy and reconstructs the rural social space. These results indicate that the dynamic role of return migrants in central China as agents of information transfer and entrepreneurship. Geographic research on urban-rural relations and rural revitalization should focus more on the complexity and dynamics of return migration and explore the interactive mechanism of return migration and the transformations or reconstruction of villages and towns.

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    SEM-based Analysis on Leisure Satisfaction of Urban Residents in Ningbo City
    Zhou Bin, Wang Yutong, Yu Hu, Lyu Ning, Zhang Yichi
    2020, 40 (1):  119-127.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.015
    Abstract ( 196 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (544KB) ( 121 )   Save

    Leisure satisfaction is one of the most important areas of leisure research, which has a significant impact on improving urban residents’ life quality. However, domestic research on leisure satisfaction is still at the exploration stage, few previous studies has used structural equation model to analysis urban residents’ leisure satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore factors affecting leisure satisfaction among urban residents in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province. Items were derived from an adaptation of the Beard and Ragheb (1980) Leisure Satisfaction Scale. Data were collected from 940 residents at places for daily leisure activities in Ningbo. Participants were assessed using a questionnaire that captured leisure satisfaction and demographic data. Identity test was performed to assess the leisure satisfaction model fit. The findings were indicated as follows: 1) Urban residents in Ningbo were mostly satisfied with relaxation experience (3.895) brought by leisure, followed by educational function (3.564) and aesthetic experience (3.547). The values of physiological satisfaction (3.534) and psychological satisfaction (3.447) were relatively low, and the item of social satisfaction (3.403) was the lowest. 2) According to the results of SEM analysis, it was found that the aesthetic satisfaction, physiological satisfaction and psychological satisfaction have significant positive impacts on the overall leisure satisfaction of residents surveyed in Ningbo, among which, aesthetic satisfaction has the greatest influence, subsequent psychological satisfaction and physical satisfaction. The path coefficients are 0.280, 0.240 and 0.159, respectively, while the assumptions of the influence of relaxation satisfaction, social satisfaction and educational satisfaction on overall leisure satisfaction has not been supported. (P values are 0.845, 0.385 and 0.866, respectively, all greater than 0.05). 3) The findings also showed that when factor load is set, residual variation is measured, factor variance and covariance were identical, the SEM of leisure satisfaction of Ningbo urban residents constructed in this study still has the identity between samples. 4) The results verified the theoretical hypothesis, as well as clarified the influencing mechanism of leisure satisfaction of Ningbo urban residents. The SEM shows stability and validity between different samples. Therefore, the article provided valuable theoretical reference for improving leisure satisfaction of urban residents in the case.

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    Impacts of Embeddedness Towards Tourism Economic Sustainability of Historic Villages: A Case of Xidi and Hongcun
    Liu Yi, Huang Kaixuan, Bao Jigang, Qin Yang
    2020, 40 (1):  128-136.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.016
    Abstract ( 195 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (562KB) ( 120 )   Save

    The sustainable development of historic villages is one of the hotspots in the research field of Tourism Geography. Existing research mainly focus on the property right arrangement, benefit distribution mechanism, and the conservation and sustainable utilization of tourism resource. However, the learning mechanism and the source of technology progress are yet to discuss. In this context, the majority of extant studies hold a supportive view of community-dominated pattern of development. This article argues that the learning mechanism and industrial upgrading in these villages and the negative effects of the community-dominated pattern of tourism development cannot be overlooked. Through the cases of two cultural world heritages in China, Xidi and Hongcun, this study attempts to explain the reasons and impacts of the alternate rise and fall of these two historic villages, from the perspective of embeddedness. It aims to unveil the relation between high (community-dominated) and low (outsider-dominated)-embedded patterns and the economic sustainability in historical tourism villages. It intends to explain how different patterns of embeddedness lead to distinguished outcomes of tourism leakages, learning activities, industrial upgrading and their further tourism development in historic villages. Conclusions are as follows: 1) The high-embeddedness pattern can bring about comparatively stable community development and fair value distribution in the community. But it relatively hinders the upgrading of the tourism industry, and the low-embeddedness pattern, vice versa. The relationship between embeddedness and the economic sustainability of the tourism villages is dialectical and the key rests on the trade-off between less tourism leakages or more leaning opportunities. 2) Considering the sustainable tourism development of historic villages in a more dynamic and long-term manner, the learning mechanism is more important than the equal share of profits. When the learning mechanism effectively facilitates the industrial upgrading, abundant benefits can be generated and the conflicts caused by uneven distribution are more likely to alleviate. Overall, the contribution of this article is to construct a more critical analytical perspective for the branch of sustainability study in tourism geography. It identifies the key of the trade-offs in high/low embeddedness patterns and the importance of learning. Additionally, this study has supplemented a new type of case studies to the industrial upgrading research in economic geography from the perspective of tourism geography.

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    Temporal and Spatial Variation of Agricultural Threshold Temperature from 1957 to 2016
    Wang Zhiying, Zang Shuying, Zhou Daowei, Li Miao
    2020, 40 (1):  137-148.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.017
    Abstract ( 129 )   HTML ( 20 )   PDF (7839KB) ( 226 )   Save

    Based on the surface meteorological observation data of 830 meteorological stations nationwide from 1957 to 2016, the initial and final dates and duration days of agricultural boundary temperatures (0℃, 5℃ and 10℃) in the past 60 years were determined by using five-day moving average method and GIS method. The changes of initial and final dates and duration days of agricultural boundary temperatures ≥0℃,≥5℃ and ≥10℃ in 1957-1986 and 1987-2016 were compared and analyzed. The results show that, compared with the period 1957-1986, the general change rule of the agricultural threshold temperature (0℃, 5℃ and 10℃) in China during 1987-2016 is basically the same, that is, the early day, the initial date is ahead of schedule, the final date is delayed, and the duration days continues to increase, the change range of each region is different, and the change range of Northeast, North China and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the largest.The national agricultural boundary temperature has a smaller change in the final date. The initial date of ≥0℃ is 3-9 d and 3-15 d ahead of time in the north of Northeast China and Qinghai Tibet Plateau, The duration days increased by 3-15 d and 2-18 d in Northeast and North China, respectively, and increased by 4-16 d in some parts of Qinghai Tibet Plateau; the initial date of ≥5℃ is 4-9 d and 6-13 d earlier in Northeast China and central China, the duration days is 4-13d and 2-14 d ahead of time in Northeast China and parts of North China, and 2-23 d ahead of time in Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The first day of ≥10℃ is 2-9 d earlier and 2-13 d earlier in Northeast China and Qinghai Tibet Plateau respectively, and the duration days was the most significant in Northeast China and Qinghai Tibet Plateau, increasing by 3-15 d and 5-25 d respectively. The change of initial and final date and duration days of agricultural threshold temperature makes the crop growth period prolonged and the planting boundary moved northward.

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    Detecting and Mapping Burned Areas for Croplands Based on Landsat Time Series Remote Sensing Data in North China Plain
    Zhang Sumei, Du Huilin, Liu Liang, Bai Xiangyu, Feng Kaidong, Zhao Hongmei
    2020, 40 (1):  149-157.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.018
    Abstract ( 197 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (27692KB) ( 83 )   Save

    Straw burning releases large qualities of gases and aerosol particles threatening the human health and air quality. Remote sensing plays a more and more important role in monitoring burned area for croplands either at regional scales or at global scales in recent years. The algorithm was based on harmonic model and break point identification to detect annual burned area using Landsat time series and then the algorithm was tested in the border area of Luohe,Zhoukou and Zhumadian in Henan Province using all available Landsat imagery between year 2000 and year 2011. The results were then compared with visual interpretation results and MODIS product MCD64A1 respectively for accuracy analysis and assessment,which show that: 1) As Burned Area Index(BAI) threshold increases,both the commission errors decrease and the omission errors increase. The overall accuracy of mapping cropland burned areas first increases and then decreases. 2) When BAI threshold is 2.9 times root mean square error(RMSE), the overall accuracy reached at the peak value,which is 93.25%. This represents a significant improvement in comparison with MCD64A1 product (The overall accuracy of MCD64A1 product is 70.25%). 3) The algorithm in this paper had balanced omission and commission errors,while MODIS product had more omission errors than commission errors. The results sufficiently show that,the Landsat time series based method in this paper can detect cropland burned area more effectively in comparison with MODIS burned area product.

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    Assessment Method and Empirical Study on the Population Affected by Urban Waterlogging Disaster: Daoli District of Harbin as an Example
    Chen Peng, Zhao Hongyang, Zhang Jiquan, Zhang Shuo, Bao Jianhua, Liu Xiaojing
    2020, 40 (1):  158-164.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.01.019
    Abstract ( 149 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (4772KB) ( 100 )   Save

    The frequent occurrence of urban waterlogging disaster has a grave threat to the life safety of residents. In order to improve the accuracy of urban waterlogging disaster assessment, a more accurate assessment method for the affected population has been proposed. Regarded Daoli District of Harbin City as the research area, and the population affected by urban waterlogging disaster as the research object, it built the numerical simulation model of urban waterlogging by took the first and the second dimensional unsteady flow as the main governing equations. It constructed the calculation model of the population change with time based on land use though combined with the distribution characteristics of the affected population. Based on the simulation of the influence scope of the waterlogging disaster, it extracted the distribution of the affected population in the day and night with the calculation model of the affected population. The result indicates that, in the case of 100 year rainfall in the study area, there are 25 streets, with the range of ponding depth of 0.10-1.42 m, had different degree of ponding. The maximum number of people affected by this level of waterlogging disaster reached 3 500 in 11 streets during the day and 720 in 10 streets at night.

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