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    10 July 2020, Volume 40 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    On the Representation and Non-representation Dimensions of the Production of Social and Cultural Geographical Knowledge
    Guo Wen, Zhu Hong
    2020, 40 (7):  1039-1049.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.001
    Abstract ( 48 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (706KB) ( 41 )   Save

    By using the methods of literature induction and theoretical speculation, this paper systematically analyzes the representation and non-representation expression, relationship transformation and power politics of the production of social and cultural geographical knowledge. It is believed that the essence of representation is the practice of symbolization of objects as substitutes, while non-representation is the practice of manifesting the invisible characteristics of dynamic objects. Representation and non-representation are the multiple expression channels of people's information transmission, as well as the overall thinking framework of meaning writing in geography. They have mutual construction and complementarity in the expression of information and meaning. Due to the different logical abstraction, there is a big difference between representation and non-representation. Representation is mainly concerned about the emergence of “knowledge nodes” of special significance, which has the characteristics of sharing, sociality, explanation and stability; Non-representation is mainly concerned about such aspects as “flow and connection between knowledge nodes”, “inter relationship and relationship subject” and “physical life vitality experience”, which is experiential and situational, physical and experiential, structural and interactive. Representation and non-representation are not only intrinsically related, but also have the necessity of transformation, which is a possible solution for people to deal with the epistemological crisis of social and cultural geographical knowledge, and also the premise and foundation for people to understand the production of geographical knowledge more accurately. With the rise of postmodern geographical context and people's attention to discourse, identity and other elements, the representation and non-representation of social and cultural geographical knowledge production are influenced by power politics, which makes the representation and non-representation practice have the meaning of expression negotiation. This discovery will innovate and expand the traditional understanding of representation and non-representation. In the future research, we should focus more on the connotation interpretation, content and method presentation of representation and non-representation, which is not only conducive to the multiple expression of geographical writing, but also conducive to people's scientific guidance of geographical practice.

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    Rank-size Structure and Coupling Type of Coastal Port City System Based on Multifunctional Perspective
    Guo Jianke, Wu Lulu, Li Bo, Qin Yafeng
    2020, 40 (7):  1050-1061.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.002
    Abstract ( 35 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3280KB) ( 32 )   Save

    Taking 47 major port cities of China from 2001 to 2015 as a sample, this article discusses the characteristics of rank-size, analyzes the hierarchical structure and divides functional coupling types based on the shipping logistics function of coastal port city system from a multifunctional perspective by using the law of rank-size. Some interesting conclusions were obtained. Firstly, from 2001 to 2015, the manufacturing industry function of coastal port city system was divided into double fractal structures and other functions were single fractal. After long-term evolution, the shipping logistics function of rank-size distribution tends to be balanced, and the commercial and trade function, the manufacturing industry function (non-scale areas one), the modern service function and the population migration function all tend to be centralized. Secondly, the hierarchical structure of coastal port city system is in pyramid mode, but the shape is changing towards a spindle structure gradually. And it generally forms 5 levels which are national pivotal, regional pivotal, regional sub-center, regional node and local node. Thirdly, from the multifunctional coupling type, the traditional functions of the port city are generally advanced and the high-end service functions are lagging behind. The urban function shows a slow and gentle development state. It shows that the multifunctional development of China's coastal port cities is still at a low level and the industrial system structure needs to be further optimized. Finally, the functions of regional pivotal and regional sub-center cities are all in the stage of rapid growth. Regional nodes and local nodes cities are still in the growth stage of traditional functions such as industry and trade.

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    7
    The Territorial Structure in South China Sea from Fishermen's Perspective
    Liu Yungang, Liu Xuanyu, Zhang Zhengsheng
    2020, 40 (7):  1062-1071.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.003
    Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1013KB) ( 22 )   Save

    Among China’s unresolved frontier questions, the South China Sea (SCS) has become the most complex and troubled, and arguably the most significant and disconcerting. The economic and security stakes are high and the stake-holding states are numerous and diverse. Mainstream medias and a substantial body literature have paid active attention to islands sovereignty and maritime demarcation from the perspective of legal theory and historical geography. In the same vein, there is another noticeable phenomenon that, along with the continuously maritime incidents involving regional fishermen, the diplomatic and security tensions between China and its neighbours are trapped into a vicious cycle. This paper provides a perspective in which fishers’ activities constitute a willful agent that works in part to govern the course of the boundary dispute based on field research in Hainan Province. Drawing on Sack' notion of Human Territoriality, we focused on various forms of territorialities and territorial strategies practiced by the power of different subjects. The study shows that China's sovereignty over the SCS has been established in well-defined boundary (nine-dash), and is solidly grounded in history. However, the border and territorial politics in SCS is characterized by complexity and diversified participants since modern times, and the state, fishers and foreign powers have constituted a multi-scalar and multi-agent territorial structure, which has resulted in‘potential conflicts’among various types of territorialization that overlay one another. Furthermore, it is also equally important to note that fishermen are self-motivated actors whose ultimate goal is to make a living. Mobilizing the realist motivation of livelihood and the territorial tactics of cross-border mobilities, this paper suggest that fishers are seeking to reinforce the state objectives of boundary legitimization and defense of claimed waters. The analysis, however, also demonstrates an ambivalent nature of territoriality, with fishers muddling the state interventions through their own conduct and rationale. The government thus faces a delicate task of managing the fishing operation vis-a?-vis the boundary dispute.

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    The Spatial Pattern and Differentiation Mechanism of Poverty Alleviation in National Poverty Counties
    Wang Degen, Sha Mengyu, Zhao Meifeng
    2020, 40 (7):  1072-1081.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.004
    Abstract ( 42 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2143KB) ( 29 )   Save

    Accurate poverty alleviation is one of the three major challenges in building a well-off society in China. Taking the poverty-stricken counties (not including the data of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, limited by data collection) that have achieved poverty alleviation in China as of 2018 as a sample, the poverty alleviation index is used to measure the relative poverty alleviation effect of poverty alleviation counties in the country. The natural breakpoint method is used to divide the poverty alleviation into four grades, and the impact factor indicators of poverty alleviation are constructed. The system analyzes the correlation between the 16 factors of the five categories of variables such as natural environment characteristics, location traffic conditions, agricultural modernization level, regional economic development level and public service level, and analyzes the degree of regional poverty alleviation through the use of correlation analysis. The dominant factor of force and the dominant interaction factor. The results show that poverty alleviation is divided into four levels: high poverty alleviation, second highest poverty alleviation, middle and high poverty alleviation and basic poverty alleviation. The spatial distribution shows an imbalance, and the poverty alleviation rate is out of sync with poverty alleviation; five factors are poor. The effect of poverty alleviation in the county is significantly related. The degree of action from the largest to the smallest is the slope, the distance to the main trunk road, the distance to the nearest prefecture-level city, the total power of agricultural machinery per capita and the per capita fiscal revenue. The spatial differentiation of poverty alleviation is affected by five driving factors. The common influence, the strong driving force, the strong driving force, the weak driving force and the basic driving force, which are divided according to the intensity of the action, have different influences on the four levels of poverty alleviation.

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    Travel Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Sharing Bicycles in Central Urban Areas Based on Geographically Weighted Regression: The Case of Guangzhou City
    Wei Zongcai, Zhen Feng, Mo Haitong, Liu Chenyu, Peng Danli
    2020, 40 (7):  1082-1091.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.005
    Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2685KB) ( 70 )   Save

    With the skyrocketing development of mobile information and communication technology and its penetration into everyday life, time, space and distance have been highly compressed. Spatiotemporal constraints of human behavior have been reduced significantly. As a result, the relationship between residents, time and space has been reconstructed, which further reshapes the pattern of urban residents’ behavior. As a new-type travel mode of ‘Internet + sharing’, sharing bicycle provides a more convenient and diversified choice for urban residents’ daily travel. The extant studies mainly focus on the travel characteristics and modes of public bicycle and their influencing factors, while sharing bicycle has been less touched. This article investigates the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of sharing bicycle travel trajectories in the central urban area of Guangzhou by using one-week Mobike travel data. Then, this study further explores the impacts of functional density factors of built environment on the travel behaviors of sharing bicycles and to what extent, based on geographically weighted regression method. It has been found that the travel behaviors of Mobike show obvious morning and evening peak hours on both weekdays and weekends, and they are not significantly affected by the thunder showers. On weekdays, the new urban area with more employment opportunities, such as Zhujiang New Town and Tianhe Software Park, has shown higher travel density of sharing bicycles, while on the weekends, the travel density in this urban area has significantly reduced. Furthermore, compared with the morning peak, the travel behaviors at the late peak are more concentrated in the core area, while less in the marginal area. The old urban areas with the characteristics of highly functional mix, dense road network and bicycle-friendly become the main travel areas of sharing bicycles. Among them, the density of public transportation station, functional mixing degree and the density of motor vehicle lane show strongly significant influences on the travel behaviors of sharing bicycles. Moreover, improving the quality of the above-mentioned factors can largely promote the travel behaviors of sharing bicycles in most of research areas. This study can provide references for bike-sharing enterprises to improve their operation and management, the government to enhance the slow traffic environment and the quality of citizens’ travel.

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    Heterogeneity of the Coupling Relationship Between the Innovation Capacity and Industrial Transformation of Renewable Resource-based Cities in China
    Qiu Fangdao, Zhang Chunli, Guo Mengmeng, Zheng Ziyan, Shan Yongbing
    2020, 40 (7):  1092-1103.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.006
    Abstract ( 39 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1300KB) ( 29 )   Save

    Using the methods such as entropy weight TOPSIS, coupling coordination degree and responsiveness model, this article analyzes the evolutionary characteristics of the coupling relationship between the innovation capacity and industrial transformation of renewable resource-based cities in China from 2000 to 2016. The results show that: 1) Since 2000, the innovation capacity and industrial transformation of renewable resource-based cities in China have shown an increasing trend on the whole. However, the vulnerability of the industrial system is still strong, and the ability to innovate is also weak. 2) During the same period, the level of coordination between the innovation capacity and industrial transformation of renewable resource-based cities in China is low, but there is potential for improvement. From the geographical location, the state of coordination between the innovation capacity and industrial transformation of renewable resource-based cities in the eastern and central regions has continued to improve, while the west and northeast are out of balance status. From the resource type, the coupling and coordination between the innovation capacity and industrial transformation of the 4 types of cities, including nonmetals, metals, energy, and integrated cities, are increasing. On the contrary, the imbalance in forestry cities has been increasing. Judging from the size of the city, the level of coordination between innovation capacity and industrial transformation of large and medium-sized renewable resource-based cities in China has improved significantly, but the coordination of small cities is low and continues to weaken. 3) The innovation ability has positively promoted the industrial transformation of renewable resource-based cities in China. However, it has been weakening in recent years. In addition, the industrial transformation of different types of renewable resource-based cities in China responds to varying degrees of innovation capacity.

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    Spatial Agglomeration and Unbalanced Development of Elements in Northeast China
    Zhao Ruyu, Xu Jun
    2020, 40 (7):  1104-1113.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.007
    Abstract ( 39 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1793KB) ( 38 )   Save

    Based on the county-level production factors and GDP data of Northeast China from 2000 to 2017, this article examines the spatial-temporal characteristics and spatial relationship of factor agglomeration and unbalanced development in Northeast China with the help of spatial analysis methods. The results show that: 1) Since 2000, the factor agglomeration in Northeast China has generally shown a downward trend and the regional differences have narrowed. 2) The spatial agglomeration of elements and the level of economic development have evolved from high-value areas with a central city as the core, and gradually evolved into high-value agglomeration areas with the central city as the core and its neighboring regions. The spatial coupling between the two is good, which forms a high degree of spatial consistency between the factor aggregation and economic development in the central and southern regions; however, there is a significant spatial dislocation in the northern region, especially in the municipal districts of Hegang and Yichun in the northern region. The degree of agglomeration is higher than other regions, but the level of economic development is at a low to medium level. It can be seen that urban agglomerations dominated by Kazakh clusters and central and southern Liaoning urban agglomerations are gradually becoming the core driving areas of social development in the Northeast region. 3) Factors such as location differences, city-biased development policies, and industrial transformation and upgrading have combined to dominate the spatial differentiation of factor agglomeration and unbalanced development in Northeast China.

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    Recreational Suitability Evaluation for the Heritage Sections along the Grand Canal
    Zhang Fei, Yang Linsheng, He Xun, Shi Yong
    2020, 40 (7):  1114-1123.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.008
    Abstract ( 49 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1333KB) ( 28 )   Save

    This article evaluates the recreational suitability for the 27 heritage sections along the Grand Canal by using methods of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). Considering fully on the new requirements of National Cultural Park, which is a major cultural projects promoted by China, an evaluation index system including 4 index layers (value of heritage element, background of ecological environment, socioeconomic conditions, and foundation of tourism development), 10 element layers (authenticity, integrity, river condition, environmental quality, etc) and 22 factor layers are constructed. The research shows that: 1) According to the evaluation results, it can be seen that the ranking of recreational suitability for 27 heritage sections is objective, and the index system used to evaluate recreational suitability for heritage sections along the Grand Canal is credible, which also provide plentiful experience to evaluate the recreational suitability for the large-scale linear cultural heritage. 2) From the perspective of recreational suitability: 27 sections of heritage sections can be divided into 3 groups as higher recreational suitability sections, intermediate recreational suitability sections and low recreational suitability sections. All the 11 heritage sections with higher recreational suitability are located in navigable sections along the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal and Zhedong Canal, included Jiaxing-Hangzhou section of Jiangnan Canal, Suzhou section of Jiangnan Canal, etc. The 4 sections with low recreational suitability are located in the break-flow area of the Grand Canal, including Nanwang complex section of Huitong Canal and Liuzi section of Tongji Canal. The suitability for recreational utilization of heritage river in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Tianjin, Beijing and Hebei are better than that in Anhui, Henan and Shandong. Based on the above results, 11 heritage sections with higher recreational suitability should be developed preferentially, while the 4 sections with low recreational suitability should be protected and restored. 3) According to the index layers that affect the recreational suitability: value of heritage elements is the determining factor for the suitability of recreational utilization, while background of ecological environment, socioeconomic conditions and foundation of tourism development are important variables. The higher degree of suitability for recreational utilization, the better quality of the ecological background. For those heritage rivers with low suitability for recreational utilization, it has poor performance in economical and social conditions and tourism development foundation. Under the premise of evaluating the suitability of recreational utilization in different sections of large-scale linear cultural heritage, a scientific and reasonable recreational utilization model should be constructed. For recreational development of the Grand Canal, authenticity and integrity protection of the heritage should be taken as the baseline, while environmental governance should be taken as the premise.

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    Livelihood Risk and Its Impact on Life Satisfaction of Farmers in Key Ecological Functional Areas: A Case Study of the Yellow River Water Supply Area of Gannan
    Zhao Xueyan, Su Huizhen, He Xiaofeng, Jie Yongqing, Mu Fangfang, Xue Bing
    2020, 40 (7):  1124-1133.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.009
    Abstract ( 37 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3056KB) ( 34 )   Save

    Based on the household survey data in the Yellow River water supply area, this article analyzes the characteristics of livelihood risk and life satisfaction of farmers, and explores the influence of livelihood risk on the life satisfaction of farmers. The results show that: 1) The main livelihood risk faced by farmers in the Yellow River water supply area of Gannan are natural disasters, illness of family members and tuition expenses of children, which have the most serious impact on farmers and last longer; 2) Most farmers in this area suffer from multiple risks, and their livelihood risk diversification index is 4.12, more families are affected by the risk combination of family illness and natural disaster, family illness and children's tuition expenses, family illness and housing expenses; 3) The life satisfaction of farmers in this area is at a middle level, and the economic demonstration areas is higher than that in the key protection area and rehabilitation management area; 4) The life satisfaction of farmers is not only due to the severity and duration of risks such as the tuition expenses of their children, the quality of pasture/cultivated land decline, the difficulty of drinking water for people and animals, family death expenses, ecological policies, the duration of family illness risk, as well as financial capital, nature capital, social capital, psychological capital and the diversity of livelihood methods, but also the interaction between the risk of family illness and tuition expenses of child, natural disasters and children's employment difficulties, as well as the impact of the comprehensive severity of livelihood risk and the degree of comprehensive sustainability is more significant. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to prevent livelihood risk and improve life satisfaction.

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    Residential-Service Industry Space Association and Mechanism in Yangzhou City Based on Community Characteristics
    Wang Dan, Fang Bin, Zhang Jun, Chen Zhengfu
    2020, 40 (7):  1134-1141.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.010
    Abstract ( 41 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1728KB) ( 24 )   Save

    Due to the lack of material, economic, and social data, the research on the spatial association of residential space and service industry space in China is mostly concentrated on the city level, and there is little analysis on spatial association of residential space and service industry space from the perspective of community and multilevel. Based on the visual survey, the data of the material, social and economic characteristics of residential space of communities in Yangzhou, a famous historical and cultural city, were obtained. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted (GWR) regression was used to study the relationship between these characteristics and the number, density and diversity of service industry POI. The result shows that: The building age, population and population age structure are the main factors in the association. The building age is negatively correlated with the POI number, density and diversity index of service industry; the population number is positively correlated with the POI number, density and diversity index of service industry, the middle age ratio is positively correlated with the POI number of service industry, the youth ratio has a negative correlation with the POI density of service industry, and the aging ratio has a negative correlation with the diversity index of service industry. Based on the OLS and GWR regression analysis, the process of spatial association between residential space and service industry space can be divided into three stages: The formation of differentiated residential space, the formation of differentiated population agglomeration and consumption characteristics, and the collaborative evolution of consumption characteristics and service industry space. The spatial association between residential space and service industry space reflects the continuous interaction process of residential space (place)-people agglomeration (person)-service industry space (place).

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    Obstacle Factors and Evolution of Urban Economic Resilience of Fuxin Shrinking City and Its Obstacle Factors
    Dong Lijing, Su Fei, Wen Yuqing, Wang Yongchao
    2020, 40 (7):  1142-1149.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.011
    Abstract ( 37 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (653KB) ( 30 )   Save

    Taking a typical shrinking city as an example, this article analyzes the changing trend and obstacles of the resilience of Fuxin’s urban economic system in 1997-2016 based on set pair analysis and resilience assessment. And the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward by combining the aspects of resilience and response capacity. On the whole, the results indicate that resilience shows a growing trend in urban economic system of Fuxin city during the past 20 years, and the resilience fluctuates from 0.30 to 0.45. It presents a state of medium and low resilience, and a generally stable situation. The influence of recoverability on the resilience is significant in urban economic system of Fuxin city among the vulnerability, adaptability, recoverability and resilience by using regression analysis. The results of obstacle analysis indicate that rational structure of production, economic intensification and export-orientated level of economy are the most important factors affecting the regional resilience degree. It is suggested that, to improve response capacity in urban economic system of Fuxin city, we should optimize the development of energy industry, enhance the scientific and technological innovating capacity, improve economic extroversion and develop circular economy, as well as promote energy conservation and consumption reduction to realize green transition.

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    Evolution Characteristics and Division of Regional Types of Correlation Coupling of Urban-Rural Systems: A Case Study of the Three Provinces of Northeast China
    Wang Ying, Liu Hang, Chen Xiaohong, Song Yunting
    2020, 40 (7):  1150-1159.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.012
    Abstract ( 53 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2536KB) ( 54 )   Save

    Starting from the conceptual characteristics of the correlation coupling of urban-rural system, taking 34 prefecture-level cities in the three provinces of Northeast China as research units, using the data of urban and rural development from 2003 to 2017, and using the grey correlation model, this paper studies the internal driving factors, spatial and temporal characteristics, and the regional types of urban-rural correlation coupling. The results show that: the correlation degree between urban and rural factors in the three provinces of Northeast China is over 0.5, which is a relatively high correlation. The strong factors for urban and rural system are concentrated on the economic and spatial fields of urban subsystem and the economic field of the rural system, and the strong factors of the urban sub-system are obviously more than that of the rural subsystem. In 2003-2017, the average urban-rural coupling degree in Northeast China showed a gradual decline, from 0.788 to 0.692, indicating that the urban-rural interaction tended to be eased and the coupling between urban and rural areas increased. The spatial pattern of urban-rural coupling in the three provinces of Northeast China showed “south low north high, north south difference narrowing, high value is concentrated in the backward areas of the three provinces and the four major centers is the polarization of low value”. The correlation coupling of urban and rural areas in 34 cities in the three provinces of Northeast China can be divided into five evolution types: high level coordination stability type, high level coordination regression type, lower level coordination decline type, low level and lower level coordination rising type, low level and lower level coordination stability type.

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    Evolution of China's Tourism Industry Agglomeration Spatial Pattern and Its Impact on Tourism Economy Based on Specialization and Diversification Agglomeration Perspective
    Wang Xinyue, Lu Xuejing
    2020, 40 (7):  1160-1170.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.013
    Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1532KB) ( 31 )   Save

    Based on the data of 31 provincial districts in China from 2001 to 2018, comprehensively using the methods of spatial analysis and mathematic model, it analyzes the characteristics of spatial pattern evolution of tourism industry specialization, diversification agglomeration and proves it whether will promote tourism economic. The research stated the following: 1) the degree of tourism industry specialization agglomeration has a distribution characteristic with western areas higher than the east, and the agglomeration index is decreased year by year; on the other hand, the degree of diversification agglomeration were opposite, which is high in the east and low in the west and the agglomeration index were increased as year go on; 2) Based of the Getis-Ord G* indexes distribution graph, the model demonstrates that the specialization agglomeration indexes hot-spot areas are mainly distributed in western provinces, which cold-spot area are spread in eastern and central China. The hot-spot areas of diversification agglomeration indexes are located in coastal provinces of China, and the cold-spot areas majority distributed in western Xinjiang and Tibet; 3) SDM model estimation result shows that: China’s diversification agglomeration of tourism industry can promote the improvement on tourism economy, but specialization agglomeration has a restraining effect; for the dimension of three regions, the effect of different regions has significant differences: diversification agglomeration are significantly positive on tourism economic in the eastern region, yet the positive effect of diversification agglomeration in the central region were not as significant. Specialization agglomeration in the eastern and central regions hindered the development of tourism economy, while the western region carries out a significant promotion effect. 4) The growth of tourism economy in China is the result of the combination of various factors such as the level of urbanization, economic development, improved traffic conditions, institution environment, and the industrial structure, and all the factors have obvious effect on the development of tourism economy. Due to the consideration of the influence of spatial location, this study not only reveals the spatial correlation of the specialization, diversification agglomeration of the tourism industry, but also effectively reveals the spatial spillover effects of the provincial tourism economy. At the same time, the results show that adjust the industrial structure according to regional conditions, promote the stable and sustainable development of the tourism economy, and further study the structural proportion of tourism industry provide a significant reference.

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    Spatial-temporal Patterns and Influencing Factor Contributions of Direct Economic Loss from Climatological-Meteorological-Hydrological Hazards in the World in 1987-2016
    Ma Heng, Liu Tian, Mu Cuicui, Shi Peijun
    2020, 40 (7):  1171-1180.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.014
    Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (4182KB) ( 40 )   Save

    With the development of society and the growth of population, the impact of global climate change on human society is increasing rapidly and some countries and regions may suffer more climate-related hazards, which include climatological hazards (drought, glacial lake outburst and wildfire), meteorological hazards (extreme temperature, fog and storm) and hydrological hazards (flood, landslide and wave action). These hazards happened more frequently as time went by, and the direct economic losses had also increased, posing many challenges to the development of security and human. Direct economic loss is the most direct and concentrated manifestation of hazards in terms of impact, whose absolute and relative values are the key indicators for characterizing the hazards and disasters. Systematic study of the spatial-temporal patterns and influencing factor contributions of direct economic loss from climatological-meteorological-hydrological hazards in the world can help us master the development rules of hazards, the ability to respond disasters in different income regions and the contributions of different factors to disaster loss to provide a certain reference for disaster prevention and mitigation, and they’re also important for planning and sustainable development in different countries and regions. Based on the global climatological-meteorological-hydrological hazards and disaster data in EM-DAT from 1987 to 2016 and social data such as Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the direct economic loss and loss ratio (direct economic loss/GDP) of the hazards were calculated and analyzed on different spatial-temporal scales respectively, the contribution rate of frequency of hazards and disasters, GDP and their coupling effects to disaster loss ratio were analyzed as well. The results showed that: 1) The total direct economic loss of the disasters showed a significant upward trend over time, while the loss ratio of the disasters went up and then went down. The ability of the whole world to prevent and mitigate disasters had been strengthened, but its ability to cope with catastrophe was still weak. 2) The higher income area suffered more serious direct economic loss of disasters, while the economic disaster loss ratio in lower middle and upper middle income areas were significantly higher than the loss ratio in low income and high income areas. 3) The areas with severe losses of the hazards included Europe, South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia and the south-central region of North America, while the areas with high loss ratio of the disaster included Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Caribbean. 4) Frequency of the hazards and disasters played a leading role in the loss ratio of climate-related disasters in the preliminary stage, and its contribution had a downward trend; while the GDP and the coupling effects dominated in the later with an increasing impact in the changing of loss ratio, and there are some differences in different income regions.

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    Data Collection and Visualization of Firmiana Danxiaensis H. H. Hsue & H. S. Kiu in the Zhanglao Peak, Danxia Mountain, Guangdong Province, China
    Ouyang Jie, Zhuang Changwei, Luo Xiaoying, Qiao Yan, Duan Yi'nan, Zheng Suifang, Chen Zaixiong
    2020, 40 (7):  1181-1190.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.015
    Abstract ( 37 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (11156KB) ( 41 )   Save

    638 high-precision image data were obtained from the Zhanglaofeng Tourist Area (4.25 km2) in the core area of the Danxia Mountain by fixed-wing UAV aerial survey. Photoscan software was used to joint Orthphoto Map and produce DEM data. The orthophoto map of aerial survey area was segemented 470 maps in the ArcGIS 10.5 software, and Firmiana danxiaensis H. H. Hsue & H. S. Kiu was identified and located visually. The position data of 1515 Firmiana danxiaensis in aerial survey area were obtained, and their points were built GeoDatabase. Using the spatial analysis module of ArcGIS 10.5, the DEM data were converted into slope and aspect data. The location data of 1515 individuals of Firmiana danxiaensis were superimposed with DEM data, slope and aspect data, and quantitative analysed their characteristics visually. The main conclusions are as follows: 71.2% of Firmiana danxiaensis (1078 plants) in the aerial survey area are distributed within the Firmiana danxiaensis Altitude Line" of the Zhangfeng Peak at an altitude of 210± 90 m. 68.3% (1034 trees) of Firmiana danxiaensis are distributed in the cliff zone of Danxia with slope > 15°, which is consistent with the observation on the spot. Although the distribution of Firmiana danxiaensis is found on all the slopes of the Zhanglao Peak in aerial survey area, the quantitative statistics show that the distribution of Firmiana danxiaensis is relatively concentrated on the three slopes of southeast (295), south (276) and southwest (244), accounting for about 53.8% (815) in the total, which also consistent with the observation that Firmiana danxiaensis belonging to the sunny plants. This study not only quantitatively analyzed the micro-geomorphological environment (elevation, slope, aspect) characteristics of the spatial distribution of the rare species of Firmiana danxiaensis in the Zhanglao Peak of the Danxia Mountain in aerial survey area, but also provided the spatial distribution map of Firmiana danxiaensis at different elevations, slopes and aspects. Data collection and spatial analysis of rare species in the small area are important basis for protection. They can also provide reference and basis for more accurate landing of Firmiana danxiaensis ecological red line.

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    The Spatial Distribution of Soil Properties and Their GW Correlation: A Case in Zhangjiakou City
    Wang Yanzai, Dong Yifan, Liu Muxing, Wang Yong
    2020, 40 (7):  1191-1201.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.016
    Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (5266KB) ( 36 )   Save

    The development of soil is decided by many environmental factors, such as climate, lithology, landforms and human activities, etc. The complex of these environmental factors leads to the spatial heterogeneity of soil physic-chemical properties and their interrelations. However, the knowledge of interrelations between soil properties on regional scale is still limited. In this study, the topsoil samples were collected from Zhangjiakou city, and six parameters of soil properties respectively are median grain size, bulk density, field water capacity (FW), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were analyzed using a geographical statistical analysis and nonparametric statistics models of two-way analysis of variance to discuss the spatial distribution of soil property, as well as the spatial distribution of interrelations between theses six parameters. Our results show that, the spatial distribution patterns are different between six parameters of soil property, median grain size of soil exhibits significant spatial cluster patterns (P<0.05). However, other five soil parameters do not represent significant spatial cluster patterns (P<0.05). The spatial distribution difference of six parameters would cause uncertainty of interrelations between these six parameters. GW correlation analysis shows that the interrelations between six parameters represent various spatial distribution patterns. Furthermore, our results found that the spatial distribution of soil properties was only affected by land use which often represents as human activities. The content of soil nutrient (soil organic carbon and total nitrogen) and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of soil are larger in forestry land than other land use types (P<0.05). Other soil properties such as grainsize, bulk density, field water capacity of soil do not represent difference in different unites of geomorphic factors, soil types and land use (P<0.05). The spatial distribution of interrelations between soil properties were primarily decided by geomorphic factors and soil types. In most cases of interrelations between soil properties, the GW correlation coefficient showed larger values in Bashang plateau while lower values in other parts of Zhangjiakou city, and the GW correlation also represented larger values in chestnut soil type while lower values in other soil types (P<0.05). In addition, we found the GW correlation coefficients are nearly similar to the Pearson correlation coefficients, suggests that GW correlation can be used to detect the general correlation between variables. Overall, our results suggest that even though the distribution of soil properties are sensitive to human activities such as land use changes or reforestation, however, the interrelations between soil properties are not sensitive to land use. In other words, the influence of human activities on soil properties is comprehensive, not just on single soil property.

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    Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Earthen Fort Ruins in the Lower Reaches of the Yellow River and Their Relations with Floods
    Chen Shiyue, Qiang Liuyan, Zhang Fengju, Li Xinze
    2020, 40 (7):  1202-1209.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.017
    Abstract ( 65 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (2410KB) ( 80 )   Save

    It is of great significance to study the spatio-temporal distribution of the earthen fort ruins in the lower reaches of the Yellow River to further study the relationship between the ruins and the flood of the Yellow River in the discovery and protection of the ruins. Environmental archaeology has found that there are many earthen fort ruins in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. Earthen forts are ancient residential sites which are significantly higher than the surrounding ground and accumulated by the ancestors, reflecting the history of the ancestors to resist and prevent the flood of the Yellow River. Through the inquiry and summary of archaeological data and ancient documents, the formation and spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of the ruins in lower reaches of the Yellow River are explained, and the relationship between the distribution of ruins in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the flood of the Yellow River is analyzed by using the methods of geography and statistics. The research shows that the time distribution of earthen fort ruins are Dawenkou culture, Longshan culture, Yueshi culture, Shang, Zhou and Han dynasties, and mainly in Longshan culture period, which may reflect the migration of ancient human beings to the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the relatively frequent floods. Since the Han Dynasty, the strategy of the state and the residents on both sides of the Yellow River to resist the flood of the Yellow River has changed to build dikes, and the Yellow River has been in steady flow for a long time, which has led to the gradual abandonment of the earthen fort ruins. Earthen fort ruins mainly distribute in the southwestern Shandong and the northeastern Henan. It is located in the key areas of frequent diversion and flooding of the Yellow River in historical period. These areas are low in terrain and prone to flooding events. This paper holds that the flood of the Yellow River is the main factor affecting the distribution of the earthen fort ruins. The emergence of the flood forces human beings to avoid the high places. The residents living in the plain areas mainly adopt the strategy of heightening their habitats to avoid the flood, thus forming the mound—today’s earthen fort ruins.

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    Analysis of Climate Suitability of Spring Maize in Liaoning Province Based on Modulus and Mathematics
    Cao Yongqiang, Qi Jingwei, Wang Fei, Li Linghui, Lu Jie
    2020, 40 (7):  1210-1220.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.07.018
    Abstract ( 41 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (5435KB) ( 33 )   Save

    In order to evaluate the impact of climate change on corn growth, this study takes Liaoning Province as an example to select daily meteorological data from 18 meteorological stations from 1969 to 2018, and uses fuzzy mathematics to establish a climate suitability assessment model for spring corn, relying on geographic information technology To explore the spatiotemporal characteristics of climatic suitability for spring corn, and to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the annual climate of corn on this basis. The results showed that: 1) Sunshine, temperature, and precipitation suitability fluctuated greatly during the whole growth period of spring maize in Liaoning Province; however, the spatial differences in the climate suitability of spring maize were weak. 2) The climatic suitability of each growth stage of spring corn from high to low is as follows: emergence period > flowering period > maturity period > sowing period. Temperature suitability was highest during the whole growth period, followed by sunshine suitability, and precipitation suitability was lowest. 3) The highest climatic suitability values for spring corn during the sowing, emergence, flowering and maturity periods occurred in Liaoyang, Huludao, Yingkou and Tieling, respectively. 4) The accuracy rate of the annual climate of spring corn reached 64%, indicating that the assessment method can reflect the annual climate more accurately. In the past 50 years, Liaoning Province has four years of spring corn preference (in 1971, 1979, 1993, 1998), and the worst are 1969 (4.98%) and 1973 (5.59%). The research results can provide an important basis for climate suitability assessment of future crop cultivation.

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