Table of Content

    10 July 2021, Volume 41 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Construction of Transnational Education Space from the Perspective of Mobilities: The Case of International Schools
    Lin Libin, Zhu Hong, Zhang Bo
    2021, 41 (7):  1107-1115.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.001
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    The increasingly diversified and internationalized educational spaces around the world have promoted the vigorous development of geographies of education. In light of vibrant mobilities research, the meanings and connotations of educational spaces have further extended into various non-traditional institutional spaces including families, communities and workplaces, requiring geographers’ reflection on how diverse education spaces are shaping and being shaped differently through different geographical spaces and processes, and the relational nature of educational mobilities. International schools, a bourgeoning but relatively under-examined phenomenon in existing geographical writings, are transnational educational spaces created in specific places by the process of globalization. Taking an international school in Guangzhou as an example, this paper explores the tension between global and local, mobilities and stillness in the international school through qualitative research methods including participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The research shows that: knowledge, peoples, spaces and other elements are transnationally mobilized and transferred in an interconnected manner, making the international school into a comprehensive and multi-level transnational “education enclave”; Meanwhile, mobilities do not indicate the negation of stillness. Both the processes of mobilities and stillness are shaping the international school simultaneously. A certain degree of involvement of local elements has not threatened the foundation of the international institution. In general, the holistic cross-border flow of educational resources contributes to the separation from the local in terms of physical spaces, social services and classes. Transnational education based and produced in local fails to achieve real cross-cultural interactions and connections, but further strengthens the cultural differences and boundaries. The present study further enriches studies in the field of geographies of education as well as special urban spaces in contemporary internationalized China.

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    The Differences of Urban-rural Population Change and the Underlying Mechanism in the Populaaation Shrinking Counties in China
    Liu Zhen, Qi Wei, Liu Shenghe
    2021, 41 (7):  1116-1128.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.002
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    In recent years, the continuous decline of the total population at the regional scale has become increasingly obvious. Considering that most regions have still been experiencing the rapid urbanization processes, it is necessary to analyze the differences of urban and rural population changes and its underlying driving forces in the population shrinking areas. Based on the population census data in 2000 and 2010, this article has analyzed the difference characteristics of urban-rural population change in the population shrinking counties by identifying several urban-rural differentiation types, and then we have established a theoretical framework to investigate the underlying drivers. The main findings are as follows: 1) 38.6% of the research samples have experienced population shrinkage in the period from 2000 to 2010, but most of them have been characterized by “urban population increasing and rural population declining” (or “urban growth and rural decline” for short), and these units account for 89.5% of all the shrinking samples, and the proportion of urban-rural population both shrinking type (or “urban and rural both decline” for short) has a relatively low percentage. 2) In the central region, the type of “urban growth and rural decline A”, which means a high urban growth rate, occupies the main part, and Northeast China has a high percentage of the type of “urban and rural both decline”, and there are obvious spatial differentiations in the eastern and western China. 3) The factors of urbanization level and economic development level have the most significant impacts on the differentiation of urban-rural population change among the population shrinking areas: the population shrinking areas with higher urbanization level and lower economic development level will be more likely to experience slow urban population growth and even urban population decline. 4) The growth rate of economic development, the level of natural population growth, and the quality of public services also have certain impacts on the differentiation of urban-rural population change among the population shrinking areas. Based on these findings, we argue that the perspective of urban-rural differentiation can deepen understanding of population shrinkage in China, and it can also contribute to the relevant theories of population shrinkage in a developing context.

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    A Review of Intellectual Migration Research Under the Background of Globalization and Mobility: Topics and Prospects
    Ma Ling, Xie Yuanyuan, Yuan Zhenjie
    2021, 41 (7):  1129-1138.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.003
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    With the development of global knowledge economy, scholars has drawn more and more attention to intellectual migration in geography and world migration research. By adopting CiteSpace’s visual analysis on published articles from 1990 to 2019 among main geographical journals abroad, this study finds the key topics of intellectual migration in western academic journals, which include: 1) There are a couple of terms relating to intellectual migration in the literature. At the early stage, many research articles focus on the study of globalization and international students migration. In the meanwhile, there are a number of studies has been done on intellectual migration, knowledge transfer/circulation and urban/city development in economic geography; 2) Since the new century, scholars of socio-cultural geography have begun to pay attention to transnational and trans-local flow of intellectual migrants, and discussed the diverse topics such as tanslocal subjectivity, identity negotiation, social, cultural and intellectual capital, transnational spaces and everyday lives, transnational flow and translocal network; 3) With the economic rise of global south (especially five BRIC) countries, return migration of intellectual talents (global north to global south migration), innovation and urban development in developing countries has also been paid more and more attention by scholars in geography.

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    The Spatial Distribution and Its Influencing Factors of China’s National Study Travel Base
    Wu Rulian, Li Hongyi, Tian Fengjun
    2021, 41 (7):  1139-1148.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.004
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    In recent years, with the continuous deepening of the integration of tourism and education, study travel in China has developed with a high speed, and has been widely concerned by researches. Study travel bases (STBs) are important space carrier to the development of study travel activities. However, few scholars focused on the spatial distribution of STBs and its influencing factors from the perspective of geography. Thus, 581 national STBs for primary and middle school students published by the Ministry of Education of China in 2017-2018 were selected as the research sample. With the adoption of ArcGIS software, this paper aimed to analyze the type structure, spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of 581 national STBs by using average nearest neighbor index, the kernel density estimation, geographic concentration index, disequilibrium index, spatial autocorrelation analysis and geographical linkage coefficient. Results indicated that: 1) National STBs of China can be roughly divided into ten types, followed as popular science education base, cultural sites, scientific research institutions, museum, national defense and military, ancient villages and towns, nationality arts, red tourism, comprehensive practice base, youth activity center. The main categories are popular science education, museum, and red tourism, accounting for 30.63%, 20.83% and 12.91%, respectively. The spatial distribution of types of STBs in China is unbalanced as different types of STBs have obvious differentiation in space structure characteristics. 2) The spatial distribution of STBs shows the agglomeration and disequilibrium characteristics of ‘more in the east and less in the west’. North China and East China have a large number of STBs, accounting for 21.86% and 25.13%. In terms of the number of each province, Beijing with 75 STBs is far ahead of other provinces. 3) The spatial distribution density of STBs is uneven, including one high density core area, one secondary high density core area and several high agglomeration areas. It shows obviously a core-edge structure and the distribution density decreases gradually from the eastern coastal area to the western inland area. The distribution density around provincial capitals, 5A scenic spots and traffic arteries is relatively higher. 4) There is a significant autocorrelation in the overall space of STBs in China. The cold and hot spots analysis of STBs show the gradient differentiation pattern of ‘hot spots-sub-hot spots-sub-cold spots-cold spots’ and ‘hot-spots-sub-hot spots-cold spots’ from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region to the north and south. 5) Policy and institutional environment, economic development foundation, location and transportation conditions, tourism resource endowment and education development level are the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of research and study travel bases. Finally, according to the results of the study, some suggestions are put forward for the development of the STBs. This study can provide a basis for the optimization of space layout and the integration and utilization of research resources of research travel bases in China, and has certain reference value for the formulation of research travel policies at the national level and in different regions.

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    Theoretical Framework and Prospect on Quasi-administrative Division
    Wang Fenglong, Liu Yungang
    2021, 41 (7):  1149-1157.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.005
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    According to the classical definitions given by Chinese leading scholars such as Junde Liu and Zhenhe Zhou, administrative division has narrow and broad connotations. While the narrow definition of administrative division is the administratively governed regions officially divided by the state, the broad definition of administrative division denotes all regions with administrative functions, including various informal administrative divisions which are usually out of the official administrative hierarchy system. The informal administrative divisions are termed quasi-administrative divisions in this paper. Quasi-administrative divisions provide various localized and flexible policy tools for the unified administrative management in China, many of them have developed into formal administrative division afterwards. However, existing studies have paid much less attention to quasi-administrative divisions than formal administrative divisions. Some scholars even hold that quasi-administrative divisions should not be a topic in administrative geography. This study points out the importance of quasi-administrative divisions in studies of political geography and provides a conceptual model to interpret the definition and typology of quasi-administrative divisions. Specifically, quasi-administrative division is categorized into the sub-administrative division, virtual administrative division and partial administrative division. Additionally, a theoretical framework is developed to analyze the formation and transformation of various quasi-administrative divisions based on the scale and territory theories in political geography. The important topics worth further exploration are also summarized in this paper.

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    Evolution Pattern and Impact Factors of Environmental Innovation in the Yangtze River Economic Belt
    Duan Dezhong, Xia Qifan, Zhang Yang, Gao Xin
    2021, 41 (7):  1158-1167.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.006
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    The “T” structures in China’s territorial development and economic layout remain to be the two areas with the greatest potential for economic growth in China, among which the Yangtze River Economic Belt is the only first-class development axis across the three plates of East, Central and West. Over the years, in the excessive pursuit of rapid economic growth, the Yangtze River and its two sides of the great lakes and major tributaries have suffered serious environmental pollution, ecosystem imbalance, and frequent water security problems. To pay attention to the great protection together and not to engage in the great development is the guideline for the construction of the green Yangtze River Economic Belt, and the environmental innovation is the core support of the green development of the economic belt of the Yangtze River. In this paper, the spatial and temporal characteristics of environmental innovation in the Yangtze River Economic Belt are explored by taking the number of green patent applications as the evaluation index, and the influencing factors are also revealed. The results are as follows. First, from 2007 to 2017, the number of green patent applications in the Yangtze River Economic Belt increased from 35422 to 47563, among which the number of patent applications in the field of green building technology always ranked first. In addition, the environmental innovation of Yangtze River Economic Belt has significant spatial correlation effect. Second, in terms of spatial pattern, the environmental innovation of the Yangtze River Economic Belt was dominated by the eastern region, and shows the characteristics of development from the East to the West. Third, environmental innovation in the Yangtze River Economic Belt has significant spatial spillover effects. The intensity of environmental regulations, technological innovation level, city scale, the proportion of tertiary industry, and urban air quality all have a significant positive role in promoting the urban environmental innovation capacity of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The intensity of environmental regulation does not have obvious spatial spillover effects, and the level of urban technological innovation has significant negative spillover effects.

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    Research on the Spatial Adaptability of China’s New Urbanization and Urban Medical Resources
    Zhou Jianping, Liu Chengjun, Xu Weixiang, Li Lu, Zhou Mengyao
    2021, 41 (7):  1168-1177.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.007
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    In order to explore the evolution trend and influence mechanism of the adaptation of the urban medical resources and the development of new urbanization in China, this study uses a variety of methods to conduct research, and the main conclusions are as follows: First of all, the spatial distribution of China’s medical resources has obvious spatial heterogeneity, manifested as a shift from scattered point-like distribution to regional clustered distribution, the optimization of medical resources and spatial reorganization in urban agglomerations make urban agglomerations a key gathering area, and although the distribution of medical resources is heterogeneous in space, the overall distribution is balanced. Secondly, the shift of the center of gravity of China’s medical resource allocation from 2003 to 2017 showed multiple turning characteristics, which reflected the multiple transformation process of the medical resource allocation and the development power of the medical industry, and finally the center of gravity showed a shift to the southeast, and the spatial agglomeration characteristics of medical resources show a gradually deepening characteristic, the hot spots for the allocation of medical resources have shifted from North China and East China to the south. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta region and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area have certain advantages in the compatibility of public service functions with urban development, forming a cluster of hot spots for the allocation of medical resources. In addition, the spatial mismatch between medical resources and the development of new urbanization has gradually improved, the proportion of mismatched cities has decreased from 42.8% to 30.7%, and the spatial balance of adaptation has gradually emerged, but the rate of adaptation improvement has decreased. Under the comprehensive influence of policy environment, industrial foundation and location conditions, the phenomenon of adaptive grouping driven by the externalities of core cities and sub-central cities of urban agglomerations has gradually emerged. Finally, welfare effects, demand-driven and government guidance have all promoted the spatial adaptation of medical resources and new urbanization, while market orientation has a stronger influence on neighboring areas.

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    Dynamic Synergy of Provincial Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in China
    Xiang Guopeng, Gao Ting
    2021, 41 (7):  1178-1186.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.008
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    The synergy of entrepreneurial ecosystem is an important way to improve the entrepreneurial performance and efficiency of resource allocation, so as to promote economic growth of Provincial. The existing scholars’ research on entrepreneurial ecosystem mainly focuses on the connotation, components, characteristics, governance and boundary of entrepreneurial ecosystem. However, due to the complexity of the entrepreneurial ecosystem and the lack of scientific consensus caused by the excessive number of non-academic papers, the recent research mainly discusses questions from the theoretical perspective and have the same conclusion. At the same time, search data are difficult, and there are few studies on dynamic evolution and regional differences. In order to better explore provincial entrepreneurship ecosystem, the dynamic synergy of provincial entrepreneurial ecosystem in China is established in this study based on 28 provinces and cities in China from 2010 to 2017. Based on a comprehensive evaluation index system for the synergy development of provincial entrepreneurship ecosystem, and by using a composite system synergy degree model, the synergy evolution trend of China’s provincial entrepreneurial ecosystem from 2010 to 2017 is quantitively assessed. After this, by using the method of Theil coefficient and difference coefficient, this article analyzes the difference of entrepreneurial ecosystem synergy level among 28 provinces (not including Tibet, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China, and then, on the basis of the first step, we divides the types of synergy level among provinces. There are four types about the level. According to these types, in this article, the regular of spatial evolution is observed. The last steps, this article examines the impact of provincial entrepreneurial ecosystem synergy on economic growth. The results show that: 1) during the study period, the synergy level of entrepreneurial ecosystem in China has experienced a process of fluctuating decline, continuous rise, then slow decline and rise, and its evolution presents an obvious “W” type trend; 2) there are obvious differences in the level of entrepreneurial ecosystem synergy among provinces in China, and the degree of provincial synergy difference is generally on the decline; 3) provincial level of entrepreneurial ecosystem synergy is on the decline. The results show that there are obvious regional differences in the coordinated development of industrial ecosystem, which has a three-step decline law from the east to the central and western regions, but with the development of time, it presents the spatial characteristics of high-level regional evolution from the east to the midwest; 4) the provincial entrepreneurial ecosystem synergy has a positive effect on economic growth, and the higher the level of marketization, the stronger the promotion effect of provinces. Suggestions are finally presented in terms of further improving about the entrepreneurial ecosystem, and improve entrepreneurial vitality and promote economic growth as a result. It is of great significance to understand the dynamic evolution of entrepreneurial ecosystem, realize the organic and synergy development of regional entrepreneurship ecosystem, and promote regional economic development.

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    The Spatial Pattern and Driving Factors of Port System Transformation: Empirical Research of the Yangtze River Delta
    Jiang Ziran, Zhu Huayou, Wang Chengjin, Ye Shilin
    2021, 41 (7):  1187-1198.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.009
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    This article uses the research logic of “theoretical inquiry-scientific evidence-mechanism interpretation” to try to put forward the theoretical hypothesis from the perspective of geography, analyzing the spatial distribution characteristic in the three dimensions of the traffic, the route and the backup service. On this basis, taking the Yangtze River Delta container port system as an example, the theoretical hypothesis is verified and analyzed. The research shows that the spatial evolution of the Yangtze River Delta port system basically verifies the previous theoretical assumptions and model, but it also has specific localization characteristics: among them, the distribution of throughput and liner presents spatial dispersion characteristics on the whole, and the river line before 2013 and the coastline after 2013 show spatial agglomeration characteristics, which is closely related to the integration of local liners and the change of external economic environment in the region. The low-end backup elements have typical spatial dispersion characteristics, while the high-end backup elements have more and more obvious spatial agglomeration. Through the analysis of mathematical model, it is found that in the Yangtze River Delta region, external factors such as globalization, marketization, informatization and traditional economic factors such as the level of industrial development promote the spatial concentration of throughput and liner, while hinterland economic strength, transportation factors, financial level and service level promote the throughput and liner of port system to be scattered in space. In addition, from the location choice of new port backup elements, the influence of traditional factors such as hinterland economy and transportation has declined; On the contrary, the influence of external factors such as globalization, marketization and service, as well as new factors such as informatization and financial development level has increased significantly, especially for the location decision-making of high-end backup elements.

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    Spatial Pattern Evolution and Impact Factors of Location Choice of Enterprises in Northeast China
    Song Yang, Wang Tingting, Zhang Yu, Qian Sitong, Wang Shijun
    2021, 41 (7):  1199-1209.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.010
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    As the core carrier and main body of the industrial space, enterprises play an important role in the regional economy. Accordingly, enterprise investment and location selection will become an important engine for the overall revitalization of Northeast China. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the spatial pattern of enterprises in Northeast China in 2000-2019. For this purpose, a large dataset with 115 852 data information about the above-scale enterprises was used in the analysis of core factors of the location of the enterprises. Multiple spatial data analysis techniques, such as kernel density estimation, nuclear density estimation, nearest neighbor analysis, and geographic weighted regression models were used for location analysis. The results showed that: 1) Enterprises in Northeast China have gradually expanded to both ends with the ‘T’-shaped railway as the axis; 2) Shenyang urban district maintained a leading position for the capital scale of enterprises in Northeast China. The capital scales of Harbin, Changchun, and Dalian have grown rapidly and the gap with Shenyang urban district gradually narrowed; 3) The spatial distribution pattern of enterprises in 26 key industries in Northeast China can be divided into three types: single-core type, central city cluster type and ‘large agglomeration-small dispersion’ type; 4) Six factors are recognized to have a significant impact on the location of enterprises in Northeast China: market size, urban hierarchy, foreign direct investment, economic development, labor cost and transportation accessibility. Among them, market size and urban hierarchy are the two core factors influencing the spatial differentiation pattern of enterprises in Northeast China, followed by FDI. The spatial heterogeneity of these three factors is relatively strong, while the spatial heterogeneity of transportation accessibility, economic development and labor cost is relatively weak; 5) Market size, urban hierarchy and FDI showed obvious differences in the impacts of the location of enterprises in different types of regions.

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    How Multi-Proximity Affects Destination Choice in Urban-Urban Migration: An Analysis Based on Nested Logit Model
    Zhuo Yunxia, Liu Tao, Gu Weiying
    2021, 41 (7):  1210-1218.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.011
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    As entering into middle-and-late-stage of urbanization, China’s rural-urban migrants has slowly declined after decades of growth while the amount of urban-urban migrants continues to increase. The migration flow among cities reflects the rational choice of the urban population and has a profound impact on the urban system and urban development. Therefore, it is of practical significance to explore the mechanism of urban-urban migration flows in China for realizing rational and orderly distribution of urban population. Focused on urban-urban migrants who differ from other types of migrants in several ways, this paper develops a framework of how multi-proximity, which includes geographical proximity, institutional proximity, informational proximity and knowledge proximity, makes an influence on destination choice by affecting the migration cost. Based on data from the 2017 China Migrant Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey, and by using the nested logit model, we empirically tested the proximity-migration relationship. The results show that multi-proximity has a significant and robust impact on migrants’ destination choice after controlling for the effects of cities’ characteristics. Urban-urban migrants prefer destinations that are geographically adjacent to their origins and those located in the same province and dialect area. Besides, they are more likely to choose cities which are closely connected with their origins and match them well in education background. Substitutional effect is also found between geographical and formal institutional proximity. But the effect of multi-proximity varies among sub-groups of intercity migrants. This is reflected in the following facts. First, women are more sensitive to knowledge proximity than men. Second, young migrants are less affected by knowledge proximity but relies more on informational and formal institutional proximity than the older. Third, highly educated labors are more able to migrate over a long distance and across provinces, and are affected more by internet information flow between cities than their counterparts. Finally, onward migrants can get over the barriers of geography, culture and knowledge better owing to their accumulation of experience in the previous migration experiences. Empirical results also verified the clear preference of labors for large cities with high wages, abundant job opportunities and adequate public services. But the preference can be relieved by the effect of multi-proximity. Empirical results of this study indicate that policy makers of small cities can strengthen local attraction to the surrounding areas through industrial development and public service improvement to avoid increasingly severe outflow of labors and maintain long-term competitiveness.

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    The Predicament for Conservation of Historic and Cultural Towns from the Perspective of Social Capital: Case Studies of Zhouzhuang, Jinxi and Lili Towns in Suzhou City
    Wang Yong, Xiong Hui, Li Guangbin
    2021, 41 (7):  1219-1226.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.012
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    Historic and cultural towns have both material and social attributes and are special resources with a certain nature of public goods. The conservation of historic and cultural towns is not only a material means, but also a process of social and economic activities which involved multiple stakeholders such as residents, developers, the government and outsiders. Therefore, the conservation of historic and cultural towns needs the common attention and participation of all sectors of society. The conservation of historic and cultural towns in Suzhou has been leading the Chinese historic town’s conservation for years. However, there are also many social problems while the physical space of the ancient towns has made remarkable achievements. For example, it is easy to ignore the interests and functions of the pluralistic social subjects when the government has always been in a dominant position, which makes it difficult for social forces to actively participate in the conservation actions of historic and cultural towns. The conservation of historic and cultural depends more on the vitality brought by people. So, it is not only the technical conservation of physical space, but also the overall conservation which includes the conservation of people living here and the conservation of the living state of ancient towns, so as to improve the sense of identity and participation of residents in the conservation of historic and cultural towns. Against this background, how to realize the comprehensive conservation and sustainable development of historic and cultural towns needs to pay attention to the traditional social relations just like the conservation of physical space. By introducing the concept of social capital from sociology, importance of social subject and their social capital in the conservation of historic and cultural towns is discussed in this article. Based on the three elements of trust, network and norms, an analytical framework was established to analyze the predicament of social capital and its inner source behind the conservation of historic and cultural towns. Based on the empirical study of Zhouzhuang, Jinxi and Lili towns in Suzhou City, conclusions are drawn as following: 1) Social capital mainly acts on the communication mechanism, restraint mechanism and cooperation mechanism of the conservation of historic and cultural towns through the relation network-organizational foundation, social trust-spiritual motivation, reciprocal norm-institutional system. 2) The social capital of historic and cultural towns faced difficulties such as network fracturing, lacking of norms and trust. That is manifested in the blocking of communication network from bottom to top, the break of social relationship network of residents, the conflicts and contradictions between public interests and private rights, the imperfection of formal norms and the decline of informal norms. As a result, the mobilization of historic and cultural towns conservation is weak, the communication between various stakeholders is insufficient, the behavior of historic and cultural towns is out of standard and restriction, the cooperation is difficult, resulting in the collective action dilemma of the stakeholders. 3) It is an effective way to get out of the predicament to enhance social capital and promote the bottom-up mode of participation aiming at the existing problems in the conservation of historic and cultural towns.

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    Evaluation of Poverty Alleviation Quality of Poor Counties Based onMulti-dimensional Measurement Framework
    Du Guoming, Liu Mei, Xue Ruhao
    2021, 41 (7):  1227-1236.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.013
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    Based on the multi-dimensional measurement framework, using 8 468 surveys data to evaluate the poverty alleviation quality of 8 provincial poor counties in Heilongjiang Province. The results show that: 1) The quality of poverty alleviation includes the quality of regional poverty alleviation and population poverty alleviation, which is mainly restricted by the five factors: poverty reduction, economic conditions, supporting facilities, income levels and policy households. 2) The overall quality of poverty alleviation in the 8 counties was good, all of which reached medium and above. The overall quality of poverty alleviation in the eight counties was Bayan, Dumeng, Suiling, Yi'an, Keshan, Boli, Mulan and Sunwu counties in descending order. 3) The quality of regional poverty alleviation is relatively lagging behind that of the population. The supporting facilities, income level, policy households, and degree of poverty reduction have developed well, but the economic situation is relatively unsatisfactory. 4) The main problems currently restricting the quality of poverty alleviation include the following aspects: Backward economic development in the county area, weak growth of village collective income, high debt, and inadequate public service facilities.

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    A Research of Authenticity Experience Model of Rural Tourists
    Chen Cai, Zhao Zhifeng
    2021, 41 (7):  1237-1245.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.014
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    Based on the theory of authenticity, this paper explores the dimensions of rural tourism experience using a hybrid research approach. Firstly, the paper uses the grounded theory to extract the four dimensions of ‘true environment’, ‘true feelings’, ‘true wisdom’ and ‘true self’ to construct a conceptual model of rural tourism experience. Secondly, the paper used quantitative research to verify the rationality of the four dimensions of true environment, true feelings, true wisdom, and true self. The four dimensions have a moderate degree of correlation. Further verification shows that the four dimensions can be converge on the second-order variable “authenticity experience”. The results are shown as follows: 1) The authenticity experience model of rural tourists include four dimensions. The foundation of the true environment is the original rural natural environment and the original rural humanistic environment. True feelings include tourist feelings and the feelings in interpersonal communication. True wisdom refers to the tourists’ spiritual or epiphany to the objective world, social life and other aspects in the process of rural tourism. The true self is a kind of psychological state including optimism, calmness, ease and satisfaction. True environment is the basic level, true feelings and true wisdom are enhancement levels, and true self is the highest level. 2) Authenticity is one of the main elements of tourists’ motivation and willingness to travel in rural areas, which indicates that ‘authenticity’ can be used as one of the core indicators to measure the difference between rural and urban environmental experiences. Rural resources and the environment mostly exist in a natural state and are mostly ‘true’, while urban resources and the environment are mostly in an artificial state and are mostly ‘false’. The authenticity experience model of rural tourists reveals the differences between urban and rural areas from the authenticity level. 3) The paper puts forward two ways to deal with the relationship between rurality and authenticity: one is subordination, which regards authenticity as an important dimension of rurality, that is, rurality is not only reflected in objective elements, but also reflected in tourists’ perception and experience. The other is the juxtaposition relationship, which juxtaposes authenticity and rural nature. In addition, the strategies of rural cultural revitalization is proposed from the aspects of true environment, true feelings, true intelligence, and true self. Finally, limitations and prospects are discussed.

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    Classification and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Tourist Attractions in Shanxi Province Based on POI Data
    Guo Yanping, Liu Min
    2021, 41 (7):  1246-1255.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.015
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    By combining big data with traditional geographic information system and taking Point of Interest (POI) data of Shanxi tourist attractions as the research object, we firstly classified the data, and then analyzed their overall spatial distribution pattern and distribution direction, as well as their spatial distribution characteristics of specific cities. Results showed that the overall distribution pattern of tourist scenic spots in Shanxi presents an agglomeration characteristic in Jinzhong district, but the agglomeration pattern and degree of the tourist scenic spots in different district were different. Geographical landscape tourist attractions mainly concentrated in central, southeast and northeast districts of Shanxi. Water scenic spots concentrated in central, south and northeast districts with an axial zonal distribution; Biological landscape tourist attractions showed a ‘diamond’ agglomeration pattern; relics tourist attractions were mostly distributed in northern, and southeastern Shanxi; Construction and facilities of tourist attractions presented agglomeration characteristics of triangular shape; The entertainment and shopping tourist attractions were evenly distributed in the whole province. The spatial distribution direction of tourist scenic spots was consistent with the regional shape of Shanxi Province. Except for no directionality and centrality of the distribution of entertainment and shopping tourist scenic spots were found, other types of the tourist scenic spots have different degree of agglomeration characteristics. The analysis of the spatial pattern of tourist attractions for all prefecture-level cities showed that water scenery scenic spots were evenly distributed among the cities. The hot spots of landscape and architectural facilities appeared in Yangquan City, while the cold spots appeared in Jincheng City, but the degree of agglomeration was small. The hot spot area of biological landscape tourist attractions is located in Changzhi City, while the cold spot area is located in Linfen City and Yuncheng City, with a high degree of agglomeration. In addition, the factors that influence the spatial distribution of scenic spots were qualitatively analyzed from two aspects of physical geography and human society.

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    Spatial Characteristics and Driving Factors of Expansion of Residential Land Use in Chongqing Urban Area from 1999 to 2018
    Zong Huiming, Ji Xin
    2021, 41 (7):  1256-1265.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.016
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    In the new era, research about spatial expansion of urban residential land needs more accurate data to support. In this article, we take urban area of Chongqing as study area. Based on the multi origins of big data about urban residential quarter, this research aimed to investigate spatial characteristics and driving factors of expansion of residential land use in the past 20 years by borrowing a variety of models such as standard deviation ellipse, buffering analysis, extended intensity index, landscape pattern analysis and geographic weighted regression, etc. The research reveals: 1) The layout of residential quarters in urban area of Chongqing shows core-peripheral structure. The average area of residential quarter gradually increases from core to peripheral area. 2) The expanding process of residential land in urban area of Chongqing went through growing transition of from rapid growth phase to growth declining phase. Area of residential land expanded rapidly between 1999 and 2003. The expanding direction of residential land in urban area of Chongqing is mainly north-south direction in the former decade, and the east-west trend becomes increasingly significant in recent years. 3) The driving factors of expansion of residential quarters in urban area of Chongqing include the distance from Sub-urban center, road network, metro stations, density of hospital and slope. 4) The influence of the same driving factor on the expansion of residential quarters in different locations has obvious spatial heterogeneity.

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    Spatial and Temporal Changes and Driving Factors of Cultivated Land in Heilongjiang Province
    Li Dan, Zhou Jia, Zhan Daqing
    2021, 41 (7):  1266-1275.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.017
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    It is of great practical significance for protecting cultivated land and guaranteeing national food security to thoroughly explore the spatio-temporal variation characteristics and driving factors of cultivated land. Based on the land use data of Heilongjiang Province in 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2015, this article determined the spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics and main driving factors of cultivated land change in Heilongjiang Province in the four periods from 1980 to 2015 by using GIS and geographical detector model. The results show that from 1980 to 2015, the cultivated land quantity in Heilongjiang Province increased, and the increased cultivated land mainly came from forest land, grassland and unused land. The variation of cultivated land quantity in each period was obviously different, with the largest variation from 1990 to 2000. The spatial difference of cultivated land change in each period was obvious. From 1980 to 2015, the dynamic degree of cultivated land use in Heilongjiang Province showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, and the regions with active dynamic degree of cultivated land use were concentrated in the Sanjiang Plain and the Songnen Plain. The explanatory ability of drivers factors are different in each period. Population size, policy factors, GDP and urbanization level are the driving factors with strong explanatory ability. The influence of driving factors on the spatiotemporal change of cultivated land is realized through the interaction of various factors, which is manifested as double factor enhancement and nonlinear enhancement.

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    Filling Algorithm for Missing Pixels in Landsat-7 SLC-off Images Using No Reference Images
    Chen Yanjun, Zhang Yuhong
    2021, 41 (7):  1276-1284.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.018
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    The Landsat-7 scan line corrector failed since 2003, to recover missing pixels in the image we propose a no-reference-image algorithm using regression analysis and cubic spline interpolation under unsupervised classification criteria in this paper. First, in the preprocess stage, stripe location, unsupervised classification and local average gray calculation are carried out. Then, regression analysis is applied to calculate the gray slopes of the pixels in the three directions outside the stripes. Under the unsupervised classification criteria, we determine the filling direction of the current pixel of the stripe by judging the similarities and differences of the types of non-missing pixels on both sides of the strip in each direction. Subsequently, different algorithms are used to fill in the strip boundary points and non-boundary points, respectively. For non-boundary pixels, cubic spline interpolation is performed in the filling direction. Finally, an adaptive filter denoises the stripe area. The experimental results show that no difference can be found from the proposed no-reference-image method to the commonly used methods with reference images. The RMSE value of the proposed method (17.5904) is close to the value of the optimal WLR method (17.4006). The visual effect of the proposed method is better, and notrace of stripes can be found. This algorithm can effectively recover the Landsat-7 satellite SLC-off images after 2003, and provide effective information for further geospatial analysis.

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    Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Precipitation Based on TRMM 3B43 Product in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain During 1998-2016
    Guo Bin, Xing Wenxue, Li Yun, Zhao Jiaqi, Feng Kaiyue, Huang Zhuangzhuang
    2021, 41 (7):  1285-1294.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.019
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    Accurate precipitation data are crucial for flood forecasting, drought monitoring and related emergency management. Therefore, how to obtain accurate precipitation data with good spatial and temporal resolution is one of the great challenges in the world. The Tropical Rainfall Measurement Satellite (TRMM) is the first satellite to measure precipitation. TRMM can well estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation; however, its accuracy and applicability in the mid-latitude area are worth studying. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the accuracy of TRMM 3B43 product and analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain during 1998-2016, using monthly precipitation data from 59 meteorological stations. And TRMM 3B43 product is validated adopting correlation coefficient (R), relative error (BIAS) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results show that: 1) On the annual and monthly scales, TRMM 3B43 product fits well with the meteorological station data, with R of 0.926 and 0.930 (P<0.01), respectively. 2) TRMM 3B43 overestimates the precipitation for 88% of the stations; the relative error is between -7% and 10% for 66% of the stations. The error of spatial distribution is uneven, and it is higher in the southeast than that in the central and northern regions. 3) During 1998 to 2016, the average annual precipitation shows an increasing trend in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. In addition, the precipitation shows an increasing trend in autumn, presenting decreasing trend in other seasons. Moreover, the precipitation presents the most obvious decreasing trend in summer. The annual precipitation is mainly concentrated in the warm season (April-October), accounting for about 86% of the total year. The precipitation accounts for about 1/4 of the year in July. 4) Dependented on latitude, precipitation gradually decreases from the south to the north. Among them, abundant precipitation is occurred in southern Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu, while with less average annual precipitation in Hebei, Beijing, and Tianjin. The precipitation in summer presents the same spatial distribution characteristics with annual average precipitation. The study area shows obvious characteristics of dry and wet seasons. There is a dry period from January to May, and it is humid and rainy from June to September. Moreover, it enters a dry period again from October to December. Overall, this study will be valuable for both algorithm developers and users, as well as for associated products, and it will also better support disaster risk reduction and hydrological applications, especially in areas with a sparse rain gauge network.

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    The Change of Ecosystem Services of Natural Forest Protection Project Regions in the Da Hinggan Mountains
    Zheng Shufeng, Wang Liping, Zang Shuying
    2021, 41 (7):  1295-1302.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.07.020
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    The Da Hinggan Mountains is the key area of Natural Forest Protection Project Regions (NFPPR) of China. It is great significance to scientifically and systematically evaluate the ecosystem changes of the project and analyze the reasons of the changes, so as to monitor and improve its effect. In this study, Landsat and MODIS remote sensing data sources and InVEST model were used to evaluate the temporal-spatial evolution trend of soil wind erosion, habitat quality and carbon storage of the ecosystem the implementation of Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP) in the Da Hinggan Mountains from 1990 to 2015, and the driving factors and interactions of the temporal-spatial change distribution and trend of ecosystem service function were detected and analyzed by geographic detector method. The results showed that: 1) From the perspective of spatial distribution, the amount of soil wind erosion in the south of Erguna City, the northwest of Ewenki Autonomous County and Horqin Right Front County was large, the habitat quality was poor, and the carbon storage was low. 2) After the implementation of NFPP in 2000, the area of forest increased significantly, soil wind erosion decreased by 1.14%, habitat quality increased by 0.49%, and carbon storage decreased by 0.12%, lower than 0.64% before 2000. 3) Soil wind erosion is mainly affected by vegetation type and soil type. The impact of ecosystem type and vegetation type on habitat quality and carbon storage is significantly greater than other factors. Altitude and slope have little explanatory power on soil wind erosion and carbon storage. Temperature and precipitation are not fixed in explaining soil wind erosion, habitat quality and carbon storage, but they are still indispensable factors. The results of this study can provide important data support and scientific basis for regional ecological restoration and protection and ecological civilization construction.

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