地理科学 ›› 1983, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (1): 27-36.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.27

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江平原的辐射气候特征

刘兴土   

  1. 中国科学院长春地理研究所
  • 出版日期:1983-01-20 发布日期:1983-01-20

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATION CLIMATE OF SANJIANG PLAIN

Liu Xingtu   

  1. Changchun Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica
  • Online:1983-01-20 Published:1983-01-20

摘要: 三江平原是黑龙江、松花江、乌苏里江冲积形成的低平原,地域辽阔,总面积10万6千平方公里,资源丰富,是我国最大的沼泽区和重要的商品粮基地。对于三江平原的生态环境和沼泽特征,前人作过许多考察与研究工作,考虑到太阳总辐射和地表辐射平衡是研究气候形成、地表能量转换和生态系统结构特征的最基本资料,故本文应用佳木斯的实测辐射,建立了计算三江平原的总辐射和冬季地表反射率的经验公式,并分析了辐射平衡各分量的时空分布特征。与此同时,对辐射干燥指数与沼泽分布及光合潜力作了探讨。

Abstract: Sanjiang Plain is an important base of commodity grains and the largestswamp region in China.This paper established the equations of total radiation and of the equation ofground albedo in winter based on solar rediation data and sunshine data in Jiamusifrom 1961 to 1979. The deduced equations for total radiation are:Spring (Mar.—Apr.) Q=QA(0.23+0.472S)Summer (Tune—Aug.) Q=QA(0.125+0.625S)Autumn (Sept.—Oct.) Q=QA(0.155+0.556S)Winter (Nov.—Mar.) Q=QA(0.232+0.52S)Where all the terms are on monthly basis;Q,the total radiation;QA,theastronomical radiation;S,the relative sunshine.The correlation coefficient for linear equations are 0.62,0.81,0.80,0.62.The equation for ground albedo is:
A=0.196+0.272D (in winter)
Where D,days of snow cover.The correlation coefficient between A and D is 0.81.This paper has computed and analyzed the annual and the monthly values oftotal radiation,effective radiation and net radiation for 19 stations of sanjiangPlain.Some characteristics have been discussed with regard to the distribution intime and space of total radiation,effective radiation and net radiation.The results indicate that the Sanjiang Plain is rich in solar radiation resources.The total annual amount of global radiation is 99-112 kcal./cm2 and that ofradiation balance,33-42.5 kcal./cm2.In respect to the spatial distribution fromsouthwest to northeast,the total radiation and net radiation have a decreasingtendency.In respect to the annual variation,the monthly values of total radiationand net radiation are the smallest in December and the largest in June.All va-lues of net radiation from February to October stand positive;that from Novem-ber to January negative.Comparing the values of R/Lr and the distribution area of swamp andswampy-meadow,it can be seen that in regions with smaller R/Lr values thereare larger area of swamp and swampy meadow;and in those with larger R/Lrvalues,there are less area of swamp and swampy meadow.Comparing the R/Lr and other moisture index,it is considered that theclimate of the west part of this region belongs to semi-moist climate.On the basis of studies of the characteristics of radiation climate in SanjiangPlain,the photosynthesis potential has been computed.This region should bringthe superiority of radiation resources and photo-synthesis potential into full play,a modernized base of agriculture should be established.